About: Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava is a education organization based out in Bratislava, Slovakia. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Control theory & Model predictive control. The organization has 5520 authors who have published 9590 publications receiving 89157 citations. The organization is also known as: Slovenská Technická Univerzita v Bratislave & Slovak Technical University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic properties of metal-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts were investigated by UV-VIS, FT-IR, near-IR and near IR spectroscopy techniques.
Abstract: Chromium-, manganese- and cobalt-doped titanium dioxide photocatalysts containing 0.2, 0.5 or 1 at.% of metal-dopant were investigated by UV–VIS, FT-IR, near-IR and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic techniques. The presence of the doping ions in the titania structure caused significant absorption shift to the visible region compared to pure TiO 2 powder (P25 Degussa). The EPR spectra of TiO 2 powders containing chromium showed the superposition of three types of individual paramagnetic species (β-, γ- and δ-signals), whose relative EPR intensity is significantly dependent on the dopant concentration, as well as on the photocatalysts preparation and treatment. The EPR spectra of the chromium-doped photocatalysts heated in H 2 /N 2 atmosphere corresponded to the Cr(III) ions occupying vacated cation sites in the rutile or anatase crystal lattice. The characteristic feature of the EPR spectra of the Mn/TiO 2 samples is a sharp six-line Mn(II) component centered on g eff =1.99, flanked by shoulders with a weak feature, which appeared on g eff =2.66 and 4.32. The photocatalytic activity of the various metal-doped TiO 2 samples was tested in aqueous or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) suspensions using EPR spin trapping technique with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N -oxide (DMPO) spin trap. The ability of the irradiated photocatalysts to generate reactive oxygen species, namely hydroxyl radicals and super-oxide anion radicals, which were trapped as the corresponding DMPO-adducts was investigated.
TL;DR: Metal chelation, based on the application of selective metal chelators or metal delivery, may induce neuroprotective signaling and represents a promising therapeutic strategy in cancer and AD.
Abstract: Cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by (i) opposing biological mechanisms, (ii) an inverse correlation between their incidences, and (iii) oxidative stress being a common denominator of both diseases Increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells from oncogenic signaling and/or metabolic disturbances leads to upregulation of cellular antioxidant capacity to maintain ROS levels below a toxic threshold Combining drugs that induce high levels of ROS with compounds that suppress cellular antioxidant capacity by depleting antioxidant systems [glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thioredoxin (TRX)] and/or targeting glucose metabolism represents a potential anticancer strategy In AD, free metals and/or Aβ:metal complexes may cause damage to biomolecules in the brain (via Fenton reaction), including DNA Metal chelation, based on the application of selective metal chelators or metal delivery, may induce neuroprotective signaling and represents a promising therapeutic strategy This review examines therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of oxidative stress in cancer and AD
TL;DR: Current views regarding the role of redox-active/inactive metal-induced formation of ROS, modifications to biomolecules in human disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson’s disease, renal disease, blood disorders and other disease are summarized.
Abstract: Transition metal ions are key elements of various biological processes ranging from oxygen formation to hypoxia sensing, and therefore, their homeostasis is maintained within strict limits through tightly regulated mechanisms of uptake, storage and secretion. The breakdown of metal ion homeostasis can lead to an uncontrolled formation of reactive oxygen species, ROS (via the Fenton reaction, which produces hydroxyl radicals), and reactive nitrogen species, RNS, which may cause oxidative damage to biological macromolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. An imbalance between the formation of free radicals and their elimination by antioxidant defense systems is termed oxidative stress. Most vulnerable to free radical attack is the cell membrane which may undergo enhanced lipid peroxidation, finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal and other exocyclic DNA adducts. While redox-active iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) undergo redox-cycling reactions, for a second group of redox-inactive metals such as arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd), the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. While arsenic is known to bind directly to critical thiols, other mechanisms, involving formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions, have been proposed. Redox-inert zinc (Zn) is the most abundant metal in the brain and an essential component of numerous proteins involved in biological defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. The depletion of zinc may enhance DNA damage by impairing DNA repair mechanisms. Intoxication of an organism by arsenic and cadmium may lead to metabolic disturbances of redox-active copper and iron, with the occurrence of oxidative stress induced by the enhanced formation of ROS/RNS. Oxidative stress occurs when excessive formation of ROS overwhelms the antioxidant defense system, as is maintained by antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, glutathione (GSH), carotenoids, flavonoids and antioxidant enzymes which include SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. This review summarizes current views regarding the role of redox-active/inactive metal-induced formation of ROS, and modifications to biomolecules in human disease such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, renal disease, blood disorders and other disease. The involvement of metals in DNA repair mechanisms, tumor suppressor functions and interference with signal transduction pathways are also discussed.
TL;DR: In this paper, an intensive data compilation has been carried out for seven European hydrometeorological regions to assess the possible ranges for peak discharges on watersheds with area smaller than 500 km2 and to describe the geography of the hazard across Europe.
Abstract: Flash floods are one of the most significant natural hazards in Europe, causing serious risk to life and destruction of buildings and infrastructure. This type of flood, often affecting ungauged watersheds, remains nevertheless a poorly documented phenomenon. To address the gap in available information, and particularly to assess the possible ranges for peak discharges on watersheds with area smaller than 500 km2 and to describe the geography of the hazard across Europe, an intensive data compilation has been carried out for seven European hydrometeorological regions. This inventory is the first step towards an atlas of extreme flash floods in Europe. It contains over 550 documented events. This paper aims at presenting the data compilation strategy, the content of the elaborated data base and some preliminary data analysis results. The initial observations show that the most extreme flash floods are greater in magnitude in the Mediterranean countries than in the inner continental countries and that there is a strong seasonality to flash flood occurrence revealing different climatic forcing mechanisms in each region.
Vienna University of Technology1, Polytechnic University of Turin2, University of Potsdam3, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute4, University of Messina5, Czech Hydrometeorological Institute6, University of Split7, University of Padua8, University of Zagreb9, University of Bologna10, University of Naples Federico II11, Moscow State University12, Dokuz Eylül University13, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts14, University of Bath15, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava16, Finnish Environment Institute17, University of Liverpool18, University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy19, Technical University of Madrid20, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ21, ETH Zurich22, Maynooth University23, Polish Academy of Sciences24, ODESSA25, University of Ljubljana26, Roma Tre University27, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate28, Polytechnic University of Tirana29, University of Belgrade30
TL;DR: Analysis of a comprehensive European flood dataset reveals regional changes in river flood discharges in the past five decades that are broadly consistent with climate model projections for the next century, suggesting that climate-driven changes are already happening and supporting calls for the consideration of climate change in flood risk management.
Abstract: Climate change has led to concerns about increasing river floods resulting from the greater water-holding capacity of a warmer atmosphere1. These concerns are reinforced by evidence of increasing economic losses associated with flooding in many parts of the world, including Europe2. Any changes in river floods would have lasting implications for the design of flood protection measures and flood risk zoning. However, existing studies have been unable to identify a consistent continental-scale climatic-change signal in flood discharge observations in Europe3, because of the limited spatial coverage and number of hydrometric stations. Here we demonstrate clear regional patterns of both increases and decreases in observed river flood discharges in the past five decades in Europe, which are manifestations of a changing climate. Our results—arising from the most complete database of European flooding so far—suggest that: increasing autumn and winter rainfall has resulted in increasing floods in northwestern Europe; decreasing precipitation and increasing evaporation have led to decreasing floods in medium and large catchments in southern Europe; and decreasing snow cover and snowmelt, resulting from warmer temperatures, have led to decreasing floods in eastern Europe. Regional flood discharge trends in Europe range from an increase of about 11 per cent per decade to a decrease of 23 per cent. Notwithstanding the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the observational record, the flood changes identified here are broadly consistent with climate model projections for the next century4,5, suggesting that climate-driven changes are already happening and supporting calls for the consideration of climate change in flood risk management. Analysis of a comprehensive European flood dataset reveals regional changes in river flood discharges in the past five decades that are consistent with models suggesting that climate-driven changes are already happening.
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|Ronald R. Yager||110||931||64452|
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