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Institution

University of Aberdeen

EducationAberdeen, United Kingdom
About: University of Aberdeen is a education organization based out in Aberdeen, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Randomized controlled trial. The organization has 21174 authors who have published 49962 publications receiving 2105479 citations. The organization is also known as: Aberdeen University.


Papers
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Book
01 May 1986
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a graphical representation of data using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for time series and other non-independent data, as well as a generalization and adaptation of principal component analysis.
Abstract: Introduction * Properties of Population Principal Components * Properties of Sample Principal Components * Interpreting Principal Components: Examples * Graphical Representation of Data Using Principal Components * Choosing a Subset of Principal Components or Variables * Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis * Principal Components in Regression Analysis * Principal Components Used with Other Multivariate Techniques * Outlier Detection, Influential Observations and Robust Estimation * Rotation and Interpretation of Principal Components * Principal Component Analysis for Time Series and Other Non-Independent Data * Principal Component Analysis for Special Types of Data * Generalizations and Adaptations of Principal Component Analysis

17,446 citations

Reference EntryDOI
15 Oct 2005
TL;DR: Principal component analysis (PCA) as discussed by the authors replaces the p original variables by a smaller number, q, of derived variables, the principal components, which are linear combinations of the original variables.
Abstract: When large multivariate datasets are analyzed, it is often desirable to reduce their dimensionality. Principal component analysis is one technique for doing this. It replaces the p original variables by a smaller number, q, of derived variables, the principal components, which are linear combinations of the original variables. Often, it is possible to retain most of the variability in the original variables with q very much smaller than p. Despite its apparent simplicity, principal component analysis has a number of subtleties, and it has many uses and extensions. A number of choices associated with the technique are briefly discussed, namely, covariance or correlation, how many components, and different normalization constraints, as well as confusion with factor analysis. Various uses and extensions are outlined. Keywords: dimension reduction; factor analysis; multivariate analysis; variance maximization

14,773 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
12 Oct 2016-BMJ
TL;DR: Risk of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions is developed, a new tool for evaluating risk of bias in estimates of the comparative effectiveness of interventions from studies that did not use randomisation to allocate units or clusters of individuals to comparison groups.
Abstract: Non-randomised studies of the effects of interventions are critical to many areas of healthcare evaluation, but their results may be biased. It is therefore important to understand and appraise their strengths and weaknesses. We developed ROBINS-I (“Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies - of Interventions”), a new tool for evaluating risk of bias in estimates of the comparative effectiveness (harm or benefit) of interventions from studies that did not use randomisation to allocate units (individuals or clusters of individuals) to comparison groups. The tool will be particularly useful to those undertaking systematic reviews that include non-randomised studies.

8,028 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Stephan Ripke1, Stephan Ripke2, Benjamin M. Neale1, Benjamin M. Neale2  +351 moreInstitutions (102)
24 Jul 2014-Nature
TL;DR: Associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses.
Abstract: Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.

6,809 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A protocol for data exploration is provided; current tools to detect outliers, heterogeneity of variance, collinearity, dependence of observations, problems with interactions, double zeros in multivariate analysis, zero inflation in generalized linear modelling, and the correct type of relationships between dependent and independent variables are discussed; and advice on how to address these problems when they arise is provided.
Abstract: Summary 1. While teaching statistics to ecologists, the lead authors of this paper have noticed common statistical problems. If a random sample of their work (including scientific papers) produced before doing these courses were selected, half would probably contain violations of the underlying assumptions of the statistical techniques employed. 2. Some violations have little impact on the results or ecological conclusions; yet others increase type I or type II errors, potentially resulting in wrong ecological conclusions. Most of these violations can be avoided by applying better data exploration. These problems are especially troublesome in applied ecology, where management and policy decisions are often at stake. 3. Here, we provide a protocol for data exploration; discuss current tools to detect outliers, heterogeneity of variance, collinearity, dependence of observations, problems with interactions, double zeros in multivariate analysis, zero inflation in generalized linear modelling, and the correct type of relationships between dependent and independent variables; and provide advice on how to address these problems when they arise. We also address misconceptions about normality, and provide advice on data transformations. 4. Data exploration avoids type I and type II errors, among other problems, thereby reducing the chance of making wrong ecological conclusions and poor recommendations. It is therefore essential for good quality management and policy based on statistical analyses.

5,894 citations


Authors

Showing all 21424 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Paul M. Thompson1832271146736
Feng Zhang1721278181865
Ian J. Deary1661795114161
Peter A. R. Ade1621387138051
David W. Johnson1602714140778
Pete Smith1562464138819
Naveed Sattar1551326116368
John R. Hodges14981282709
Ruth J. F. Loos14264792485
Alan J. Silman14170892864
Michael J. Keating140116976353
David Price138168793535
John D. Scott13562583878
Aarno Palotie12971189975
Rajat Gupta126124072881
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2023141
2022362
20212,195
20202,118
20191,846
20181,894