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Southern Illinois University Carbondale

EducationCarbondale, Illinois, United States
About: Southern Illinois University Carbondale is a(n) education organization based out in Carbondale, Illinois, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Poison control. The organization has 13570 authors who have published 24819 publication(s) receiving 667385 citation(s). The organization is also known as: SIU Carbondale & SIUC.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These guidelines are presented for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.

3,426 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Despite the wealth of information which exists concerning environmental behavior, it is not known which variable or variables appear to be most influential in motivating individuals to take responsible environmental action. A meta-analysis of environmental behavior research was undertaken in an attempt to determine this. An exhaustive search of the empirically based environmental behavior research conducted over the past decade yielded a substantial number of studies representative of a broad academic base. The characteristics and findings of these studies served as the data for the meta-analysis. As a result of the meta-analysis, the following variables were found to be associated with responsible environmental behavior: knowledge of issues, knowledge of action strategies, locus of control, attitudes, verbal commitment, and an individual's sense of responsibility. A model of predictors of environmental behavior is proposed.

2,673 citations

01 Jan 1986
Abstract: Preface. Acknowledgements. 1. Introduction Knowledge of Language Variation Language and Society Sociolinguistics and the Sociology of Language Methodological Concerns Overview Further Reading Part I: Languages and Communities: 2. Languages, Dialects, and Varieties Language or Dialect? Standardization Regional Dialects Social Dialects Styles, Registers, and Beliefs Further Reading 3. Pidgins and Creoles Lingua Francas Definitions Distribution and Characteristics Origins From Pidgin to Creole and Beyond Further Reading 4. Codes Diglossia Bilingualism and Multilingualism Code-Switching Accommodation Further Reading 5. Speech Communities Definitions Intersecting Communities Networks and Repertoires Further Reading Part II: Inherent Variety: 6. Language Variation Regional Variation The Linguistic Variable Social Variation Data Collection and Analysis Further Reading 7. Some Findings and Issues An Early Study New York City Norwich and Reading A Variety of Studies Belfast Controversies Further Reading 8. Change The Traditional View Some Changes in Progress The Process of Change Further Reading Part III: Words at Work: 9. Words and Culture Whorf Kinship Taxonomies Color Prototypes Taboo and Euphemism Further Reading 10. Ethnographies Varieties of Talk The Ethnography of Speaking Ethnomethodology Further Reading 11. Solidarity and Politeness Tu and Vous Address Terms Politeness Further Reading 12. Talk and Action Speech Acts Cooperation Conversation Further Reading Part IV: Understanding and Intervening: 13. Gender Differences Possible Explanations Further Reading 14. Disadvantage Codes Again African American English Consequences for Education Further Reading 15. Planning Issues A Variety of Situations Further Examples Winners and Losers Further Reading 16. Conclusion References Index

2,179 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We examine the role of the board of directors, the audit committee, and the executive committee in preventing earnings management. Supporting an SEC Panel Report's conclusion that audit committee members need financial sophistication, we show that the composition of a board in general and of an audit committee more specifically, is related to the likelihood that a firm will engage in earnings management. Board and audit committee members with corporate or financial backgrounds are associated with firms that have smaller discretionary current accruals. Board and audit committee meeting frequency is also associated with reduced levels of discretionary current accruals. We conclude that board and audit committee activity and their members' financial sophistication may be important factors in constraining the propensity of managers to engage in earnings management.

2,131 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Management plays a dominant role in selecting outside directors, inviting skepticism about outsiders' ability to make independent judgments on firm performance. Our examination of wealth effects surrounding outside director appointments finds significantly positive share-price reactions. We find no clear evidence that outside directors of any particular occupation are more or less valuable than others. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that outside directors are chosen in the interest of shareholders.

1,946 citations


Showing all 13570 results

Pulickel M. Ajayan1761223136241
Russel J. Reiter1691646121010
Derek R. Lovley16858295315
Martin B. Keller13154165069
Kurunthachalam Kannan12682059886
John P. Giesy114116262790
Michael L. Blute11252745296
Jianjun Liu112104071032
Janusz Pawliszyn10978852082
Wei Zhang104291164923
Horst Zincke10137530818
Janet R. Daling10035431957
Eric Lam9949234893
Sergei V. Kalinin9599937022
John C. Cheville9043332806
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