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CompanyMunich, Germany
About: Siemens is a(n) company organization based out in Munich, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Signal & Electromagnetic coil. The organization has 106091 authors who have published 169096 publication(s) receiving 1511029 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Siemens bestaat in Nederland sinds 1879 & Siemens Aktiengesellschaft.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Rainer Storn1, Kenneth PriceInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A new heuristic approach for minimizing possibly nonlinear and non-differentiable continuous space functions is presented. By means of an extensive testbed it is demonstrated that the new method converges faster and with more certainty than many other acclaimed global optimization methods. The new method requires few control variables, is robust, easy to use, and lends itself very well to parallel computation.

20,354 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Measurements of the Hall voltage of a two-dimensional electron gas, realized with a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, show that the Hall resistance at particular, experimentally well-defined surface carrier concentrations has fixed values which depend only on the fine-structure constant and speed of light, and is insensitive to the geometry of the device. Preliminary data are reported.

4,931 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa. Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

4,851 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This technique, GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) is an extension of both the PILS and VD‐AUTO‐SMASH reconstruction techniques and provides unaliased images from each component coil prior to image combination.
Abstract: In this study, a novel partially parallel acquisition (PPA) method is presented which can be used to accelerate image acquisition using an RF coil array for spatial encoding. This technique, GeneRalized Autocalibrating Partially Parallel Acquisitions (GRAPPA) is an extension of both the PILS and VD-AUTO-SMASH reconstruction techniques. As in those previous methods, a detailed, highly accurate RF field map is not needed prior to reconstruction in GRAPPA. This information is obtained from several k-space lines which are acquired in addition to the normal image acquisition. As in PILS, the GRAPPA reconstruction algorithm provides unaliased images from each component coil prior to image combination. This results in even higher SNR and better image quality since the steps of image reconstruction and image combination are performed in separate steps. After introducing the GRAPPA technique, primary focus is given to issues related to the practical implementation of GRAPPA, including the reconstruction algorithm as well as analysis of SNR in the resulting images. Finally, in vivo GRAPPA images are shown which demonstrate the utility of the technique.

4,463 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Yuri Boykov1, Marie-Pierre Jolly2Institutions (2)
07 Jul 2001
Abstract: In this paper we describe a new technique for general purpose interactive segmentation of N-dimensional images. The user marks certain pixels as "object" or "background" to provide hard constraints for segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate both boundary and region information. Graph cuts are used to find the globally optimal segmentation of the N-dimensional image. The obtained solution gives the best balance of boundary and region properties among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both "object" and "background" segments may consist of several isolated parts. Some experimental results are presented in the context of photo/video editing and medical image segmentation. We also demonstrate an interesting Gestalt example. A fast implementation of our segmentation method is possible via a new max-flow algorithm.

3,504 citations


Showing all 106091 results

Anders M. Dale156823133891
Michael E. Phelps14463777797
Yu Huang136149289209
Lei Zhang130231286950
Markus F. Neurath12493462376
Christoph J. Brabec12089668188
Kamil Ugurbil12053659053
Rama Chellappa120103162865
Donald M. Lloyd-Jones115706112655
Andre Franke11568255481
Allan S. Jaffe11367765052
Wolfram Burgard11172864856
Robert Turner11155758744
Helmut Vogel11164559163
Larry S. Davis10769349714
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