About: University of Osnabrück is a education organization based out in Osnabrück, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Photorefractive effect & Population. The organization has 6069 authors who have published 13481 publications receiving 342017 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A large-scale assessment suggests that experimental reproducibility in psychology leaves a lot to be desired, and correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.
Abstract: Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: In this article, the Body Mass Index (BMI) is used as a beurteilungskriterium for Ubergewicht and Adipositas bei Kindern und Jugendlichen.
Abstract: Fragestellung. Sowohl die Childhood Group der International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) als auch die European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) empfehlen den Body-mass-Index als Beurteilungskriterium fur Ubergewicht und Adipositas bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Im Erwachsenenalter erfolgt die Definition von Ubergewicht und Adipositas anhand fester Grenzwerte, bei der Beurteilung von Kindern und Jugendlichen mussen die alters- und geschlechtsspezifischen Veranderungen des BMI berucksichtigt werden. Methode. Unter Heranziehung von 17 bereits durchgefuhrten Untersuchungen aus verschiedenen Regionen Deutschlands wurden BMI-Perzentile fur Kinder und Jugendliche erstellt. Die Berechnung der Perzentile basiert auf den Korperhohen- und Korpergewichtsdaten von 17.147 Jungen und 17.275 Madchen im Alter von 0–18 Jahren. Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerung. Die vorgestellten Perzentile sollten als Referenz fur deutsche Kinder und Jugendliche angewendet werden. Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft “Adipositas im Kindes- und Jugendalter” (AGA) hat in ihren Leitlinien die Anwendung der hier vorgestellten 90. und 97. Perzentile zur Definition von Ubergewicht und Adipositas empfohlen.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors develop a conceptual framework addressing the dynamics and adaptive capacity of resource governance regimes as multi-level learning processes, where the influence of formal and informal institutions, the role of state and non-state actors, the nature of multilevel interactions and the relative importance of bureaucratic hierarchies, markets and networks are identified as major structural characteristics of governance regimes.
Abstract: Governance failures are at the origin of many resource management problems. In particular climate change and the concomitant increase of extreme weather events has exposed the inability of current governance regimes to deal with present and future challenges. Still our knowledge about resource governance regimes and how they change is quite limited. This paper develops a conceptual framework addressing the dynamics and adaptive capacity of resource governance regimes as multi-level learning processes. The influence of formal and informal institutions, the role of state and non-state actors, the nature of multi-level interactions and the relative importance of bureaucratic hierarchies, markets and networks are identified as major structural characteristics of governance regimes. Change is conceptualized as social and societal learning that proceeds in a stepwise fashion moving from single to double to triple loop learning. Informal networks are considered to play a crucial role in such learning processes. The framework supports flexible and context sensitive analysis without being case study specific. First empirical evidence from water governance supports the assumptions made on the dynamics of governance regimes and the usefulness of the chosen approach. More complex and diverse governance regimes have a higher adaptive capacity. However, it is still an open question how to overcome the state of single-loop learning that seem to characterize many attempts to adapt to climate change. Only further development and application of shared conceptual frameworks taking into account the real complexity of governance regimes can generate the knowledge base needed to advance current understanding to a state that allows giving meaningful policy advice.
TL;DR: A classification scheme is provided, i.e. a description of the resource environment, the activity characteristics, and the objective function, respectively, which is compatible with machine scheduling and which allows to classify the most important models dealt with so far, and a unifying notation is proposed.
Abstract: Project scheduling is concerned with single-item or small batch production where scarce resources have to be allocated to dependent activities over time. Applications can be found in diverse industries such as construction engineering, software development, etc. Also, project scheduling is increasingly important for make-to-order companies where the capacities have been cut down in order to meet lean management concepts. Likewise, project scheduling is very attractive for researchers, because the models in this area are rich and, hence, difficult to solve. For instance, the resource-constrained project scheduling problem contains the job shop scheduling problem as a special case. So far, no classification scheme exists which is compatible with what is commonly accepted in machine scheduling. Also, a variety of symbols are used by project scheduling researchers in order to denote one and the same subject. Hence, there is a gap between machine scheduling on the one hand and project scheduling on the other with respect to both, viz. a common notation and a classification scheme. As a matter of fact, in project scheduling, an ever growing number of papers is going to be published and it becomes more and more difficult for the scientific community to keep track of what is really new and relevant. One purpose of our paper is to close this gap. That is, we provide a classification scheme, i.e. a description of the resource environment, the activity characteristics, and the objective function, respectively, which is compatible with machine scheduling and which allows to classify the most important models dealt with so far. Also, we propose a unifying notation. The second purpose of this paper is to review some of the recent developments. More specifically, we review exact and heuristic algorithms for the single-mode and the multi-mode case, for the time–cost tradeoff problem, for problems with minimum and maximum time lags, for problems with other objectives than makespan minimization and, last but not least, for problems with stochastic activity durations.
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|Roland M. Schmid||87||637||26551|
|Vladimir P. Skulachev||78||460||27163|
|Alfried P. Vogler||72||245||18844|
|Reinhard F. Werner||70||257||20991|
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