About: Siemens is a company organization based out in Munich, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Signal & Electromagnetic coil. The organization has 106091 authors who have published 169096 publications receiving 1511029 citations. The organization is also known as: Siemens bestaat in Nederland sinds 1879 & Siemens Aktiengesellschaft.
Topics: Signal, Electromagnetic coil, Rotor (electric), Layer (electronics), Transmission (telecommunications)
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non-differentiable continuous space functions is presented, which requires few control variables, is robust, easy to use, and lends itself very well to parallel computation.
Abstract: A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non-differentiable continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed it is demonstrated that the new method converges faster and with more certainty than many other acclaimed global optimization methods. The new method requires few control variables, is robust, easy to use, and lends itself very well to parallel computation.
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) as discussed by the authors provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.
Abstract: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
TL;DR: In this article, the Hall voltage of a two-dimensional electron gas, realized with a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor, was measured and it was shown that the Hall resistance at particular, experimentally well-defined surface carrier concentrations has fixed values which depend only on the fine-structure constant and speed of light, and is insensitive to the geometry of the device.
Abstract: Measurements of the Hall voltage of a two-dimensional electron gas, realized with a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, show that the Hall resistance at particular, experimentally well-defined surface carrier concentrations has fixed values which depend only on the fine-structure constant and speed of light, and is insensitive to the geometry of the device. Preliminary data are reported.
TL;DR: This technique, GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) is an extension of both the PILS and VD‐AUTO‐SMASH reconstruction techniques and provides unaliased images from each component coil prior to image combination.
Abstract: In this study, a novel partially parallel acquisition (PPA) method is presented which can be used to accelerate image acquisition using an RF coil array for spatial encoding. This technique, GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) is an extension of both the PILS and VD-AUTO-SMASH reconstruction techniques. As in those previous methods, a detailed, highly accurate RF field map is not needed prior to reconstruction in GRAPPA. This information is obtained from several k-space lines which are acquired in addition to the normal image acquisition. As in PILS, the GRAPPA reconstruction algorithm provides unaliased images from each component coil prior to image combination. This results in even higher SNR and better image quality since the steps of image reconstruction and image combination are performed in separate steps. After introducing the GRAPPA technique, primary focus is given to issues related to the practical implementation of GRAPPA, including the reconstruction algorithm as well as analysis of SNR in the resulting images. Finally, in vivo GRAPPA images are shown which demonstrate the utility of the technique.
Mayo Clinic1, University College London2, University of California, Los Angeles3, Arizona State University4, University of California, Davis5, University of California, San Diego6, Boston University7, University of California, San Francisco8, Siemens9, General Electric10, Philips11, Johns Hopkins University12, Stanford University13, University of Virginia14
TL;DR: The approach taken in ADNI to standardization across sites and platforms of the MRI protocol, postacquisition corrections, and phantom‐based monitoring of all scanners could be used as a model for other multisite trials.
Abstract: Dementia, one of the most feared associates of increasing longevity, represents a pressing public health problem and major research priority. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, affecting many millions around the world. There is currently no cure for AD, but large numbers of novel compounds are currently under development that have the potential to modify the course of the disease and slow its progression. There is a pressing need for imaging biomarkers to improve understanding of the disease and to assess the efficacy of these proposed treatments. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has already been shown to be sensitive to presymptomatic disease (1-10) and has the potential to provide such a biomarker. For use in large-scale multicenter studies, however, standardized methods that produce stable results across scanners and over time are needed. The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study is a longitudinal multisite observational study of elderly individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or AD (11,12). It is jointly funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and industry via the Foundation for the NIH. The study will assess how well information (alone or in combination) obtained from MRI, (18F)-fludeoyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), urine, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, as well as clinical and neuropsychometric assessments, can measure disease progression in the three groups of elderly subjects mentioned above. At the 55 participating sites in North America, imaging, clinical, and biologic samples will be collected at multiple time points in 200 elderly cognitively normal, 400 MCI, and 200 AD subjects. All subjects will be scanned with 1.5 T MRI at each time point, and half of these will also be scanned with FDG PET. Subjects not assigned to the PET arm of the study will be eligible for 3 T MRI scanning. The goal is to acquire both 1.5 T and 3 T MRI studies at multiple time points in 25% of the subjects who do not undergo PET scanning [R2C1]. CSF collection at both baseline and 12 months is targeted for 50% of the subjects. Sampling varies by clinical group. Healthy elderly controls will be sampled at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Subjects with MCI will be sampled at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. AD subjects will be sampled at 0, 6, 12, and 24 months. Major goals of the ADNI study are: to link all of these data at each time point and make this repository available to the general scientific community; to develop technical standards for imaging in longitudinal studies; to determine the optimum methods for acquiring and analyzing images; to validate imaging and biomarker data by correlating these with concurrent psychometric and clinical assessments; and to improve methods for clinical trials in MCI and AD. The ADNI study overall is divided into cores, with each core managing ADNI-related activities within its sphere of expertise: clinical, informatics, biostatistics, biomarkers, and imaging. The purpose of this report is to describe the MRI methods and decision-making process underlying the selection of the MRI protocol employed in the ADNI study.
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|Anders M. Dale||156||823||133891|
|Michael E. Phelps||144||637||77797|
|Markus F. Neurath||124||934||62376|
|Christoph J. Brabec||120||896||68188|
|Donald M. Lloyd-Jones||115||706||112655|
|Allan S. Jaffe||113||677||65052|
|Larry S. Davis||107||693||49714|
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