About: University of Ilorin is a education organization based out in Ilorin, Nigeria. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Adsorption. The organization has 5925 authors who have published 7377 publications receiving 74316 citations. The organization is also known as: Unilorin & UNILORIN.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Prolonged courses of artemisinin-based combination therapies are currently efficacious in areas where standard 3-day treatments are failing, and the incidence of pretreatment and post-treatment gametocytemia was higher among patients with slow parasite clearance, suggesting greater potential for transmission.
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in Southeast Asia and now poses a threat to the control and elimination of malaria. Mapping the geographic extent of resistance is essential for planning containment and elimination strategies. METHODS: Between May 2011 and April 2013, we enrolled 1241 adults and children with acute, uncomplicated falciparum malaria in an open-label trial at 15 sites in 10 countries (7 in Asia and 3 in Africa). Patients received artesunate, administered orally at a daily dose of either 2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day or 4 mg per kilogram, for 3 days, followed by a standard 3-day course of artemisinin-based combination therapy. Parasite counts in peripheral-blood samples were measured every 6 hours, and the parasite clearance half-lives were determined. RESULTS: The median parasite clearance half-lives ranged from 1.9 hours in the Democratic Republic of Congo to 7.0 hours at the Thailand-Cambodia border. Slowly clearing infections (parasite clearance half-life >5 hours), strongly associated with single point mutations in the "propeller" region of the P. falciparum kelch protein gene on chromosome 13 (kelch13), were detected throughout mainland Southeast Asia from southern Vietnam to central Myanmar. The incidence of pretreatment and post-treatment gametocytemia was higher among patients with slow parasite clearance, suggesting greater potential for transmission. In western Cambodia, where artemisinin-based combination therapies are failing, the 6-day course of antimalarial therapy was associated with a cure rate of 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 90.9 to 99.4) at 42 days. CONCLUSIONS: Artemisinin resistance to P. falciparum, which is now prevalent across mainland Southeast Asia, is associated with mutations in kelch13. Prolonged courses of artemisinin-based combination therapies are currently efficacious in areas where standard 3-day treatments are failing. (Funded by the U.K. Department of International Development and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01350856.).
TL;DR: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world and the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries.
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder in which prevalence has been increasing steadily all over the world. As a result of this trend, it is fast becoming an epidemic in some countries of the world with the number of people affected expected to double in the next decade due to increase in ageing population, thereby adding to the already existing burden for healthcare providers, especially in poorly developed countries. This review is based on a search of Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and citation lists of relevant publications. Subject heading and key words used include type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevalence, current diagnosis, and current treatment. Only articles in English were included. Screening and diagnosis is still based on World Health Organization (WHO) and American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria which include both clinical and laboratory parameters. No cure has yet been found for the disease; however, treatment modalities include lifestyle modifications, treatment of obesity, oral hypoglycemic agents, and insulin sensitizers like metformin, a biguanide that reduces insulin resistance, is still the recommended first line medication especially for obese patients. Other effective medications include non-sulfonylurea secretagogues, thiazolidinediones, alpha glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin. Recent research into the pathophysiology of type 2 DM has led to the introduction of new medications like glucagon-like peptide 1 analogoues: dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 and 11s-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, insulin-releasing glucokinase activators and pancreatic-G-protein-coupled fatty-acid-receptor agonists, glucagon-receptor antagonists, metabolic inhibitors of hepatic glucose output and quick-release bromocriptine. Inhaled insulin was licensed for use in 2006 but has been withdrawn from the market because of low patronage.
TL;DR: An awareness of the various uses of the oil can be used to make a strong case for an increase in its production as a vital raw material for the chemical industries.
Abstract: Even though castor oil is inedible, it has long been an article of commerce. This is, in large measure, due to the versatility of the oil. This article discusses the extraction of castor oil and its refining methods and reviews the industrial applications of the oil. Since castor oil is not edible, it could be substituted in many industrial application areas where edible oils are used. An awareness of the various uses of the oil can be used to make a strong case for an increase in its production as a vital raw material for the chemical industries.
TL;DR: Parenteral artesunate should replace quinine as the treatment of choice for severe falciparum malaria worldwide, according to evidence from Asia, and substantially reduces mortality in African children with severe malaria.
Abstract: Summary Background Severe malaria is a major cause of childhood death and often the main reason for paediatric hospital admission in sub-Saharan Africa. Quinine is still the established treatment of choice, although evidence from Asia suggests that artesunate is associated with a lower mortality. We compared parenteral treatment with either artesunate or quinine in African children with severe malaria. Methods This open-label, randomised trial was undertaken in 11 centres in nine African countries. Children ( Findings 5425 children were enrolled; 2712 were assigned to artesunate and 2713 to quinine. All patients were analysed for the primary outcome. 230 (8·5%) patients assigned to artesunate treatment died compared with 297 (10·9%) assigned to quinine treatment (odds ratio [OR] stratified for study site 0·75, 95% CI 0·63–0·90; relative reduction 22·5%, 95% CI 8·1–36·9; p=0·0022). Incidence of neurological sequelae did not differ significantly between groups, but the development of coma (65/1832 [3·5%] with artesunate vs 91/1768 [5·1%] with quinine; OR 0·69 95% CI 0·49–0·95; p=0·0231), convulsions (224/2712 [8·3%] vs 273/2713 [10·1%]; OR 0·80, 0·66–0·97; p=0·0199), and deterioration of the coma score (166/2712 [6·1%] vs 208/2713 [7·7%]; OR 0·78, 0·64–0·97; p=0·0245) were all significantly less frequent in artesunate recipients than in quinine recipients. Post-treatment hypoglycaemia was also less frequent in patients assigned to artesunate than in those assigned to quinine (48/2712 [1·8%] vs 75/2713 [2·8%]; OR 0·63, 0·43–0·91; p=0·0134). Artesunate was well tolerated, with no serious drug-related adverse effects. Interpretation Artesunate substantially reduces mortality in African children with severe malaria. These data, together with a meta-analysis of all trials comparing artesunate and quinine, strongly suggest that parenteral artesunate should replace quinine as the treatment of choice for severe falciparum malaria worldwide. Funding The Wellcome Trust.
TL;DR: A review article which comprehensively explores and describes the validity and reliability of a research instrument (with special reference to questionnaire) and various methods of analysing these tests with scientific principles guiding such analysis are explained.
Abstract: The importance of measuring the accuracy and consistency of research instruments (especially questionnaires) known as validity and reliability, respectively, have been documented in several studies, but their measure is not commonly carried out among health and social science researchers in developing countries. This has been linked to the dearth of knowledge of these tests. This is a review article which comprehensively explores and describes the validity and reliability of a research instrument (with special reference to questionnaire). It further discusses various forms of validity and reliability tests with concise examples and finally explains various methods of analysing these tests with scientific principles guiding such analysis.
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|David H. Evans||89||430||28093|
|Deane F. Mosher||83||351||24491|
|Kenneth H. Brown||79||353||23199|
|Anthony Jide Afolayan||55||455||12603|
|Quentin D. Bickle||42||115||4997|
|Ralph M. Albrecht||35||131||4857|
|Musa Toyin Yakubu||32||121||3064|
|Esther T. Akinlabi||28||614||4203|
|Martin G. Taylor||27||83||2439|
|Folahan A. Adekola||27||179||2565|
|Joseph Olusegun Ayo||27||219||2961|
|Adenike Temidayo Oladiji||25||73||1988|
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