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Institution

Sultan Qaboos University

EducationMuscat, Oman
About: Sultan Qaboos University is a(n) education organization based out in Muscat, Oman. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Control theory. The organization has 7767 authors who have published 14605 publication(s) receiving 241390 citation(s). The organization is also known as: SQU.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ginger is a strong anti-oxidant substance and may either mitigate or prevent generation of free radicals, and is considered a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects.
Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberacae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Tibb-Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments that include arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting, hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases and helminthiasis. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger, and several scientific investigations aimed at isolation and identification of active constituents of ginger, scientific verification of its pharmacological actions and of its constituents, and verification of the basis of the use of ginger in some of several diseases and conditions. This article aims at reviewing the most salient recent reports on these investigations. The main pharmacological actions of ginger and compounds isolated therefrom include immuno-modulatory, anti-tumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipidemic and anti-emetic actions. Ginger is a strong anti-oxidant substance and may either mitigate or prevent generation of free radicals. It is considered a safe herbal medicine with only few and insignificant adverse/side effects. More studies are required in animals and humans on the kinetics of ginger and its constituents and on the effects of their consumption over a long period of time.

1,111 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Of the flow battery technologies that have been investigated, the all-vanadium redox flow battery has received the most attention and has shown most promise in various pre-commercial to commercial stationary applications to date, while new developments in hybrid redox fuel cells are promising to lead the way for future applications in mechanically and electrically "refuelable" electric vehicles.
Abstract: The past few decades have shown a rapid and continuous exhaustion of the available energy resources which may lead to serious energy global crises. Researchers have been focusing on developing new and renewable energy resources to meet the increasing fuel demand and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A surge of research effort is also being directed towards replacing fossil fuel based vehicles with hybrid and electric alternatives. Energy storage is now seen as a critical element in future "smart grid and electric vehicle" applications. Electrochemical energy storage systems offer the best combination of efficiency, cost and flexibility, with redox flow battery systems currently leading the way in this aspect. In this work, a panoramic overview is presented for the various redox flow battery systems and their hybrid alternatives. Relevant published work is reported and critically discussed. A comprehensive study of the available technologies is conducted in terms of technical aspects as well as economic and environmental consequences. Some of the flow battery limitations and technical challenges are also discussed and a range of further research opportunities are presented. Of the flow battery technologies that have been investigated, the all-vanadium redox flow battery has received the most attention and has shown most promise in various pre-commercial to commercial stationary applications to date, while new developments in hybrid redox fuel cells are promising to lead the way for future applications in mechanically and electrically "refuelable" electric vehicles.

1,107 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Theo Vos1, Theo Vos2, Theo Vos3, Stephen S Lim  +2416 moreInstitutions (246)
TL;DR: Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates, and there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries.
Abstract: Background: In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries. Methods: GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution. Findings: Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990–2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0–9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10–24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the top ten for ages 10–24 years were also in the top ten in the 25–49-year age group: road injuries (ranked first), HIV/AIDS (second), low back pain (fourth), headache disorders (fifth), and depressive disorders (sixth). In 2019, ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the top-ranked causes of DALYs in both the 50–74-year and 75-years-and-older age groups. Since 1990, there has been a marked shift towards a greater proportion of burden due to YLDs from non-communicable diseases and injuries. In 2019, there were 11 countries where non-communicable disease and injury YLDs constituted more than half of all disease burden. Decreases in age-standardised DALY rates have accelerated over the past decade in countries at the lower end of the SDI range, while improvements have started to stagnate or even reverse in countries with higher SDI. Interpretation: As disability becomes an increasingly large component of disease burden and a larger component of health expenditure, greater research and development investment is needed to identify new, more effective intervention strategies. With a rapidly ageing global population, the demands on health services to deal with disabling outcomes, which increase with age, will require policy makers to anticipate these changes. The mix of universal and more geographically specific influences on health reinforces the need for regular reporting on population health in detail and by underlying cause to help decision makers to identify success stories of disease control to emulate, as well as opportunities to improve. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

976 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Iosif Lazaridis1, Iosif Lazaridis2, Nick Patterson1, Alissa Mittnik3  +133 moreInstitutions (64)
18 Sep 2014-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west Europeanhunter-gatherer related ancestry.
Abstract: We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had ∼44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.

904 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review discusses the techniques and procedures for the measurement and analysis of colour in food and other biomaterial materials, focusing on the instrumental and visual measurements for quantifying colour attributes and highlights the range of primary and derived objective colour indices used to characterise the maturity and quality of a wide range of food products and beverages.
Abstract: Colour is an important quality attribute in the food and bioprocess industries, and it influences consumer’s choice and preferences. Food colour is governed by the chemical, biochemical, microbial and physical changes which occur during growth, maturation, postharvest handling and processing. Colour measurement of food products has been used as an indirect measure of other quality attributes such as flavour and contents of pigments because it is simpler, faster and correlates well with other physicochemical properties. This review discusses the techniques and procedures for the measurement and analysis of colour in food and other biomaterial materials. It focuses on the instrumental (objective) and visual (subjective) measurements for quantifying colour attributes and highlights the range of primary and derived objective colour indices used to characterise the maturity and quality of a wide range of food products and beverages. Different approaches applied to model food colour are described, including reaction mechanisms, response surface methodology and others based on probabilistic and non-isothermal kinetics. Colour is one of the most widely measured product quality attributes in postharvest handling and in the food processing research and industry. Apart from differences in instrumentation, colour measurements are often reported based on different colour indices even for the same product, making it difficult to compare results in the literature. There is a need for standardisation to improve the traceability and transferability of measurements. The correlation between colour and other sensory quality attributes is well established, but future prospects exist in the application of objective non-destructive colour measurement in predictive modelling of the nutritional quality of fresh and processed food products.

875 citations


Authors

Showing all 7767 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Richard H. Friend1691182140032
Philippe Froguel166820118816
Amr Radi10950438952
Ian G. Stiell10047737892
Muhammad Farooq92134137533
Kadambot H. M. Siddique7763222552
Gilles J. Guillemin7034117566
Julia M. Yeomans6941018437
Muhammad Usman61120324848
R.K. O'Nions609414636
Mohd Ali Hashim6029013382
Rema Raman5919913921
Norbert Nowotny5626111623
Joydeep Dutta5529810792
Gunnar Norstedt5315710128
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202245
20211,425
20201,144
2019973
2018896
2017862