Education•Savannah, Georgia, United States•
About: Skidaway Institute of Oceanography is a education organization based out in Savannah, Georgia, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Continental shelf & Water column. The organization has 437 authors who have published 1115 publications receiving 62822 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, a series of long-chain (C37, C38, C39) methyl and ethyl ketones, first identified in sediments from Walvis Ridge off West Africa and from the Black Sea, has been found in marine sediments throughout the world.
Abstract: A series of long-chain (C37, C38, C39), primarily di- and tri-unsaturated methyl and ethyl ketones, first identified in sediments from Walvis Ridge off West Africa and from the Black Sea1, has been found in marine sediments throughout the world2. The marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and members of the class Prymnesiophyceae are now the recognized sources of these compounds3,4. Experiments with laboratory cultures of algae showed the degree of unsaturation in the ketone series biosynthesized depends on growth temperature2,5, a physiological response observed for classical membrane lipids6. Brassell and co-workers2,7 thus proposed that systematic fluctuations in the unsaturation of these alkenones noted down-core in sediments from the Kane Gap region of the north-east tropical Atlantic Ocean and correlated with glacial-interglacial cycles provide an organic geochemical measure of past sea-surface water temperatures. Using laboratory cultures of E. huxleyi, we have calibrated changes in the unsaturation pattern of the long-chain ketone series versus growth temperature. The calibration curve is linear and accurately predicts unsaturation patterns observed in natural particulate materials collected from oceanic waters of known temperature. We present evidence supporting the proposed palaeotemperature hypothesis2,7 and suggesting absolute 'sea-surface temperatures' for a given oceanic location can be estimated from an analysis of long-chain ketone compositions preserved in glacial and interglacial horizons of deep-sea sediment cores.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that fluxes of ballast minerals (silicate and carbonate biominerals, and dust) determine deep-water POC fluxes, so that a mechanism-based model of the carbon flux must simultaneously predict both POC and ballast mineral fluxes.
Abstract: In simulation studies of the ocean's role in the global carbon cycle, predicting the depth-distribution for remineralization of particulate organic carbon (POC) is of particular importance. Following Sarmiento et al. (Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7 (1993) 417), most simulation models have the power-law curve of Martin et al. (Deep-Sea Research 34 (1987) 267) for this purpose. The Martin et al. curve is an empirical fit to data, most of which is from shallow floating sediment traps. Using such a fit implies that all the information necessary for prediction is contained in the carbon flux itself, so that the organic-carbon flux F OC ( z ) at any depth z can be predicted from the flux of organic carbon F OC ( z 0 ) at some near-surface depth z 0 . Here, we challenge this basic premise, arguing that fluxes of ballast minerals (silicate and carbonate biominerals, and dust) determine deep-water POC fluxes, so that a mechanism-based model of POC flux must simultaneously predict fluxes of both POC and ballast minerals. This assertion is based on the empirical observation that POC fluxes are tightly linked quantitatively to fluxes of ballast minerals in the deep ocean. Here, we develop a model structure that incorporates this observation, and fit this model to US JGOFS EqPac data. This model structure, plus the preliminary parameter estimates we have obtained, can be used to explore the implications of our model in studies of the ocean carbon cycle.
TL;DR: In this article, the cycling of Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Cr, V, and Mo during early diagenesis was investigated in sediments from five different depositional environments in the California Borderland.
TL;DR: Unialgal cultures were used to investigate relationships between cell volume and the carbon and nitrogen content of nondiatomaceous marine nanophytoplankton and found correlations were highly significant between biovolume of preserved cells and C and N contents.
Abstract: Unialgal cultures were used to investigate relationships between cell volume and the carbon and nitrogen content of nondiatomaceous marine nanophytoplankton. Cell dimensions were determined by image-analyzed epifluorescence microscopy and particulate C and N by high-temperature dry combustion. Volumes were calculated by direct integration with published algorithms (biovolume), but could be estimated equally well from linear dimensions as prolate spheres. Preservation with 0.5% glutaraldehyde reduced cell volumes 29% on average. Correlations were highly significant between biovolume of preserved cells and C and N contents. Nonlinear regression models appeared most appropriate because smaller cells contained more C and N per unit volume than did larger cells. Suggested general C densities for estimating cell C from preserved volume were 0.36 pg pm-3 for 10’ pm3 cells, 0.24 pg pm-3 for lo2 pm3 cells, and 0.16 pg C pm-3 for lo3 pm3 cells. Previous regression models substantially underestimated the C densities of nanophytoplankton of lo*-lo3 l.cm3. The explanation for these differences includes the method of determining mean population volumes, the use of preservatives, and the occurrence of significant vacuolar volume in larger phytoplankton.
TL;DR: Further work is required before the comet assay can be used as a standard bio-indicator in aquatic environments, including standardization of methods (such as ASTM method E2186-02a) and measurements.
Abstract: The comet assay is a rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method for measuring DNA strand breaks. The comet assay has advantages over other DNA damage methods, such as sister chromatid exchange, alkali elution and micronucleus assay, because of its high sensitivity and that DNA strand breaks are determined in individual cells. This review describes a number of studies that used the comet assay to determine DNA strand breaks in aquatic animals exposed to genotoxicants both in vitro and in vivo, including assessment of DNA damage in aquatic animals collected from contaminated sites. One difficulty of using the comet assay in environmental work is that of comparing results from studies that used different methods, such as empirical scoring or comet tail lengths. There seems to be a consensus in more recent studies to use both the intensity of the tail and the length of the tail, i.e. DNA tail moment, percentage of DNA in the tail. The comet assay has been used to assess DNA repair and apoptosis in aquatic animals and modifications of the comet assay have allowed the detection of specific DNA lesions. There have been some recent studies to link DNA strand breaks in aquatic animals to effects on the immune system, reproduction, growth, and population dynamics. Further work is required before the comet assay can be used as a standard bio-indicator in aquatic environments, including standardization of methods (such as ASTM method E2186-02a) and measurements.
Showing all 440 results
|Stuart G. Wakeham
|Allan H. Devol
|Joel E. Kostka
|Katherine H. Freeman
|Andrew E. Allen
|Sandra E. Shumway
|Wayne S. Gardner
|Brian E. Lapointe
|Larry P. Atkinson
|Richard F. Lee
|Francisco E. Werner
|Lie Yauw Oey
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