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Russian Ministry of the Emergency Situations

GovernmentMoscow, Russia
About: Russian Ministry of the Emergency Situations is a(n) government organization based out in Moscow, Russia. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Combustion & Liquid crystal. The organization has 218 authors who have published 172 publication(s) receiving 453 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defence, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine waste dump.
Abstract: The area of the town of Mailuu Suu, Kyrgyzstan, is polluted by radionuclides and heavy metals from tailing dumps and heaps resulting from the historic exploitation of uranium mines In the frame of a European Commission-TACIS funded project, radiological assessment was performed for critical group members living in the city of Mailuu Suu, located downstream the tailings, or in the village of Kara Agach, partially located on a uranium mine waste dump The actual external exposure is around 12 mSv a −1 at both locations and exposure from radon is around 3 mSv a −1 at Mailuu Suu and around 10 mSv a −1 at Kara Agach Ingestion dose was negligible for a critical group member living at Mailuu Suu At Kara Agach, however, under the hypothesis that all food and fodder is cultivated locally, exposure from ingestion is much higher (∼10–30 mSv a −1 ) In case of an accidental scenario [(part of) Tailing 3 content thrust to river], estimated additional maximum doses result in 45 and 77 mSv for an adult and a child, respectively

54 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Chernobyl radionuclides distribution and mobility in soils and uptake by plants have been studied in seminatural and agricultural moraine and in fluvioglacial landscapes typical for the areas of the Bryansk region affected by the accident. The major part of the Chernobyl 137 Cs accumulated in the topsoil is insoluble in water, 40 to 93% of this radionuclide is strongly fixed by soil, while 70 to 90% of the 90 Sr is present in water soluble, exchangeable and weak-acid soluble forms. Radionuclide vertical migration is most pronounced in local depressions with organic and gley soils in which both radionuclides are detected to the depth of 30–40 cm. In woodlands, most of the 137 Cs is still fixed in litter and the upper mineral soil layer. The concentration peak in litter has moved to the lower AOF layer. Concentration in topsoil leads to high radionuclide uptake by forest species with shallow root systems (bilberry, mushrooms, fern). Contaminated forest products may contribute considerably to the internal irradiation doses of the local population. On flood plain grasslands traditionally used by local populations for haycrops and grazing, radionuclides are more strongly fixed in soils with fine texture. Radioisotope uptake by plants decreases in the order: legumes>herbs>grasses. Transfer to grasses in local depressions is usually higher compared with the dry levees. Observed exclusions are assumed to be due to comparatively low mobility of 137 Cs and relatively high K content in soil. 137 Cs accumulation in potato tubers grown on sandy soddy podzolic watershed soils mainly corresponds to its total amount in soils; uptake of 90 Sr depends upon the percentage of its most mobile fraction. Pronounced relief is proved to cause different patterns in distribution and migration of radionuclides in soils and local food chains. The study showed it to be true for private farms situated in different landscape positions within the same settlement. The forest litter, topsoil and products, and flood plain pastures, especially localities in depressions are critical materials for the long-term radioecological monitoring of the contaminated landscapes of the study area and those of similar conditions. Population of the areas within the zone of contamination exceeding 15Ci/km 2 (555kBq/m 2 ) should be recommended to exclude local forest products from their diets and to avoid cattle grazing on wet flood plain meadows without remediation.

49 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: [1] Frequent landsliding is one of the greatest natural hazards facing the inhabitants of Central Asia's Fergana Basin and the surrounding mountain ranges. Active tectonics in the region is rapidly building the Tien Shan, one of the highest mountain ranges on Earth, and the extreme topographic relief promotes frequent landslide activity, which causes major losses of life and property. In southwestern Kyrgyzstan alone, on average 10 people die and seven houses are destroyed each year in these sudden and rapidly moving landslides.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Experimental data on the combustion characteristics of methane-oxidative gas (O2 + N2)-inhibitor (CHF3, C2HF5, and C4F10) mixtures and an analysis thereof show that fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFC and FC) exhibit the properties of both flame inhibitors and promoters. The flammability concentration limits, maximum explosion pressure ΔP max, maximum explosion pressure rise rate (dP/dt)max, and laminar flame speed S u are measured for near-limit methane-oxidative gas-fluorinated hydrocarbon mixtures. It is demonstrated that, when added to lean near-limit mixtures, HFC and FC behave as an additional fuel. Calculations of the thermodynamic characteristics of reactions involving fluorinated hydrocarbons capable of acting as both an inhibitor and oxidizer show that such reactions have significant heat effects, 150–700 kJ/mol, with the respective adiabatic temperatures being as high as 900–1800 K. The results of the present study suggest that the procedure of selecting fluorinated hydrocarbons for practical applications as fire and explosion suppressants should include careful tests of their promoting effect.

17 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Low-energy magnetic and electric dipole excitations in the even–even isotopes 176–180Hf have been systematically studied within the rotational, translational and Galilean invariant Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA). The results of the calculations show that most of the states predicted to have magnetic character and the computed M1 strength in these nuclei is less strongly fragmented than in mid-shell isotopes. The results of the calculations are in good agreement with experimental data. The results of the calculations indicate the presence of a few prominent negative parity dipole K = 1 states in the energy investigated region. The comparison of the calculations with the available experimental data makes possible the interpretation of the states where parity could not be assigned experimentally.

14 citations

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