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University of Cambridge

EducationCambridge, United Kingdom
About: University of Cambridge is a(n) education organization based out in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Galaxy. The organization has 118293 authors who have published 282289 publication(s) receiving 14497093 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Cambridge University & Cambridge.
Topics: Population, Galaxy, Transplantation, Redshift, Gene
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Calculations of the mechanical power requirements of forward flight in bumblebees show that the power required to fly is independent of airspeed over a range from hovering flight to an airspeed of 4.5 ms −1.
Abstract: This paper examines the aerodynamics and power requirements of forward flight in bumblebees. Measurements weremade of the steady-state lift and drag forces acting on bumblebee wings and bodies. The aerodynamic force and pitching moment balances for bumblebees previously filmed in free flight were calculated. A detailed aerodynamic analysis was used to show that quasi-steady aerodynamic mechanisms are inadequate to explain even fast forward flight. Calculations of the mechanical power requirements of forward flight show that the power required to fly is independent of airspeed over a range from hovering flight to an airspeed of 4.5 ms −1

240 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
02 Apr 2013-RSC Advances
Abstract: Au nanoparticles with diameters ranging between 15 and 170 nm have been synthesised in aqueous solution using a seed-mediated growth method, employing hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a reducing agent. Thiolated polyethylene glycol (mPEG-SH) polymers, with molecular weights ranging from 2100 to 51 000 g mol−1, were used as efficient particle stabilising ligands. Dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements confirmed that the overall mean diameter and zeta potential of the capped nanoparticles increased in a non-linear way with increasing molecular weight of the mPEG-SH ligand. Electron microscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis of the polymer-capped nanoparticles, with a mean gold core diameter of 15 nm, revealed that the grafting density of the mPEG-SH ligands decreased from 3.93 to 0.31 PEG nm−2 as the molecular weight of the ligands increased from 2100 to 51 400 g mol−1 respectively, due to increased steric hindrance and polymer conformational entropy with increase in the PEG chain length. Additionally, the number of bound mPEG-SH ligands, with a molecular weight of 10 800 g mol−1, was found to increase in a non-linear way from 278 (σ = 42) to approximately 12 960 PEG (σ = 1227) when the mean Au core diameter increased from 15 to 115 nm respectively. However, the grafting density of mPEG10 000-SH ligands was higher on 15 nm Au nanoparticles and decreased slightly from 1.57 to 0.8 PEG nm−2 when the diameter increased; this effect can be attributed to the fact that smaller particles offer higher surface curvature, therefore allowing increased polymer loading per nm2. Au nanoparticles were also shown to interact with CT-26 cells without causing noticeable toxicity.

240 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The genetic basis of susceptibility to and cognitive heterogeneity of Parkinson's disease is investigated and it is found that the former is linked to higher levels of cognitive impairment and the latter to decreased mobility.
Abstract: Objective Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative condition that typically presents as a movement disorder but is known to be associated with variable degrees of cognitive impairment including dementia. We investigated the genetic basis of susceptibility to and cognitive heterogeneity of this disease. Methods In 659 PD patients, 109 of which were followed up for 3.5 years from diagnosis, and 2,176 control subjects, we studied candidate genes involved in protein aggregation and inclusion body formation, the pathological hallmark of parkinsonism: microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3B), and α-synuclein (SNCA). Results We observed that cognitive decline and the development of PD dementia are strongly associated (p = 10−4) with the inversion polymorphism containing MAPT. We also found a novel synergistic interaction between the MAPT inversion polymorphism and the single nucleotide polymorphism rs356219 from the 3′ region of SNCA. In our data, carrying a risk genotype at either of these loci marginally increases the risk for development of PD, whereas carrying the combination of risk genotypes at both loci approximately doubles the risk for development of the disease (p = 3 × 10−6). Interpretation Our data support the hypothesis that tau and α-synuclein are involved in shared or converging pathways in the pathogenesis of PD, and suggest that the tau inversion influences the development of cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with idiopathic PD. These findings have potentially important implications for understanding the interface between tau and α-synuclein pathways in neurodegenerative disorders and for unraveling the biological basis for cognitive impairment and dementia in PD. Ann Neurol 2007

240 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
21 Oct 2011-Science
TL;DR: It is shown that rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases)/synthases from Thermus thermophilus and Enterococcus hirae can be maintained intact with membrane and soluble subunit interactions preserved in vacuum and can link specific lipid and nucleotide binding with distinct regulatory roles.
Abstract: The ability of electrospray to propel large viruses into a mass spectrometer is established and is rationalized by analogy to the atmospheric transmission of the common cold. Much less clear is the fate of membrane-embedded molecular machines in the gas phase. Here we show that rotary adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases)/synthases from Thermus thermophilus and Enterococcus hirae can be maintained intact with membrane and soluble subunit interactions preserved in vacuum. Mass spectra reveal subunit stoichiometries and the identity of tightly bound lipids within the membrane rotors. Moreover, subcomplexes formed in solution and gas phases reveal the regulatory effects of nucleotide binding on both ATP hydrolysis and proton translocation. Consequently, we can link specific lipid and nucleotide binding with distinct regulatory roles.

240 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Androgens have important effects on the human skeleton, and deficiency has been associated with bone loss in both males and females. The skeletal actions of androgens may be mediated directly via the androgen receptor (AR) or indirectly via the estrogen receptor after aromatization to estrogens. The presence of androgen receptors has been demonstrated in bone cells and chondrocytes in vitro, but their presence in human bone in situ has not been reported. In order to provide further evidence for a direct action of androgens on bone via androgen receptors, we have used specific monoclonal antibodies to investigate the expression of human AR in normal developing and osteophytic bone of both sexes. In the growth plates from the developing bone, androgen receptors were predominantly expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes and in osteoblasts at sites of bone formation. They were also observed in osteocytes in the bone, and in mononuclear cells and endothelial cells of blood vessels within the bone marrow. In the...

240 citations


Authors

Showing all 118293 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Albert Hofman2672530321405
Zhong Lin Wang2452529259003
Solomon H. Snyder2321222200444
Trevor W. Robbins2311137164437
George Davey Smith2242540248373
Nicholas J. Wareham2121657204896
Cyrus Cooper2041869206782
Eric B. Rimm196988147119
Martin White1962038232387
Simon D. M. White189795231645
Michael Rutter188676151592
George Efstathiou187637156228
Mark Hallett1861170123741
David H. Weinberg183700171424
Paul G. Richardson1831533155912
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2022186
202115,670
202015,347
201913,661
201812,548
201712,444

Top Attributes

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Institution's top 5 most impactful journals

Nature

4.7K papers, 693.3K citations

bioRxiv

3.6K papers, 17K citations

Social Science Research Network

3.2K papers, 75.5K citations

The Astrophysical Journal

1.9K papers, 244.2K citations