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Institution

University of Kiel

EducationKiel, Germany
About: University of Kiel is a education organization based out in Kiel, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Transplantation. The organization has 27816 authors who have published 57114 publications receiving 2061802 citations. The organization is also known as: Christian Albrechts University & Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested.
Abstract: G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of thet, F, and χ2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses forz tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.

40,195 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the new version, procedures to analyze the power of tests based on single-sample tetrachoric correlations, comparisons of dependent correlations, bivariate linear regression, multiple linear regression based on the random predictor model, logistic regression, and Poisson regression are added.
Abstract: G*Power is a free power analysis program for a variety of statistical tests. We present extensions and improvements of the version introduced by Faul, Erdfelder, Lang, and Buchner (2007) in the domain of correlation and regression analyses. In the new version, we have added procedures to analyze the power of tests based on (1) single-sample tetrachoric correlations, (2) comparisons of dependent correlations, (3) bivariate linear regression, (4) multiple linear regression based on the random predictor model, (5) logistic regression, and (6) Poisson regression. We describe these new features and provide a brief introduction to their scope and handling.

20,778 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Heaton, AG Hogg, KA Hughen, KF Kaiser, B Kromer, SW Manning, RW Reimer, DA Richards, JR Southon, S Talamo, CSM Turney, J van der Plicht, CE Weyhenmeyer
Abstract: Additional co-authors: TJ Heaton, AG Hogg, KA Hughen, KF Kaiser, B Kromer, SW Manning, RW Reimer, DA Richards, JR Southon, S Talamo, CSM Turney, J van der Plicht, CE Weyhenmeyer

13,605 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ludmil B. Alexandrov1, Serena Nik-Zainal2, Serena Nik-Zainal3, David C. Wedge1, Samuel Aparicio4, Sam Behjati5, Sam Behjati1, Andrew V. Biankin, Graham R. Bignell1, Niccolo Bolli1, Niccolo Bolli5, Åke Borg2, Anne Lise Børresen-Dale6, Anne Lise Børresen-Dale7, Sandrine Boyault8, Birgit Burkhardt8, Adam Butler1, Carlos Caldas9, Helen Davies1, Christine Desmedt, Roland Eils5, Jorunn E. Eyfjord10, John A. Foekens11, Mel Greaves12, Fumie Hosoda13, Barbara Hutter5, Tomislav Ilicic1, Sandrine Imbeaud14, Sandrine Imbeaud15, Marcin Imielinsk15, Natalie Jäger5, David T. W. Jones16, David T. Jones1, Stian Knappskog17, Stian Knappskog11, Marcel Kool11, Sunil R. Lakhani18, Carlos López-Otín18, Sancha Martin1, Nikhil C. Munshi19, Nikhil C. Munshi20, Hiromi Nakamura13, Paul A. Northcott16, Marina Pajic21, Elli Papaemmanuil1, Angelo Paradiso22, John V. Pearson23, Xose S. Puente18, Keiran Raine1, Manasa Ramakrishna1, Andrea L. Richardson20, Andrea L. Richardson22, Julia Richter22, Philip Rosenstiel22, Matthias Schlesner5, Ton N. Schumacher24, Paul N. Span25, Jon W. Teague1, Yasushi Totoki13, Andrew Tutt24, Rafael Valdés-Mas18, Marit M. van Buuren25, Laura van ’t Veer26, Anne Vincent-Salomon27, Nicola Waddell23, Lucy R. Yates1, Icgc PedBrain24, Jessica Zucman-Rossi14, Jessica Zucman-Rossi15, P. Andrew Futreal1, Ultan McDermott1, Peter Lichter24, Matthew Meyerson20, Matthew Meyerson15, Sean M. Grimmond23, Reiner Siebert22, Elias Campo28, Tatsuhiro Shibata13, Stefan M. Pfister16, Stefan M. Pfister11, Peter J. Campbell29, Peter J. Campbell30, Peter J. Campbell3, Michael R. Stratton31, Michael R. Stratton3 
22 Aug 2013-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, ‘kataegis’, is found in many cancer types, and this results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer.
Abstract: All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.

7,904 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Pavel Kroupa1
TL;DR: In this paper, the uncertainty inherent in any observational estimate of the IMF is investigated by studying the scatter introduced by Poisson noise and the dynamical evolution of star clusters, and it is found that this apparent scatter reproduces quite well the observed scatter in power-law index determinations, thus defining the fundamental limit within which any true variation becomes undetectable.
Abstract: A universal initial mass function (IMF) is not intuitive, but so far no convincing evidence for a variable IMF exists. The detection of systematic variations of the IMF with star-forming conditions would be the Rosetta Stone for star formation. In this contribution an average or Galactic-field IMF is defined, stressing that there is evidence for a change in the power-law index at only two masses: near 0.5 M⊙ and near 0.08 M⊙. Using this supposed universal IMF, the uncertainty inherent in any observational estimate of the IMF is investigated by studying the scatter introduced by Poisson noise and the dynamical evolution of star clusters. It is found that this apparent scatter reproduces quite well the observed scatter in power-law index determinations, thus defining the fundamental limit within which any true variation becomes undetectable. The absence of evidence for a variable IMF means that any true variation of the IMF in well-studied populations must be smaller than this scatter. Determinations of the power-law indices α are subject to systematic errors arising mostly from unresolved binaries. The systematic bias is quantified here, with the result that the single-star IMFs for young star clusters are systematically steeper by Δα≈0.5 between 0.1 and 1 M⊙ than the Galactic-field IMF, which is populated by, on average, about 5-Gyr-old stars. The MFs in globular clusters appear to be, on average, systematically flatter than the Galactic-field IMF (Piotto & Zoccali; Paresce & De Marchi), and the recent detection of ancient white-dwarf candidates in the Galactic halo and the absence of associated low-mass stars (Ibata et al.; Mendez & Minniti) suggest a radically different IMF for this ancient population. Star formation in higher metallicity environments thus appears to produce relatively more low-mass stars. While still tentative, this is an interesting trend, being consistent with a systematic variation of the IMF as expected from theoretical arguments.

6,784 citations


Authors

Showing all 28103 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Stefan Schreiber1781233138528
Jun Wang1661093141621
William J. Sandborn1621317108564
Jens Nielsen1491752104005
Tak W. Mak14880794871
Annette Peters1381114101640
Severine Vermeire134108676352
Peter M. Rothwell13477967382
Dusan Bruncko132104284709
Gideon Bella129130187905
Dirk Schadendorf1271017105777
Neal L. Benowitz12679260658
Thomas Schwarz12370154560
Meletios A. Dimopoulos122137171871
Christian Weber12277653842
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
2023197
2022421
20212,760
20202,643
20192,556
20182,247