About: Virtual University of Pakistan is a education organization based out in Lahore, Pakistan. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Gene. The organization has 334 authors who have published 430 publications receiving 2644 citations. The organization is also known as: VU.
••18 Jul 2010
TL;DR: Performance evaluation has shown that MR-LEACH achieves significant improvement in the LEACH protocol and provides energy efficient routing for WSN.
Abstract: In this paper, we present a Multi-hop Routing with Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (MR-LEACH) protocol. In order to prolong the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), MR-LEACH partitions the network into different layers of clusters. Cluster heads in each layer collaborates with the adjacent layers to transmit sensor’s data to the base station. Ordinary sensor nodes join cluster heads based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI). The transmission of nodes is controlled by a Base Station (BS) that defines the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) schedule for each cluster-head. BS selects the upper layers cluster heads to act as super cluster heads for lower layer cluster heads. Thus, MR-LEACH follows multi-hop routing from cluster-heads to a base station to conserve energy, unlike the LEACH protocol. Performance evaluation has shown that MR-LEACH achieves significant improvement in the LEACH protocol and provides energy efficient routing for WSN.
TL;DR: In this article, the role of fiscal decentralization and natural resources rent in affecting CO2 emissions was introduced by using panel data from seven highly fiscal decentralized Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries.
Abstract: This study provides new insight by introducing the role of fiscal decentralization and natural resources rent in affecting CO2 emissions. For assessing this objective, this paper use panel data from seven highly fiscal decentralized Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries from 1990 to 2018. For empirical analysis, we use the Westerlund test and cross-sectional autoregressive distributive lag model. In order to ascertain the integration order of variables, the study utilizes the Pesaran second-generation unit-root test. The findings reveal that all the variables are stationary at first difference. The long-run results confirm that fiscal decentralization and natural resources rent improve the atmosphere by reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, gross domestic product and total natural resources rent increase, while improvement in institutional quality reduces CO2 emissions. For policy implication, this study recommends that transferring the power to the local governments will further reduce CO2 emissions and shift these countries to more environmentally friendly sources.
TL;DR: In this article, the nexus of GHG emission with tourism, financial development index, energy use, renewable energy, and trade in 34 high-income countries from three continents (Asia, Europe, and America) from 1995 to 2017 was explained.
Abstract: This study explained the nexus of GHG emission with tourism, financial development index, energy use, renewable energy, and trade in 34 high-income countries from three continents (Asia, Europe, and America) from 1995 to 2017. The Dumitrescu and Hurlin non-causality test established the feedback hypothesis for GHG and financial development (Europe); renewable energy and GHG (Europe); financial development and renewable energy (Europe); financial development and energy (Europe); tourism and energy (America); and trade and tourism (America). The uni-directional causality was observed from financial development to GHG (Asia, America); trade openness to GHG (Asia, Europe, America); tourism to GHG (Asia, Europe, America); trade to financial development (Europe); tourism to renewable energy (Europe); financial development to trade (America); financial development to tourism (America); trade to renewable energy (America); and tourism to renewable energy (America). The Parks' Feasible Generalized Least Square explored the reciprocal connection of GHG emission with financial development (Asia, Europe, America); renewable energy (Asia, Europe, America); trade in (Asia, Europe, America); and tourism (Europe). The Augmented Mean Group estimator showed a decrease in GHG due to financial development (Asia, America); renewable energy (Europe, America); and trade openness (Europe). A country-level reciprocal connection of GHG was detected with financial development in 11 countries, renewable energy in 22 countries, trade openness in 5 countries, and tourism in 12 countries. It is recommended to link the financial development with renewable energy and eco-friendly technologies by increasing the renewable energy in Asia and the financial development in America. It is also recommended to fix the mandatory target of renewable energy by establishment of renewable energy agency. Government should ensure efficient use of energy resources and should provide financial support to the eco-friendly projects at low interest rates. Government should promote environment-friendly tourism by using eco-friendly transportation in Asia and America. Government should increase the area under forest cover and promote eco-friendly products by using print, electronic, and social media. The importance of clean environment should be highlighted in the educational syllabus.
TL;DR: The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application and reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.
Abstract: This article reports the green fabrication of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) using Olea europaea leaf extract and their applications as effective antimicrobial agents. O. europaea leaf extract functions as a chelating agent for reduction of cerium nitrate. The resulting CeO2 NPs exhibit pure single-face cubic structure, which is examined by X-ray diffraction, with a uniform spherical shape and a mean size 24 nm observed through scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy confirms the characteristic absorption peak of CeO2 NPs at 315 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflects stretching frequencies at 459 cm-1, showing utilization of natural components for the production of NPs. Thermal gravimetric analysis predicts the successful capping of CeO2 NPs by bioactive molecules present in the plant extract. The antimicrobial studies show significant zone of inhibition against bacterial and fungal strains. The higher activities shown by the green synthesized NPs than the plant extract lead to the conclusion that they can be effectively used in biomedical application. Furthermore, reduction of cerium salt by plant extract will reduce environmental impact over chemical synthesis.
TL;DR: The findings revealed that asynchronous e-language learning was quite beneficial for second language (L2) learners, but with some limitations which could be scaffolded by synchronous sessions.
Abstract: This case study evaluated the impact of synchronous and asynchronous E-Language Learning activities (ELL-tivities) in an E-Language Learning Environment (ELLE) at Virtual University of Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to assess e-language learning analytics based on the constructivist approach of collaborative construction of knowledge. The courses selected for random sampling were English Comprehension (Eng101), Business & Technical English (Eng201) and Business Communication (Eng301). Three methods were employed to collect the data: observation of the communication and performance on given channels, students’ opinions on Graded Discussion Board (GDB), and a survey questionnaire. Out of a total population of 9919, 1025 responses were received for the survey questionnaire. The findings revealed that asynchronous e-language learning was quite beneficial for second language (L2) learners, but with some limitations which could be scaffolded by synchronous sessions. Based on the findings, the researcher suggested a blend of both synchronous and asynchronous paradigms to create an ideal environment for e-language learning in Pakistan.
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|Usman Ali Ashfaq||27||143||2202|
|Masroor Ellahi Babar||19||175||1825|
|Muhammad Omer Farooq||13||49||775|
|Muhammad Mohsin Javed||11||42||445|
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