About: Swiss Ornithological Institute is a nonprofit organization based out in Sempach, Switzerland. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Biodiversity. The organization has 259 authors who have published 857 publications receiving 31367 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The highly predictable, seasonally pulsed nature of animal migration, together with the spatial scales at which it operates and the immense number of individuals involved, not only set migration apart from other types of movement, but render it a uniquely potent, yet underappreciated, dimension of biodiversity that is intimately embedded within resident communities.
Abstract: Animal migrations span the globe, involving immense numbers of individuals from a wide range of taxa. Migrants transport nutrients, energy, and other organisms as they forage and are preyed upon throughout their journeys. These highly predictable, pulsed movements across large spatial scales render migration a potentially powerful yet underappreciated dimension of biodiversity that is intimately embedded within resident communities. We review examples from across the animal kingdom to distill fundamental processes by which migratory animals influence communities and ecosystems, demonstrating that they can uniquely alter energy flow, food-web topology and stability, trophic cascades, and the structure of metacommunities. Given the potential for migration to alter ecological networks worldwide, we suggest an integrative framework through which community dynamics and ecosystem functioning may explicitly consider animal migrations.
TL;DR: It is concluded that the impact of predation after leaving the nest results in selection for early breeding and, particularly in the late season, for high fledging mass, which may explain why the earliest broods have been found to produce most recruits into the breeding population even if they did not profit from maximum food availability during the nestling period.
Abstract: Summary 1 We present a multivariate model of the post-fledging survival of juvenile great and coal tits (Parus major L., P. ater L.) in relation to chick body condition and timing of breeding. Radio-telemetry and colour marks were used to track tit families during 20 days from fledging, that is, the period of post-fledging dependence. Data on 342 chicks of 68 broods were obtained. 2 Forty-seven per cent of juveniles died during the observation period, predation being the main cause of mortality. In the first 4 days after fledging the mortality rate was 5–10% per day. 3 Survival of juveniles was positively correlated with fledging mass. Furthermore, survival strongly decreased during the season. In the second half of June, mortality was five times the rate of mid-May. The differential survival resulted in selection for both early fledging and high fledging mass. Juvenile condition was less important for survival in birds that had fledged early in the season. Their survival rates exceeded 70% in all weight classes, whereas in late broods only the heaviest individuals survived equally well. The survival of birds fledging both late and in poor condition was below 20%. Thus, selection for high fledging mass was much stronger in the late season than in early broods. 4 We conclude that the impact of predation after leaving the nest results in selection for early breeding and, particularly in the late season, for high fledging mass. This may explain why the earliest broods have been found to produce most recruits into the breeding population even if they did not profit from maximum food availability during the nestling period. On the other hand, energetic limitations may constrain the begin of egg laying in adult birds. Thus, counteracting evolutionary responses to the seasonal development of food availability (the caterpillar peak) and to the risk of post-fledging mortality (the peak in post-fledging mortality) may have focused the period of optimal reproduction to a narrow time-window.
TL;DR: It is predicted that integrated population models will become a common and important tool in studies of population dynamics, both in ecology and its applications, such as conservation biology or wildlife management.
Abstract: Integrated population models (IPMs) represent the single, unified analysis of population count data and demographic data. This modelling framework is quite novel and can be implemented within the classical or the Bayesian mode of statistical inference. Here, we briefly show the basic steps that need to be taken when an integrated population model is adopted, and review existing integrated population models for birds and mammals. There are important advantages of integrated compared to conventional analyses that analyse each dataset separately and then try to make an inference about population dynamics. First, integrated population models allow the estimating of more demographic quantities, because there is information about all demographic processes operating in a population, and this information is exploited. Second, parameter estimates become more precise, and this enhances statistical power. Finally, all sources of uncertainty due to process variability and the sampling process(es) are adequately included. Core of the integrated models is the link of changes in the population size and the demographic rates via a demographic model (usually a Leslie matrix model) and the likelihoods of all existing datasets. We discuss some critical assumptions that are typically made in integrated population models and highlight fruitful areas of future research. Currently, we have found 25 studies that used integrated population models. Central to most studies was statistical development rather than their application to address an ecological question, which is not surprising given that integrated population models are still a new development. We predict that integrated population models will become a common and important tool in studies of population dynamics, both in ecology and its applications, such as conservation biology or wildlife management.
TL;DR: Long–term changes in the timing of autumn migration in birds, a key event in the annual cycle limiting the reproductive period, are investigated, using data spanning a 42–year period to analyse long–term change in the passage of 65 species of migratory birds through Western Europe.
Abstract: As a response to increasing spring temperature in temperate regions in recent years, populations of many plant and animal species, including migratory birds, have advanced the seasonal start of their reproduction or growth. However, the effects of climate changes on subsequent events of the annual cycle remain poorly understood. We investigated long-term changes in the timing of autumn migration in birds, a key event in the annual cycle limiting the reproductive period. Using data spanning a 42-year period, we analysed long-term changes in the passage of 65 species of migratory birds through Western Europe. The autumn passage of migrants wintering south of the Sahara has advanced in recent years, presumably as a result of selection pressure to cross the Sahel before its seasonal dry period. In contrast, migrants wintering north of the Sahara have delayed autumn passage. In addition, species with a variable rather than a fixed number of broods per year have delayed passage, possibly because they are free to attempt more broods. Recent climate changes seem to have a simple unidirectional effect on the seasonal onset of reproduction, but complex and opposing effects on the timing of subsequent events in the annual cycle, depending on the ecology and life history of a species. This complicates predictions of overall effects of global warming on avian communities.
TL;DR: A hierarchical parameterization of dynamic occupancy models is described that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process.
Abstract: Species occurrence and its dynamic components, extinction and colonization probabilities, are focal quantities in biogeography and metapopulation biology, and for species conservation assessments. It has been increasingly appreciated that these parameters must be estimated separately from detection probability to avoid the biases induced by non-detection error. Hence, there is now considerable theoretical and practical interest in dynamic occupancy models that contain explicit representations of metapopulation dynamics such as extinction, colonization, and turnover as well as growth rates. We describe a hierarchical parameterization of these models that is analogous to the state-space formulation of models in time series, where the model is represented by two components, one for the partially observable occupancy process and another for the observations conditional on that process. This parameterization naturally allows estimation of all parameters of the conventional approach to occupancy models, but in addition, yields great flexibility and extensibility, e.g., to modeling heterogeneity or latent structure in model parameters. We also highlight the important distinction between population and finite sample inference; the latter yields much more precise estimates for the particular sample at hand. Finite sample estimates can easily be obtained using the state-space representation of the model but are difficult to obtain under the conventional approach of likelihood-based estimation. We use R and WinBUGS to apply the model to two examples. In a standard analysis for the European Crossbill in a large Swiss monitoring program, we fit a model with year-specific parameters. Estimates of the dynamic parameters varied greatly among years, highlighting the irruptive population dynamics of that species. In the second example, we analyze route occupancy of Cerulean Warblers in the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) using a model allowing for site-specific heterogeneity in model parameters. The results indicate relatively low turnover and a stable distribution of Cerulean Warblers which is in contrast to analyses of counts of individuals from the same survey that indicate important declines. This discrepancy illustrates the inertia in occupancy relative to actual abundance. Furthermore, the model reveals a declining patch survival probability, and increasing turnover, toward the edge of the range of the species, which is consistent with metapopulation perspectives on the genesis of range edges. Given detection/non-detection data, dynamic occupancy models as described here have considerable potential for the study of distributions and range dynamics.
Showing all 262 results
|Robert A. Robinson||35||130||5282|
Related Institutions (5)
Zoological Society of London
3.7K papers, 201.2K citations
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
3.2K papers, 161.6K citations
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
5.9K papers, 363.9K citations
The Nature Conservancy
3.7K papers, 202K citations
National Park Service
3.6K papers, 101.9K citations