About: Utsunomiya University is a(n) education organization based out in Utsunomiya, Japan. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Laser & Holography. The organization has 4139 authors who have published 6812 publication(s) receiving 91975 citation(s). The organization is also known as: Utsunomiya daigaku.
Topics: Laser, Holography, Polarization (waves), Plasma, Dielectric
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is proposed that strigolactones act as a new hormone class—or their biosynthetic precursors—in regulating above-ground plant architecture, and also have a function in underground communication with other neighbouring organisms.
Abstract: Shoot branching is a major determinant of plant architecture and is highly regulated by endogenous and environmental cues. Two classes of hormones, auxin and cytokinin, have long been known to have an important involvement in controlling shoot branching. Previous studies using a series of mutants with enhanced shoot branching suggested the existence of a third class of hormone(s) that is derived from carotenoids, but its chemical identity has been unknown. Here we show that levels of strigolactones, a group of terpenoid lactones, are significantly reduced in some of the branching mutants. Furthermore, application of strigolactones inhibits shoot branching in these mutants. Strigolactones were previously found in root exudates acting as communication chemicals with parasitic weeds and symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Thus, we propose that strigolactones act as a new hormone class-or their biosynthetic precursors-in regulating above-ground plant architecture, and also have a function in underground communication with other neighbouring organisms.
01 Apr 2004-Environment International
TL;DR: This review focuses on the applicability of growing bacterial/fungal/algal cells for metal removal and the efforts directed towards cell/process development to make this option technically/economically viable for the comprehensive treatment of metal-rich effluents.
Abstract: Heavy-metal pollution represents an important environmental problem due to the toxic effects of metals, and their accumulation throughout the food chain leads to serious ecological and health problems. Metal remediation through common physico-chemical techniques is expensive and unsuitable in case of voluminous effluents containing complexing organic matter and low metal contamination. Biotechnological approaches that are designed to cover such niches have, therefore, received great deal of attention in the recent years. Biosorption studies involving low-cost and often dead/pretreated biomass have dominated the literature and, subsequently, extensive reviews focusing on equilibrium and kinetics of metal biosorption have also come up. However, the low binding capacity of biomass for certain recalcitrant metals such as Ni and failure to effectively remove metals from real industrial effluents due to presence of organic or inorganic ligands limit this approach. At times, when pure biosorptive metal removal is not feasible, application of a judicious consortium of growing metal-resistant cells can ensure better removal through a combination of bioprecipitation, biosorption and continuous metabolic uptake of metals after physical adsorption. Such approach may lead to simultaneous removal of toxic metals, organic loads and other inorganic impurities, as well as allow optimization through development of resistant species. However, sensitivity of living cells to extremes of pH or high metal concentration and need to furnish metabolic energy are some of the major constraints of employing growing cells for bioremediation. The efforts to meet such challenges via isolation of metal-resistant bacterial/fungal strains and exploitation of organic wastes as carbon substrates have began. Recent studies show that the strains (bacteria, yeast and fungi) isolated from contaminated sites possess excellent capability of metal scavenging. Some bacterial strains possess high tolerance to various metals and may be potential candidates for their simultaneous removal from wastes. Evidently, the stage has already been set for the application of metal-resistant growing microbial cells for metal harvesting. This review focuses on the applicability of growing bacterial/fungal/algal cells for metal removal and the efforts directed towards cell/process development to make this option technically/economically viable for the comprehensive treatment of metal-rich effluents.
TL;DR: An inducible system to visualize gene expression at the levels of DNA, RNA and protein in living cells is developed, able to correlate changes in chromatin structure with the progression of transcriptional activation allowing for a real-time integrative view of gene expression.
Abstract: We have developed an inducible system to visualize gene expression at the levels of DNA, RNA and protein in living cells. The system is composed of a 200 copy transgene array integrated into a euchromatic region of chromosome 1 in human U2OS cells. The condensed array is heterochromatic as it is associated with HP1, histone H3 methylated at lysine 9, and several histone methyltransferases. Upon transcriptional induction, HP1α is depleted from the locus and the histone variant H3.3 is deposited suggesting that histone exchange is a mechanism through which heterochromatin is transformed into a transcriptionally active state. RNA levels at the transcription site increase immediately after the induction of transcription and the rate of synthesis slows over time. Using this system, we are able to correlate changes in chromatin structure with the progression of transcriptional activation allowing us to obtain a real-time integrative view of gene expression.
12 Aug 2016-Light-Science & Applications
TL;DR: Mature opto-electrical/mechanical technologies have enabled laser processing speeds approaching meters-per-second, leading to a fast lab-to-fab transfer and emerging biomedical applications implementing micrometer feature precision over centimeter-scale scaffolds and photonic wire bonding in telecommunications are highlighted.
Abstract: Processing of materials by ultrashort laser pulses has evolved significantly over the last decade and is starting to reveal its scientific, technological and industrial potential. In ultrafast laser manufacturing, optical energy of tightly focused femtosecond or picosecond laser pulses can be delivered to precisely defined positions in the bulk of materials via two-/multi-photon excitation on a timescale much faster than thermal energy exchange between photoexcited electrons and lattice ions. Control of photo-ionization and thermal processes with the highest precision, inducing local photomodification in sub-100-nm-sized regions has been achieved. State-of-the-art ultrashort laser processing techniques exploit high 0.1–1 μm spatial resolution and almost unrestricted three-dimensional structuring capability. Adjustable pulse duration, spatiotemporal chirp, phase front tilt and polarization allow control of photomodification via uniquely wide parameter space. Mature opto-electrical/mechanical technologies have enabled laser processing speeds approaching meters-per-second, leading to a fast lab-to-fab transfer. The key aspects and latest achievements are reviewed with an emphasis on the fundamental relation between spatial resolution and total fabrication throughput. Emerging biomedical applications implementing micrometer feature precision over centimeter-scale scaffolds and photonic wire bonding in telecommunications are highlighted.
TL;DR: Strigolactones were originally isolated from plant root exudates as germination stimulants for root parasitic plants of the family Orobanchaceae, but it has been recently shown that SLs or their metabolites are a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching.
Abstract: Strigolactones (SLs) were originally isolated from plant root exudates as germination stimulants for root parasitic plants of the family Orobanchaceae, including witchweeds (Striga spp.), broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.), and Alectra spp., and so were regarded as detrimental to the producing plants. Their role as indispensable chemical signals for root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was subsequently unveiled, and SLs then became recognized as beneficial plant metabolites. In addition to these functions in the rhizosphere, it has been recently shown that SLs or their metabolites are a novel class of plant hormones that inhibit shoot branching. Furthermore, SLs are suggested to have other biological functions in rhizosphere communications and in plant growth and development.
Showing all 4139 results
|Donald A. Tryk||67||240||25469|
|James B. Reid||60||246||11773|
|Richard L. Smith||59||302||11420|
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