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University of California, San Diego

EducationSan Diego, California, United States
About: University of California, San Diego is a(n) education organization based out in San Diego, California, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Poison control. The organization has 83317 authors who have published 204524 publication(s) receiving 12315489 citation(s). The organization is also known as: UCSD & UC San Diego.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: From a theory of Hohenberg and Kohn, approximation methods for treating an inhomogeneous system of interacting electrons are developed. These methods are exact for systems of slowly varying or high density. For the ground state, they lead to self-consistent equations analogous to the Hartree and Hartree-Fock equations, respectively. In these equations the exchange and correlation portions of the chemical potential of a uniform electron gas appear as additional effective potentials. (The exchange portion of our effective potential differs from that due to Slater by a factor of $\frac{2}{3}$.) Electronic systems at finite temperatures and in magnetic fields are also treated by similar methods. An appendix deals with a further correction for systems with short-wavelength density oscillations.

42,177 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper deals with the ground state of an interacting electron gas in an external potential $v(\mathrm{r})$. It is proved that there exists a universal functional of the density, $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$, independent of $v(\mathrm{r})$, such that the expression $E\ensuremath{\equiv}\ensuremath{\int}v(\mathrm{r})n(\mathrm{r})d\mathrm{r}+F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ has as its minimum value the correct ground-state energy associated with $v(\mathrm{r})$. The functional $F[n(\mathrm{r})]$ is then discussed for two situations: (1) $n(\mathrm{r})={n}_{0}+\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}(\mathrm{r})$, $\frac{\stackrel{\ifmmode \tilde{}\else \~{}\fi{}}{n}}{{n}_{0}}\ensuremath{\ll}1$, and (2) $n(\mathrm{r})=\ensuremath{\phi}(\frac{\mathrm{r}}{{r}_{0}})$ with $\ensuremath{\phi}$ arbitrary and ${r}_{0}\ensuremath{\rightarrow}\ensuremath{\infty}$. In both cases $F$ can be expressed entirely in terms of the correlation energy and linear and higher order electronic polarizabilities of a uniform electron gas. This approach also sheds some light on generalized Thomas-Fermi methods and their limitations. Some new extensions of these methods are presented.

33,880 citations

01 Jan 1943
Abstract: 0 Introduction 1 Elementary Functions 2 Indefinite Integrals of Elementary Functions 3 Definite Integrals of Elementary Functions 4.Combinations involving trigonometric and hyperbolic functions and power 5 Indefinite Integrals of Special Functions 6 Definite Integrals of Special Functions 7.Associated Legendre Functions 8 Special Functions 9 Hypergeometric Functions 10 Vector Field Theory 11 Algebraic Inequalities 12 Integral Inequalities 13 Matrices and related results 14 Determinants 15 Norms 16 Ordinary differential equations 17 Fourier, Laplace, and Mellin Transforms 18 The z-transform

27,337 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The relationship between co-integration and error correction models, first suggested in Granger (1981), is here extended and used to develop estimation procedures, tests, and empirical examples. If each element of a vector of time series x first achieves stationarity after differencing, but a linear combination a'x is already stationary, the time series x are said to be co-integrated with co-integrating vector a. There may be several such co-integrating vectors so that a becomes a matrix. Interpreting a'x,= 0 as a long run equilibrium, co-integration implies that deviations from equilibrium are stationary, with finite variance, even though the series themselves are nonstationary and have infinite variance. The paper presents a representation theorem based on Granger (1983), which connects the moving average, autoregressive, and error correction representations for co-integrated systems. A vector autoregression in differenced variables is incompatible with these representations. Estimation of these models is discussed and a simple but asymptotically efficient two-step estimator is proposed. Testing for co-integration combines the problems of unit root tests and tests with parameters unidentified under the null. Seven statistics are formulated and analyzed. The critical values of these statistics are calculated based on a Monte Carlo simulation. Using these critical values, the power properties of the tests are examined and one test procedure is recommended for application. In a series of examples it is found that consumption and income are co-integrated, wages and prices are not, short and long interest rates are, and nominal GNP is co-integrated with M2, but not M1, M3, or aggregate liquid assets.

25,329 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A computer program that progressively evaluates the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of a protein along its amino acid sequence has been devised and its simplicity and its graphic nature make it a very useful tool for the evaluation of protein structures.
Abstract: A computer program that progressively evaluates the hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity of a protein along its amino acid sequence has been devised. For this purpose, a hydropathy scale has been composed wherein the hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties of each of the 20 amino acid side-chains is taken into consideration. The scale is based on an amalgam of experimental observations derived from the literature. The program uses a moving-segment approach that continuously determines the average hydropathy within a segment of predetermined length as it advances through the sequence. The consecutive scores are plotted from the amino to the carboxy terminus. At the same time, a midpoint line is printed that corresponds to the grand average of the hydropathy of the amino acid compositions found in most of the sequenced proteins. In the case of soluble, globular proteins there is a remarkable correspondence between the interior portions of their sequence and the regions appearing on the hydrophobic side of the midpoint line, as well as the exterior portions and the regions on the hydrophilic side. The correlation was demonstrated by comparisons between the plotted values and known structures determined by crystallography. In the case of membrane-bound proteins, the portions of their sequences that are located within the lipid bilayer are also clearly delineated by large uninterrupted areas on the hydrophobic side of the midpoint line. As such, the membrane-spanning segments of these proteins can be identified by this procedure. Although the method is not unique and embodies principles that have long been appreciated, its simplicity and its graphic nature make it a very useful tool for the evaluation of protein structures.

21,077 citations


Showing all 83317 results

Robert Langer2812324326306
Zhong Lin Wang2452529259003
Michael Karin236704226485
Eugene Braunwald2301711264576
Fred H. Gage216967185732
Robert J. Lefkowitz214860147995
Peter Libby211932182724
Peer Bork206697245427
Rob Knight2011061253207
Ronald M. Evans199708166722
Carlo M. Croce1981135189007
Lewis C. Cantley196748169037
John C. Reed190891164382
Gad Getz189520247560
Scott M. Grundy187841231821
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