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Institution

United States Department of the Army

GovernmentArlington, Virginia, United States
About: United States Department of the Army is a(n) government organization based out in Arlington, Virginia, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Poison control & Population. The organization has 32668 authors who have published 42453 publication(s) receiving 947075 citation(s). The organization is also known as: DA & U.S. Department of the Army.
Topics: Poison control, Population, Laser, Signal, Projectile
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Journal ArticleDOI
Christopher J L Murray1, Theo Vos2, Rafael Lozano1, Mohsen Naghavi1  +366 moreInstitutions (141)
TL;DR: The results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results and highlight the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account.
Abstract: Summary Background Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time. Methods We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, prevalence, and disability weights. Findings Global DALYs remained stable from 1990 (2·503 billion) to 2010 (2·490 billion). Crude DALYs per 1000 decreased by 23% (472 per 1000 to 361 per 1000). An important shift has occurred in DALY composition with the contribution of deaths and disability among children (younger than 5 years of age) declining from 41% of global DALYs in 1990 to 25% in 2010. YLLs typically account for about half of disease burden in more developed regions (high-income Asia Pacific, western Europe, high-income North America, and Australasia), rising to over 80% of DALYs in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, 47% of DALYs worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries. By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs worldwide in 2010 (up from fourth rank in 1990, increasing by 29%), followed by lower respiratory infections (top rank in 1990; 44% decline in DALYs), stroke (fifth in 1990; 19% increase), diarrhoeal diseases (second in 1990; 51% decrease), and HIV/AIDS (33rd in 1990; 351% increase). Major depressive disorder increased from 15th to 11th rank (37% increase) and road injury from 12th to 10th rank (34% increase). Substantial heterogeneity exists in rankings of leading causes of disease burden among regions. Interpretation Global disease burden has continued to shift away from communicable to non-communicable diseases and from premature death to years lived with disability. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account. Because of improved definitions, methods, and data, these results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

6,252 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Theo Vos, Abraham D. Flaxman1, Mohsen Naghavi1, Rafael Lozano1  +360 moreInstitutions (143)
TL;DR: Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated and age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010, but population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades.
Abstract: Summary Background Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs). Methods Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis. Findings Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350 000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient −0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation Rates of YLDs per 100 000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Effective and affordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

6,076 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Bob G. Witmer1, Michael J. Singer1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Combined results from four experiments lead to the following conclusions: the PQ and ITQ are internally consistent measures with high reliability; there is a weak but consistent positive relation between presence and task performance in VEs; individuals who report more simulator sickness symptoms in VE report less presence than those who report fewer symptoms.
Abstract: The effectiveness of virtual environments (VEs) has often been linked to the sense of presence reported by users of those VEs. (Presence is defined as the subjective experience of being in one place or environment, even when one is physically situated in another.) We believe that presence is a normal awareness phenomenon that requires directed attention and is based in the interaction between sensory stimulation, environmental factors that encourage involvement and enable immersion, and internal tendencies to become involved. Factors believed to underlie presence were described in the premier issue of Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. We used these factors and others as the basis for a presence questionnaire (PQ) to measure presence in VEs. In addition we developed an immersive tendencies questionnaire (ITQ) to measure differences in the tendencies of individuals to experience presence. These questionnaires are being used to evaluate relationships among reported presence and other research variables. Combined results from four experiments lead to the following conclusions: the PQ and ITQ are internally consistent measures with high reliability; there is a weak but consistent positive relation between presence and task performance in VEs; individual tendencies as measured by the ITQ predict presence as measured by the PQ; and individuals who report more simulator sickness symptoms in VE report less presence than those who report fewer symptoms.

4,207 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Fred A. Mael1, Blake E. Ashforth2Institutions (2)
Abstract: Summary Organizational identification is defined as a perceived oneness with an organization and the experience of the organization's successes and failures as one's own. While identification is considered important to the organization, it has not been clearly operationalized. The current study tests a proposed model of organizational identification. Self-report data from 297 alumni of an all-male religious college indicate that identification with the alma mater was associated with: (1) the hypothesized organizational antecedents of organizational distinctiveness, organizational prestige, and (absence of) intraorganizational competition, but not with interorganizational competition, (2) the hypothesized individual antecedents of satisfaction with the organization, tenure as students, and sentimentality, but not with recency of attendance, number of schools attended, or the existence of a mentor, and (3) the hypothesized outcomes of making financial contributions, willingness to advise one's offspring and others to attend the college, and participating in various school functions. The findings provide direction for academic administrators seeking to increase alumni support, as well as for corporate managers concerned about the loyalty of workers in an era of mergers and takeovers.

4,186 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Frank E. Grubbs1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Procedures are given for determining statistically whether the highest observation, the lowest observation, the highest and lowest observations, the two highest observations, the two lowest observations, or more of the observations in the sample are statistical outliers. Both the statistical formulae and the application of the procedures to examples are given, thus representing a rather complete treatment of tests for outliers in single samples. This paper has been prepared primarily as an expository and tutorial article on the problem of detecting outlying observations in much experimental work. We cover only tests of significance in thii paper.

3,262 citations


Authors

Showing all 32668 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
David L. Kaplan1771944146082
Russel J. Reiter1691646121010
Donald G. Truhlar1651518157965
Jie Liu131153168891
Martin A. Green127106976807
William J. Kraemer12375554774
Steven J. Jacobsen12366262716
Roger H Unger12149348035
Thomas C. Quinn12082765881
John B. Holcomb12073353760
Stephen Mann12066955008
Bette T. Korber11739249526
Thomas G. Ksiazek11339846108
John R. Anderson11253884725
Stanley I. Rapoport10769645793
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202214
2021914
2020960
2019964
2018911
20171,057