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Institution

University of Cambridge

EducationCambridge, United Kingdom
About: University of Cambridge is a(n) education organization based out in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Galaxy. The organization has 118293 authors who have published 282289 publication(s) receiving 14497093 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Cambridge University & Cambridge.
Topics: Population, Galaxy, Transplantation, Redshift, Gene
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
04 Sep 2003-BMJ
TL;DR: A new quantity is developed, I 2, which the authors believe gives a better measure of the consistency between trials in a meta-analysis, which is susceptible to the number of trials included in the meta- analysis.
Abstract: Cochrane Reviews have recently started including the quantity I 2 to help readers assess the consistency of the results of studies in meta-analyses. What does this new quantity mean, and why is assessment of heterogeneity so important to clinical practice? Systematic reviews and meta-analyses can provide convincing and reliable evidence relevant to many aspects of medicine and health care.1 Their value is especially clear when the results of the studies they include show clinically important effects of similar magnitude. However, the conclusions are less clear when the included studies have differing results. In an attempt to establish whether studies are consistent, reports of meta-analyses commonly present a statistical test of heterogeneity. The test seeks to determine whether there are genuine differences underlying the results of the studies (heterogeneity), or whether the variation in findings is compatible with chance alone (homogeneity). However, the test is susceptible to the number of trials included in the meta-analysis. We have developed a new quantity, I 2, which we believe gives a better measure of the consistency between trials in a meta-analysis. Assessment of the consistency of effects across studies is an essential part of meta-analysis. Unless we know how consistent the results of studies are, we cannot determine the generalisability of the findings of the meta-analysis. Indeed, several hierarchical systems for grading evidence state that the results of studies must be consistent or homogeneous to obtain the highest grading.2–4 Tests for heterogeneity are commonly used to decide on methods for combining studies and for concluding consistency or inconsistency of findings.5 6 But what does the test achieve in practice, and how should the resulting P values be interpreted? A test for heterogeneity examines the null hypothesis that all studies are evaluating the same effect. The usual test statistic …

37,135 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article concludes a series of papers concerned with the flow of electric current through the surface membrane of a giant nerve fibre by putting them into mathematical form and showing that they will account for conduction and excitation in quantitative terms.
Abstract: This article concludes a series of papers concerned with the flow of electric current through the surface membrane of a giant nerve fibre (Hodgkinet al, 1952,J Physiol116, 424–448; Hodgkin and Huxley, 1952,J Physiol116, 449–566) Its general object is to discuss the results of the preceding papers (Section 1), to put them into mathematical form (Section 2) and to show that they will account for conduction and excitation in quantitative terms (Sections 3–6)

18,530 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1949-Plant Physiology
TL;DR: Evidence that a copper enzyme, polyphenoloxidase (otherwise known as tyrosinase or catecholase), is localized in the chloroplasts of spinach beet (chard), Beta vu?garis is presented.
Abstract: The chloroplast, as the seat of chlorophyll pigments in plants, occupies a unique position in the economy of the green cell. In recent years there has been a renewed interest in the reactions and properties of chloroplasts as a result of the work of Hill (11, 12) and Hill and Scarisbrick (13, 14) who demonstrated that the reaction characteristic of photosynthesis in green plants, the evolution of oxygen, occurs in appreciable quantities in isolated chloroplasts under the influence of light and in the presence of suitable oxidants (2, 7, 8, 26). In the course of an investigation of oxygen evolution by isolated chloroplasts it was deemed important to explore their enzymatic composition. Of special interest were considered enzymes capable of participating in oxidation-reduction reactions, and more particularly, those localized principally, if not entirely, in the chloroplasts. This paper presents evidence that a copper enzyme, polyphenoloxidase (otherwise known as tyrosinase or catecholase), is localized in the chloroplasts of spinach beet (chard), Beta vu?garis.

18,362 citations


Book
23 Sep 2019-
TL;DR: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official document that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions.
Abstract: The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions is the official document that describes in detail the process of preparing and maintaining Cochrane systematic reviews on the effects of healthcare interventions.

16,917 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Oct 2011-BMJ
TL;DR: The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias aims to make the process clearer and more accurate.
Abstract: Flaws in the design, conduct, analysis, and reporting of randomised trials can cause the effect of an intervention to be underestimated or overestimated. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias aims to make the process clearer and more accurate

16,113 citations


Authors

Showing all 118293 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Albert Hofman2672530321405
Zhong Lin Wang2452529259003
Solomon H. Snyder2321222200444
Trevor W. Robbins2311137164437
George Davey Smith2242540248373
Nicholas J. Wareham2121657204896
Cyrus Cooper2041869206782
Eric B. Rimm196988147119
Martin White1962038232387
Simon D. M. White189795231645
Michael Rutter188676151592
George Efstathiou187637156228
Mark Hallett1861170123741
David H. Weinberg183700171424
Paul G. Richardson1831533155912
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022186
202115,670
202015,347
201913,661
201812,548
201712,444

Top Attributes

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Institution's top 5 most impactful journals

Nature

4.7K papers, 693.3K citations

bioRxiv

3.6K papers, 17K citations

Social Science Research Network

3.2K papers, 75.5K citations

The Astrophysical Journal

1.9K papers, 244.2K citations