About: Sidho Kanho Birsha University is a education organization based out in Puruliya, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Wavelength-division multiplexing & Population. The organization has 191 authors who have published 382 publications receiving 2092 citations. The organization is also known as: SKBU.
TL;DR: The authors reconstructs the rise of a segment of the southern flank of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen, to the south of the Lhasa terrane, using a paleoaltimeter based on paleoenthalpy encoded in fossil leaves from two new assemblages in southern Tibet (Liuqu and Qiabulin) and four previously known floras from the foreland basin.
Abstract: We reconstruct the rise of a segment of the southern flank of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen, to the south of the Lhasa terrane, using a paleoaltimeter based on paleoenthalpy encoded in fossil leaves from two new assemblages in southern Tibet (Liuqu and Qiabulin) and four previously known floras from the Himalaya foreland basin. U-Pb dating of zircons constrains the Liuqu flora to the latest Paleocene (ca. 56 Ma) and the Qiabulin flora to the earliest Miocene (21- 19 Ma). The proto-Himalaya grew slowly against a high (similar to 4 km) proto-Tibetan Plateau from similar to 1 km in the late Paleocene to similar to 2.3 km at the beginning of the Miocene, and achieved at least similar to 5.5 km by ca. 15 Ma. Contrasting precipitation patterns between the Himalaya-Tibet edifice and the Himalaya foreland basin for the past similar to 56 m.y. show progressive drying across southern Tibet, seemingly linked to the uplift of the Himalaya orogen.
TL;DR: The result shows that the pollutants like CO, NO2 and SO2 are significantly decreased, while the average level of O3 has been slightly increased in 2020 during the lockdown due to close-down of all industrial and transport activities.
Abstract: The fatal novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic disease smashes the normal tempo of global socio-economic and cultural livelihood. Most of the countries impose a lockdown system with social distancing measures to arrest the rapid transmission of this virus into the human body. The objective of this study is to examine the status of air quality during and pre-COVID-19 lockdown and to recommend some long-term sustainable environmental management plan. The pollution data like PM10, PM2.5, O3, SO2, NO2 and CO have been obtained from State Pollution Control Board under Govt. of West Bengal. Similarly, various land surface temperature (LST) maps have been prepared using LANDSAT-8 OLI and LANDSAT-7 ETM + images of USGS. The maps of NO2 and aerosol concentration over Indian subcontinent have been taken from ESA and NASA. The digital thematic maps and diagrams have been depicted by Grapher 13 and Arc GIS 10.3 platforms. The result shows that the pollutants like CO, NO2 and SO2 are significantly decreased, while the average level of O3 has been slightly increased in 2020 during the lockdown due to close-down of all industrial and transport activities. Meanwhile, around 17.5% was the mean reduction of PM10 and PM2.5 during lockdown compared with previous years owing to complete stop of vehicles movement, burning of biomass and dust particles from the construction works. This study recommends some air pollution-tolerant plant species (in urban vacant spaces and roof tops) for long-term cohabitation among environment, society and development.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors classified and described the global fluoride belts (GFB) geologically and geographically connecting different countries and presented a proper map of the global fluorosis showing the inland connections between each belt.
Abstract: Fluorosis is an endemic disease that is now a global challenge. In this review paper we have classified and described the global fluoride belts (GFB) geologically and geographically connecting different countries. A proper map of the global fluoride belts showing the inland connections between each belt is presented. Several natural factors like the rock type, soil, tectonics, hydrogeology and climate of a terrain which are majorly responsible for engrafting higher fluoride in drinking water are described. A detailed uniform description of each belts with respect to geology, geochemistry are discussed. The minor factors like altitude, phosphate mining etc. on fluorosis are also discussed including countries like Canada, Norway etc. which are potentially affected by fluorosis. The correlation of different ions like Cl−, Ca2+, etc; pH, electrical conductivity, TDS etc are compared and reviewed in detailed with respect to different GFB. The genesis and sources of fluoride contamination are also supported by different isotopic evidences. In this article, the in situ methods involving natural minerals and materials which can adsorb fluoride effectively and are being used globally are exhaustively assessed. The methods which are highly sustainable with minimum waste generation and cost effective are also evaluated.
01 Mar 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify the rate of transformation of land use and land cover change along with its causes and consequences in Bhutan-Bengal foothill from 1987 to 2019.
Abstract: Monitoring of land use and land cover (LULC) change is fundamental aspect of the landscape dynamics or environmental health evaluation at different spatio-temporal scales. Assessment of LULC change is highly imperative in evaluating the environmental and ecosystem management, conservation, land use planning, resource management and overall sustainable environmental management. The rich natural biodiversity zone of Bhutan–Bengal foothill has been considered to assess the LULC change from 1987 to 2019. The principal objective of this study is to identify the rate of transformation of land use and land cover change along with its causes and consequences. ETM, ETM+ and OLI Landsat satellite images of 1987, 2001 and 2019 are used to find out the magnitude of land use and land cover transformation. Maximum likelihood classifier or maximum likelihood classification method has been applied to classify the attributes of LULC change of Bhutan–Bengal foothill. The LULC components are further verified and rectified by reliable statistical error (confused) matrix accuracy assessment techniques to sort out the error incurred during preparation of final spatio-temporal LULC change maps. The result shows that there is a partial change of LULC during the last 3 decades (1987–2019). LULC data of 3 decades reveal a negative change or reduction of areas like vegetation (− 2.93%), agriculture (− 6.955) and plantation (− 0.5%), whereas other three important LULC components such as built-up area (6.44%), barren land (2.71%) and water body (1.29%) take slightly positive trend. Large-scale human encroachment, natural forest habitat fragmentation and conversion have brought rapid transformation from natural landscape to cultural landscape in Bhutan–Bengal foothill. This fundamental research will definitely help to make policy framing holistic management approach.
TL;DR: An efficient catalytic system for the oxidation of alcohols has been developed by using iron(III) catalyst [Fe(phen) 2Cl 2]NO 3 (1) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and H 2O 2 as terminal oxidant as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: An efficient catalytic system for the oxidation of alcohols has been developed by using iron(III) catalyst [Fe(phen) 2Cl 2]NO 3 (1) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) and H 2O 2 as terminal oxidant. A series of primary and secondary alcohols were oxidized into aldehydes and ketones in good yields and excellent selectivities after a short reaction time. The mononuclear iron(III) complex [Fe(phen) 2Cl 2]NO 3 was characterized by several independent methods. The X-ray structure shows distorted octahedral geometry around the Fe III center, which is in a high-spin state (S = 5/2) according to Mossbauer study. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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|Mrinal Kanti Mandal||31||222||3143|
|Gour Chandra Mahata||15||55||755|
|Mahasin Ali Khan||13||49||466|
|Shyamal Kumar Hui||13||79||497|
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