About: University of Kerala is a education organization based out in Thiruvananthapuram, India. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Raman spectroscopy & Adsorption. The organization has 3945 authors who have published 4737 publications receiving 69920 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This review focuses on the status of all these approaches in generating a "super curcumin," a homodimer of feruloylmethane containing a methoxy group and a hydroxyl group, a heptadiene with two Michael acceptors, and an alpha,beta-diketone.
Abstract: Curcumin, a yellow pigment present in the Indian spice turmeric (associated with curry powder), has been linked with suppression of inflammation; angiogenesis; tumorigenesis; diabetes; diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurological systems, of skin, and of liver; loss of bone and muscle; depression; chronic fatigue; and neuropathic pain. The utility of curcumin is limited by its color, lack of water solubility, and relatively low in vivo bioavailability. Because of the multiple therapeutic activities attributed to curcumin, however, there is an intense search for a "super curcumin" without these problems. Multiple approaches are being sought to overcome these limitations. These include discovery of natural curcumin analogues from turmeric; discovery of natural curcumin analogues made by Mother Nature; synthesis of "man-made" curcumin analogues; reformulation of curcumin with various oils and with inhibitors of metabolism (e.g., piperine); development of liposomal and nanoparticle formulations of curcumin; conjugation of curcumin prodrugs; and linking curcumin with polyethylene glycol. Curcumin is a homodimer of feruloylmethane containing a methoxy group and a hydroxyl group, a heptadiene with two Michael acceptors, and an alpha,beta-diketone. Structural homologues involving modification of all these groups are being considered. This review focuses on the status of all these approaches in generating a "super curcumin.".
TL;DR: Curcumin III is the most active of the curcuminoids present in turmeric, indicated by the ability of these compounds to suppress the superoxide production by macrophages activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA).
Abstract: Matural curcuminoids, curcumin, I, II and III isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa) were compared for their cytotoxic, tumour reducing and antioxidant activities. Curcumin III was found to be more active than the other two as a cytotoxic agent and in the inhibition of Ehrlich ascites tumour in mice (ILS 74.1%). These compounds were also checked for their antioxidant activity which possibly indicates their potential use as anti-promoters. The amount of curcuminoids (I, II and III) needed for 50% inhibition of lipid peroxidation was 20, 14 and 11 g/ml. Concentrations needed for 50% inhibition of superoxides were 6.25, 4.25 and 1.9 μg/ml and those for hydroxyl radical were 2.3, 1.8 and 1.8 μg/ml, respectively. The ability of these compounds to suppress the superoxide production by macrophages activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) indicated that all the three curcuminoids inhibited superoxide production and curcumin III produced maximum effect. These results indicate that curcumin III is the most active of the curcuminoids present in turmeric. Synthetic curcumin I and III had similar activity to natural curcumins.
Iran University of Medical Sciences1, Sharif University of Technology2, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry3, Shahid Beheshti University4, University of Kerala5, Kharazmi University6, Islamic Azad University7, Tehran University of Medical Sciences8, Boston University9, Harvard University10, University of Tehran11, Massachusetts Institute of Technology12
TL;DR: This review highlights the recent advances of smart MNPs categorized according to their activation stimulus (physical, chemical, or biological) and looks forward to future pharmaceutical applications.
Abstract: New achievements in the realm of nanoscience and innovative techniques of nanomedicine have moved micro/nanoparticles (MNPs) to the point of becoming actually useful for practical applications in the near future. Various differences between the extracellular and intracellular environments of cancerous and normal cells and the particular characteristics of tumors such as physicochemical properties, neovasculature, elasticity, surface electrical charge, and pH have motivated the design and fabrication of inventive “smart” MNPs for stimulus-responsive controlled drug release. These novel MNPs can be tailored to be responsive to pH variations, redox potential, enzymatic activation, thermal gradients, magnetic fields, light, and ultrasound (US), or can even be responsive to dual or multi-combinations of different stimuli. This unparalleled capability has increased their importance as site-specific controlled drug delivery systems (DDSs) and has encouraged their rapid development in recent years. An in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these DDS approaches is expected to further contribute to this groundbreaking field of nanomedicine. Smart nanocarriers in the form of MNPs that can be triggered by internal or external stimulus are summarized and discussed in the present review, including pH-sensitive peptides and polymers, redox-responsive micelles and nanogels, thermo- or magnetic-responsive nanoparticles (NPs), mechanical- or electrical-responsive MNPs, light or ultrasound-sensitive particles, and multi-responsive MNPs including dual stimuli-sensitive nanosheets of graphene. This review highlights the recent advances of smart MNPs categorized according to their activation stimulus (physical, chemical, or biological) and looks forward to future pharmaceutical applications.
TL;DR: Semiconductor quantum dots and metal nanoparticles have extensive applications, e.g., in vitro and in vivo bioimaging, and toxic effects of NPs and their clearance from the body are discussed.
Abstract: We review the syntheses, optical properties, and biological applications of cadmium selenide (CdSe) and cadmium selenide-zinc sulfide (CdSe-ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) and gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). Specifically, we selected the syntheses of QDs and Au and Ag NPs in aqueous and organic phases, size- and shape-dependent photoluminescence (PL) of QDs and plasmon of metal NPs, and their bioimaging applications. The PL properties of QDs are discussed with reference to their band gap structure and various electronic transitions, relations of PL and photoactivated PL with surface defects, and blinking of single QDs. Optical properties of Ag and Au NPs are discussed with reference to their size- and shape-dependent surface plasmon bands, electron dynamics and relaxation, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The bioimaging applications are discussed with reference to in vitro and in vivo imaging of live cells, and in vivo imaging of cancers, tumor vasculature, and lymph nodes. Other aspects of the review are in vivo deep tissue imaging, multiphoton excitation, NIR fluorescence and SERS imaging, and toxic effects of NPs and their clearance from the body.
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of diverse ions has been studied and it is found that there is very little effect on the adsorption of Cr(VI) on polymer-grafted sawdust.
Abstract: Batch sorption studies have been carried out to determine the effect of adsorbent dose, initial sorbate concentration and pH on the adsorption of Cr(VI) on polymer-grafted sawdust. The process was found to be pH, temperature and concentration dependent. An empirical relationship has been obtained to predict the percentage Cr(VI) removal at any time for known values of sorbent and initial sorbate concentration under observed test conditions. The effect of diverse ions has been studied and it is found that there is very little effect on the sorption of Cr(VI). The process was found to be exothermic with a maximum adsorption of 91.0% at 30°C for an initial concentration of 100 mg l−1 at pH 3. The process follows first-order kinetics and the data fits the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated. Desorption studies confirmed that adsorbent can be effectively regenerated using 0.2 M NaOH and 0.5 M NaCl and can then be reused.
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|Howard A. Bern||71||387||18037|
|Venugopal P. Menon||54||195||10111|
|William H. Wilson||43||183||6057|
|I. Hubert Joe||36||180||4511|
|V. P. N. Nampoori||35||330||5200|
|Roy J. Mathew||33||114||3967|
|R. B. Rakhi||33||63||5229|
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