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University of Nairobi

EducationNairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
About: University of Nairobi is a education organization based out in Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The organization has 6702 authors who have published 10777 publications receiving 231294 citations. The organization is also known as: UoN & IAU-020319.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Gregory A. Roth1, Gregory A. Roth2, Degu Abate3, Kalkidan Hassen Abate4  +1025 moreInstitutions (333)
TL;DR: Non-communicable diseases comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72·5–74·1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional causes accounted for 18·6% (17·9–19·6), and injuries 8·0% (7·7–8·2).

5,211 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The largest declines in risk exposure from 2010 to 2019 were among a set of risks that are strongly linked to social and economic development, including household air pollution; unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing; and child growth failure.

3,059 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Summary Background Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level. Methods We estimated global and country-specific prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) for various neurological disorders that in the GBD classification have been previously spread across multiple disease groupings. The more inclusive grouping of neurological disorders included stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, tetanus, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, migraine, tension-type headache, medication overuse headache, brain and nervous system cancers, and a residual category of other neurological disorders. We also analysed results based on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility, to identify patterns associated with development and how countries fare against expected outcomes relative to their level of development. Findings Neurological disorders ranked as the leading cause group of DALYs in 2015 (250·7 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) 229·1 to 274·7] million, comprising 10·2% of global DALYs) and the second-leading cause group of deaths (9·4 [9·1 to 9·7] million], comprising 16·8% of global deaths). The most prevalent neurological disorders were tension-type headache (1505·9 [UI 1337·3 to 1681·6 million cases]), migraine (958·8 [872·1 to 1055·6] million), medication overuse headache (58·5 [50·8 to 67·4 million]), and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (46·0 [40·2 to 52·7 million]). Between 1990 and 2015, the number of deaths from neurological disorders increased by 36·7%, and the number of DALYs by 7·4%. These increases occurred despite decreases in age-standardised rates of death and DALYs of 26·1% and 29·7%, respectively; stroke and communicable neurological disorders were responsible for most of these decreases. Communicable neurological disorders were the largest cause of DALYs in countries with low SDI. Stroke rates were highest at middle levels of SDI and lowest at the highest SDI. Most of the changes in DALY rates of neurological disorders with development were driven by changes in YLLs. Interpretation Neurological disorders are an important cause of disability and death worldwide. Globally, the burden of neurological disorders has increased substantially over the past 25 years because of expanding population numbers and ageing, despite substantial decreases in mortality rates from stroke and communicable neurological disorders. The number of patients who will need care by clinicians with expertise in neurological conditions will continue to grow in coming decades. Policy makers and health-care providers should be aware of these trends to provide adequate services. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

2,995 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jeffrey D. Stanaway1, Ashkan Afshin1, Emmanuela Gakidou1, Stephen S Lim1  +1050 moreInstitutions (346)
TL;DR: This study estimated levels and trends in exposure, attributable deaths, and attributable disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) by age group, sex, year, and location for 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or groups of risks from 1990 to 2017 and explored the relationship between development and risk exposure.

2,910 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Oral TDF and TDF-FTC both protect against HIV-1 infection in heterosexual men and women, and both study medications significantly reduced the HIV- 1 incidence among both men andWomen.
Abstract: Background Antiretroviral preexposure prophylaxis is a promising approach for preventing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in heterosexual populations. Methods We conducted a randomized trial of oral antiretroviral therapy for use as preexposure prophylaxis among HIV-1–serodiscordant heterosexual couples from Kenya and Uganda. The HIV-1–seronegative partner in each couple was randomly assigned to one of three study regimens — once-daily tenofovir (TDF), combination tenofovir–emtricitabine (TDF–FTC), or matching placebo — and followed monthly for up to 36 months. At enrollment, the HIV-1–seropositive partners were not eligible for antiretroviral therapy, according to national guidelines. All couples received standard HIV-1 treatment and prevention services. Results We enrolled 4758 couples, of whom 4747 were followed: 1584 randomly assigned to TDF, 1579 to TDF–FTC, and 1584 to placebo. For 62% of the couples followed, the HIV-1–seronegative partner was male. Among HIV-1–seropositive par...

2,752 citations


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Helena C. Kraemer13256265755
Chris M. Wood10279543076
Christopher B. Barrett9571337968
Charles R. Newton9150473772
Francis A. Plummer8531724228
Dorothy L. Cheney8517221910
Robert M. Seyfarth8317922830
Andrew Whiten8027227535
Robert Chambers7959042035
Mark W. Tyndall7728918861
Job J. Bwayo7419016928
Joan K. Kreiss7215015024
Jeanne Altmann7116427489
Ian A. Johnston7135617928
Barbra A. Richardson7136619192
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