About: Tianjin Polytechnic University is a education organization based out in Tianjin, China. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Membrane & Fiber. The organization has 12699 authors who have published 11457 publications receiving 125725 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This mini-review paper identifies the major foulants and the principal membrane fouling mechanisms such as pore blocking, cake formation, concentration polarization, organic adsorption, inorganic precipitation and biological fouling.
Abstract: During the last decades, the interest of using membrane technology has emerged in wastewater treatment as well as drinking water and process water production. However, the impediment of the membrane technology is the fouling problem and consequently higher operating and membrane replacement cost. Hence, better understanding of membrane fouling is not only the key to solve the problems, but also is one of the main factors driving membrane technology forward. This mini-review paper identifies the major foulants and the principal membrane fouling mechanisms such as pore blocking, cake formation, concentration polarization, organic adsorption, inorganic precipitation and biological fouling. It also gives a holistic review about different fouling phenomena during the application of membrane separation technologies in water and wastewater treatment, with specific references to various problems, membranes, treatment processes and its practical applications.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of various kinds of quenching mechanisms of CDs (including static, dynamic, FRET, photo-induced electron transfer, Dexter energy transfer, and inner filter effect) is presented.
Abstract: Carbon dots (CDs) possess unique optical properties such as tunable photoluminescence (PL) and excitation dependent multicolor emission. The quenching and recovery of the fluorescence of CDs can be utilized for detecting analytes. The PL mechanisms of CDs have been discussed in previous articles, but the quenching mechanisms of CDs have not been summarized so far. Quenching mechanisms include static quenching, dynamic quenching, Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET), photoinduced electron transfer (PET), surface energy transfer (SET), Dexter energy transfer (DET) and inner filter effect (IFE). Following an introduction, the review (with 88 refs.) first summarizes the various kinds of quenching mechanisms of CDs (including static quenching, dynamic quenching, FRET, PET and IFE), the principles of these quenching mechanisms, and the methods of distinguishing these quenching mechanisms. This is followed by an overview on applications of the various quenching mechanisms in detection and imaging.
TL;DR: The ex vivo multicellular spheroid proved to be a good model to simulate in vivo tumor tissue and evaluate nanoparticle penetration behavior and gives important insights into the design and functionalization of nanoparticles to achieve high levels of accumulation in tumors.
Abstract: This work demonstrated that ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) smaller than 10 nm display unique advantages over nanoparticles larger than 10 nm in terms of localization to, and penetration of, breast cancer cells, multicellular tumor spheroids, and tumors in mice. Au@tiopronin nanoparticles that have tunable sizes from 2 to 15 nm with identical surface coatings of tiopronin and charge were successfully prepared. For monolayer cells, the smaller the Au@tiopronin NPs, the more AuNPs found in each cell. In addition, the accumulation of Au NPs in the ex vivo tumor model was size-dependent: smaller AuNPs were able to penetrate deeply into tumor spheroids, whereas 15 nm nanoparticles were not. Owing to their ultrasmall nanostructure, 2 and 6 nm nanoparticles showed high levels of accumulation in tumor tissue in mice after a single intravenous injection. Surprisingly, both 2 and 6 nm Au@tiopronin nanoparticles were distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas 15 nm Au@tiopronin nanoparticles were found only in the cytoplasm, where they formed aggregates. The ex vivo multicellular spheroid proved to be a good model to simulate in vivo tumor tissue and evaluate nanoparticle penetration behavior. This work gives important insights into the design and functionalization of nanoparticles to achieve high levels of accumulation in tumors.
TL;DR: The combined experiment and modelling verify the applicability of the classic Griffith theory of brittle fracture to graphene and quantifies the essential fracture properties of graphene and provides mechanistic insights into the mechanical failure of graphene.
Abstract: While the intrinsic strength of graphene has previously been demonstrated to be high, the fracture toughness remains unknown. Here, the authors perform in situ testing of graphene in a scanning electron microscope and report a critical stress intensity factor of ~4.0 MPa√m.
TL;DR: In this paper, the toxicity of different sized and shaped ZnO nanoparticles in mouse macrophage Ana-1 was investigated and contribution of dissolved Zn(2+) and ROS in toxicity of ZnOs was analyzed.
Abstract: With large-scale production and wide application of nanoscale ZnO, its health hazard has attracted extensive worldwide attention. In this study, cytotoxicity of different sized and shaped ZnO nanoparticles in mouse macrophage Ana-1 was investigated. And contribution of dissolved Zn(2+) and ROS in toxicity of ZnO particles was analyzed. The results indicated that ZnO particles manifested dose-dependent toxic effect on Ana-1 cells without size-dependence, and the particles shape may impact cytotoxicity of ZnO particles. When the concentration of dissolved Zn(2+) tended to equilibrium in the complete cell medium, the zinc ion concentration was approximately 10 μg/ml, inducing about 50% cell death, which was close to the cytotoxicity of ZnCl(2) (IC(50)=13.33 μg Zn/ml). The Zn(2+) concentration had significant correlations with cell viability and LDH level induced by the supernatant of ZnO particle suspensions (incubation at 37°C for 24h). Thus, the dissolved Zn(2+) played the main role in toxic effect of ZnO particles. Moreover, ROS generation assays demonstrated that ZnO particles produced intrinsically a small quantity of ROS, intracellular ROS was mainly produced after ZnO particles or the dissolved Zn(2+) entered into the cells. Although intracellular ROS had significant correlations with cell viability and LDH induced by ZnO particles, intracellular ROS may not be a major factor in cytotoxicity of ZnO nanoparticles, but the cytotoxic response.
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|Huu Hao Ngo||75||624||24545|
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