Education•Konya, Konya, Turkey•
About: Selçuk University is a education organization based out in Konya, Konya, Turkey. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & DPPH. The organization has 5662 authors who have published 13121 publications receiving 212986 citations. The organization is also known as: Selçuk Üniversitesi.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Imperial College London1, Anglia Ruskin University2, Brien Holden Vision Institute3, University of New South Wales4, International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness5, Moorfields Eye Hospital6, York Hospital7, Heidelberg University8, L V Prasad Eye Institute9, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary10, Nova Southeastern University11, University of KwaZulu-Natal12, National Health and Medical Research Council13, World Health Organization14, National University of Singapore15, University of Melbourne16, Selçuk University17, University of Miami18, University of Adelaide19, Queen's University Belfast20, Harvard University21, The George Institute for Global Health22, University of Washington23, University of Michigan24, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman25, University of Alabama at Birmingham26, National Institutes of Health27, Johns Hopkins University28, University of São Paulo29, Henry Ford Health System30, University College London31, Sankara Nethralaya32, University of Nairobi33, University of Georgia34, University of Utah35, Federal University of São Paulo36, Yale University37, Alberta Children's Hospital38, University of Illinois at Chicago39, Medical College of Wisconsin40, Novartis41, University of Udine42, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign43, Royal Children's Hospital44, University of Missouri45, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention46, University of Milan47, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai48, Mayo Clinic49, Pan American Health Organization50, University of Indonesia51, University of Pennsylvania52, University of Crete53, University of Southern California54, University of Florence55, Capital Medical University56, Leipzig University57
TL;DR: A series of regression models were fitted to estimate the proportion of moderate or severe vision impairment and blindness by cause, age, region, and year, and found that world regions varied markedly in the causes of blindness and vision impairment in this age group.
Abstract: Summary Background Contemporary data for causes of vision impairment and blindness form an important basis of recommendations in public health policies. Refreshment of the Global Vision Database with recently published data sources permitted modelling of cause of vision loss data from 1990 to 2015, further disaggregation by cause, and forecasts to 2020. Methods In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analysed published and unpublished population-based data for the causes of vision impairment and blindness from 1980 to 2014. We identified population-based studies published before July 8, 2014, by searching online databases with no language restrictions (MEDLINE from Jan 1, 1946, and Embase from Jan 1, 1974, and the WHO Library Database). We fitted a series of regression models to estimate the proportion of moderate or severe vision impairment (defined as presenting visual acuity of Findings We identified 288 studies of 3 983 541 participants contributing data from 98 countries. Among the global population with moderate or severe vision impairment in 2015 (216·6 million [80% uncertainty interval 98·5 million to 359·1 million]), the leading causes were uncorrected refractive error (116·3 million [49·4 million to 202·1 million]), cataract (52·6 million [18·2 million to 109·6 million]), age-related macular degeneration (8·4 million [0·9 million to 29·5 million]), glaucoma (4·0 million [0·6 million to 13·3 million]), and diabetic retinopathy (2·6 million [0·2 million to 9·9 million]). Among the global population who were blind in 2015 (36·0 million [12·9 million to 65·4 million]), the leading causes were cataract (12·6 million [3·4 million to 28·7 million]), uncorrected refractive error (7·4 million [2·4 million to 14·8 million]), and glaucoma (2·9 million [0·4 million to 9·9 million]). By 2020, among the global population with moderate or severe vision impairment (237·1 million [101·5 million to 399·0 million]), the number of people affected by uncorrected refractive error is anticipated to rise to 127·7 million (51·0 million to 225·3 million), by cataract to 57·1 million (17·9 million to 124·1 million), by age-related macular degeneration to 8·8 million (0·8 million to 32·1 million), by glaucoma to 4·5 million (0·5 million to 15·4 million), and by diabetic retinopathy to 3·2 million (0·2 million to 12·9 million). By 2020, among the global population who are blind (38·5 million [13·2 million to 70·9 million]), the number of patients blind because of cataract is anticipated to rise to 13·4 million (3·3 million to 31·6 million), because of uncorrected refractive error to 8·0 million (2·5 million to 16·3 million), and because of glaucoma to 3·2 million (0·4 million to 11·0 million). Cataract and uncorrected refractive error combined contributed to 55% of blindness and 77% of vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older in 2015. World regions varied markedly in the causes of blindness and vision impairment in this age group, with a low prevalence of cataract ( 14% of blindness) as causes in the high-income subregions. Blindness and vision impairment at all ages in 2015 due to diabetic retinopathy (odds ratio 2·52 [1·48–3·73]) and cataract (1·21 [1·17–1·25]) were more common among women than among men, whereas blindness and vision impairment due to glaucoma (0·71 [0·57–0·86]) and corneal opacity (0·54 [0·43–0·66]) were more common among men than among women, with no sex difference related to age-related macular degeneration (0·91 [0·70–1·14]). Interpretation The number of people affected by the common causes of vision loss has increased substantially as the population increases and ages. Preventable vision loss due to cataract (reversible with surgery) and refractive error (reversible with spectacle correction) continue to cause most cases of blindness and moderate or severe vision impairment in adults aged 50 years and older. A large scale-up of eye care provision to cope with the increasing numbers is needed to address avoidable vision loss. Funding Brien Holden Vision Institute.
TL;DR: A review of modern biomass-based transportation fuels such as fuels from Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, bioethanol, fatty acid (m)ethylester, biomethanol, and biohydrogen are briefly reviewed in this paper.
Abstract: In this paper, the modern biomass-based transportation fuels such as fuels from Fischer–Tropsch synthesis, bioethanol, fatty acid (m)ethylester, biomethanol, and biohydrogen are briefly reviewed. Here, the term biofuel is referred to as liquid or gaseous fuels for the transport sector that are predominantly produced from biomass. There are several reasons for bio-fuels to be considered as relevant technologies by both developing and industrialized countries. They include energy security reasons, environmental concerns, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The term modern biomass is generally used to describe the traditional biomass use through the efficient and clean combustion technologies and sustained supply of biomass resources, environmentally sound and competitive fuels, heat and electricity using modern conversion technologies. Modern biomass can be used for the generation of electricity and heat. Bioethanol and biodiesel as well as diesel produced from biomass by Fischer–Tropsch synthesis are the most modern biomass-based transportation fuels. Bio-ethanol is a petrol additive/substitute. It is possible that wood, straw and even household wastes may be economically converted to bio-ethanol. Bio-ethanol is derived from alcoholic fermentation of sucrose or simple sugars, which are produced from biomass by hydrolysis process. Currently crops generating starch, sugar or oil are the basis for transport fuel production. There has been renewed interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel due to its less polluting and renewable nature as against the conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel is a renewable replacement to petroleum-based diesel. Biomass energy conversion facilities are important for obtaining bio-oil. Pyrolysis is the most important process among the thermal conversion processes of biomass. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the thermochemical conversions of biomass fuels are presented. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of the total renewable energy sources in 1995. The reduction of greenhouse gases pollution is the main advantage of utilizing biomass energy.
Anglia Ruskin University1, University of Oxford2, Heidelberg University3, L V Prasad Eye Institute4, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary5, Nova Southeastern University6, Brien Holden Vision Institute7, University of KwaZulu-Natal8, Flinders University9, University of New South Wales10, Royal Liverpool University Hospital11, World Health Organization12, National University of Singapore13, University of Melbourne14, Selçuk University15, University of Burgundy16, University of Miami17, University of Adelaide18, Queen's University Belfast19, Harvard University20, The George Institute for Global Health21, University of Washington22, University of Michigan23, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman24, University of Alabama25, National Institutes of Health26, Johns Hopkins University27, University of São Paulo28, Henry Ford Health System29, University College London30, University of Nairobi31, University of Georgia32, University of Utah33, Federal University of São Paulo34, Yale University35, Alberta Children's Hospital36, University of Pennsylvania37, Medical College of Wisconsin38, Novartis39, University of Udine40, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign41, Royal Children's Hospital42, University of Missouri43, University of Milan44, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention45, Singapore National Eye Center46, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai47, Mayo Clinic48, Pan American Health Organization49, University of Indonesia50, University of Crete51, Erasmus University Rotterdam52, University of Southern California53, University of Florence54, Stellenbosch University55, Capital Medical University56, Leipzig University57, Moorfields Eye Hospital58
TL;DR: There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected, highlighting the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels.
Abstract: Summary Background Global and regional prevalence estimates for blindness and vision impairment are important for the development of public health policies. We aimed to provide global estimates, trends, and projections of global blindness and vision impairment. Methods We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based datasets relevant to global vision impairment and blindness that were published between 1980 and 2015. We fitted hierarchical models to estimate the prevalence (by age, country, and sex), in 2015, of mild visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/12 to 6/18 inclusive), moderate to severe visual impairment (presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 to 3/60 inclusive), blindness (presenting visual acuity worse than 3/60), and functional presbyopia (defined as presenting near vision worse than N6 or N8 at 40 cm when best-corrected distance visual acuity was better than 6/12). Findings Globally, of the 7·33 billion people alive in 2015, an estimated 36·0 million (80% uncertainty interval [UI] 12·9–65·4) were blind (crude prevalence 0·48%; 80% UI 0·17–0·87; 56% female), 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) people had moderate to severe visual impairment (2·95%, 80% UI 1·34–4·89; 55% female), and 188·5 million (80% UI 64·5–350·2) had mild visual impairment (2·57%, 80% UI 0·88–4·77; 54% female). Functional presbyopia affected an estimated 1094·7 million (80% UI 581·1–1686·5) people aged 35 years and older, with 666·7 million (80% UI 364·9–997·6) being aged 50 years or older. The estimated number of blind people increased by 17·6%, from 30·6 million (80% UI 9·9–57·3) in 1990 to 36·0 million (80% UI 12·9–65·4) in 2015. This change was attributable to three factors, namely an increase because of population growth (38·4%), population ageing after accounting for population growth (34·6%), and reduction in age-specific prevalence (−36·7%). The number of people with moderate and severe visual impairment also increased, from 159·9 million (80% UI 68·3–270·0) in 1990 to 216·6 million (80% UI 98·5–359·1) in 2015. Interpretation There is an ongoing reduction in the age-standardised prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, yet the growth and ageing of the world's population is causing a substantial increase in number of people affected. These observations, plus a very large contribution from uncorrected presbyopia, highlight the need to scale up vision impairment alleviation efforts at all levels. Funding Brien Holden Vision Institute.
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural, proximate and ultimate analyses of biomass and wastes differ considerably, some properties of the biomass samples such as the hydrogen content, the sulfur content and the ignition temperatures changed in a narrow interval.
Abstract: Biomass energy is one of humanity's earliest sources of energy particularly in rural areas where it is often the only accessible and affordable source of energy. Worldwide biomass ranks fourth as an energy resource, providing approximately 14% of the world's energy needs all human and industrial processes produce wastes, that is, normally unused and undesirable products of a specific process. Generation and recovery of solid wastes varies dramatically from country to country and deserves special mention. The burning velocity of pulverized biomass fuels is considerably higher than that of coals. The use of biomass fuels provides substantial benefits as far as the environment is concerned. Biomass absorbs carbon dioxide during growth, and emits it during combustion. Utilization of biomass as fuel for power production offers the advantage of a renewable and CO2-neutral fuel. Although the structural, proximate and ultimate analyses results of biomass and wastes differ considerably, some properties of the biomass samples such as the hydrogen content, the sulfur content and the ignition temperatures changed in a narrow interval.
TL;DR: In this paper, the potential applications of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel combustion as the prime energy sources in various countries, and discusses problems associated with biomass combustion in boiler power systems.
Abstract: This paper describes the potential applications of renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuel combustion as the prime energy sources in various countries, and discusses problems associated with biomass combustion in boiler power systems. Here, the term biomass includes organic matter produced as a result of photosynthesis as well as municipal, industrial and animal waste material. Brief summaries of the basic concepts involved in the combustion of biomass fuels are presented. Renewable energy sources (RES) supply 14% of the total world energy demand. RES are biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind and marine energies. The renewables are the primary, domestic and clean or inexhaustible energy resources. The percentage share of biomass was 62.1% of total renewable energy sources in 1995. Experimental results for a large variety of biomass fuels and conditions are presented. Numerical studies are also discussed. Biomass is an attractive renewable fuel in utility boilers. The compositions of biomass among fuel types are variable. Ash composition for the biomass is fundamentally different from ash composition for the coal. Especially inorganic constituents cause to critical problems of toxic emissions, fouling and slagging. Metals in ash, in combination with other fuel elements such as silica and sulfur, and facilitated by the presence of chlorine, are responsible for many undesirable reactions in combustion furnaces and power boilers. Elements including K, Na, S, Cl, P, Ca, Mg, Fe, Si are involved in reactions leading to ash fouling and slagging in biomass combustors. Chlorine in the biomass may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and may also result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Other influences of biomass composition are observed for the rates of combustion and pollutant emissions. Biomass combustion systems are non-polluting and offer significant protection of the environment. The reduction of greenhouse gases pollution is the main advantage of utilizing biomass energy.
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|Mehmet Musa Özcan||42||289||5842|
|Kenneth W. D. Ledingham||38||151||5599|
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