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Institution

University of Łódź

EducationŁódź, Poland
About: University of Łódź is a education organization based out in Łódź, Poland. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & European union. The organization has 6951 authors who have published 13435 publications receiving 190187 citations. The organization is also known as: University of Lodz & Lodz University.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities and finds essential oils of spices and herbs were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.
Abstract: In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural substances, and some questions concerning the safety of synthetic compounds have encouraged more detailed studies of plant resources. Essential oils, odorous and volatile products of plant secondary metabolism, have a wide application in folk medicine, food flavouring and preservation as well as in fragrance industries. The antimicrobial properties of essential oils have been known for many centuries. In recent years (1987-2001), a large number of essential oils and their constituents have been investigated for their antimicrobial properties against some bacteria and fungi in more than 500 reports. This paper reviews the classical methods commonly used for the evaluation of essential oils antibacterial and antifungal activities. The agar diffusion method (paper disc and well) and the dilution method (agar and liquid broth) as well as turbidimetric and impedimetric monitoring of microorganism growth in the presence of tested essential oils are described. Factors influencing the in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils and the mechanisms of essential oils action on microorganisms are reported. This paper gives an overview on the susceptibility of human and food-borne bacteria and fungi towards different essential oils and their constituents. Essential oils of spices and herbs (thyme, origanum, mint, cinnamon, salvia and clove) were found to possess the strongest antimicrobial properties among many tested.

1,690 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Wolfgang Ackermann1, G. Asova, Valeri Ayvazyan2, A. Azima2  +154 moreInstitutions (16)
TL;DR: In this paper, the performance of a free-electron laser operating at a wavelength of 13.7 nm where unprecedented peak and average powers for a coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation source have been measured.
Abstract: We report results on the performance of a free-electron laser operating at a wavelength of 13.7 nm where unprecedented peak and average powers for a coherent extreme-ultraviolet radiation source have been measured. In the saturation regime, the peak energy approached 170 J for individual pulses, and the average energy per pulse reached 70 J. The pulse duration was in the region of 10 fs, and peak powers of 10 GW were achieved. At a pulse repetition frequency of 700 pulses per second, the average extreme-ultraviolet power reached 20 mW. The output beam also contained a significant contribution from odd harmonics of approximately 0.6% and 0.03% for the 3rd (4.6 nm) and the 5th (2.75 nm) harmonics, respectively. At 2.75 nm the 5th harmonic of the radiation reaches deep into the water window, a wavelength range that is crucially important for the investigation of biological samples.

1,390 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
22 Feb 1990-Nature
TL;DR: The X-ray structure of the Mucor miehei triglyceride lipase is reported and the atomic model obtained reveals a Ser .. His .. Asp trypsin-like catalytic triad with an active serine buried under a short helical fragment of a long surface loop.
Abstract: True lipases attach triacylglycerols and act at an oil-water interface; they constitute a ubiquitous group of enzymes catalysing a wide variety of reactions, many with industrial potential. But so far the three-dimensional structure has not been reported for any lipase. Here we report the X-ray structure of the Mucor miehei triglyceride lipase and describe the atomic model obtained at 3.1 A resolution and refined to 1.9 A resolution. It reveals a Ser..His..Asp trypsin-like catalytic triad with an active serine buried under a short helical fragment of a long surface loop.

1,149 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jun 1991-Nature
TL;DR: It is proposed that the structure of the enzyme in this complex of R. miehei lipase with n-hexylphosphonate ethyl ester is equivalent to the activated state generated by the oil–water interface.
Abstract: LIPASES are hydrolytic enzymes which break down triacylglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerols. They have been classified as serine hydrolases owing to their inhibition by diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate1. Lipase activity is greatly increased at the lipid-water interface2,3, a phenomenon known as interfacial activation. X-ray analysis has revealed the atomic structures of two triacylglycerol lipases, unrelated in sequence: the human pancreatic lipase (hPL)4, and an enzyme isolated from the fungus Rhizomucor (formerly Mucor) miehei5 (RmL). In both enzymes the active centres contain structurally analogous Asp-His-Ser triads (characteristic of serine proteinases), which are buried completely beneath a short helical segment, or 'lid'. Here we present the crystal structure (at 3 A resolution) of a complex of R. miehei lipase with n-hexylphosphonate ethyl ester in which the enzyme's active site is exposed by the movement of the helical lid. This movement also increases the nonpolarity of the surface surrounding the catalytic site. We propose that the structure of the enzyme in this complex is equivalent to the activated state generated by the oil–water interface.

1,068 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent developments and applications of microbial cellulose synthesized in abundance by Acetobacter xylinum in the emerging field of novel wound dressings and skin substitutes are summarized.

1,045 citations


Authors

Showing all 7033 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Krzysztof Matyjaszewski1691431128585
Igor V. Moskalenko13254258182
Maciej Banach7790537538
Dorota Sobczyńska7634818339
Camille Locht7539419738
J. P. Finley7236718510
Kai Kaarniranta6732924913
K. Berger6616413775
Tadeusz Robak6664522235
Krzysztof Selmaj6431424111
Julian Sitarek6235313697
Witold K. Surewicz6216814131
Zygmunt S. Derewenda6115013169
Nobuyoshi Esaki583369694
C. Pagani5623230578
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202350
2022165
2021762
2020916
2019666
2018682