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Institution

Washington State University

EducationPullman, Washington, United States
About: Washington State University is a(n) education organization based out in Pullman, Washington, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topic(s): Population & Gene. The organization has 26947 authors who have published 57736 publication(s) receiving 2341509 citation(s). The organization is also known as: WSU & Wazzu.


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Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

01 Dec 2001-Methods
TL;DR: The 2-Delta Delta C(T) method as mentioned in this paper was proposed to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments, and it has been shown to be useful in the analysis of realtime, quantitative PCR data.
Abstract: The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data.

116,500 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016.
Abstract: Summary Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016. Methods We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER). Findings Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8–75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0–8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0–62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0–7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3–50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8–5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0–49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5–5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5–46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2–5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3–3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0–11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862–11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018–19 228). Interpretation The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.

8,768 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

B. P. Abbott1, Richard J. Abbott1, T. D. Abbott2, Matthew Abernathy1  +1008 moreInstitutions (96)
TL;DR: This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger, and these observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems.
Abstract: On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of $1.0 \times 10^{-21}$. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 {\sigma}. The source lies at a luminosity distance of $410^{+160}_{-180}$ Mpc corresponding to a redshift $z = 0.09^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$. In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are $36^{+5}_{-4} M_\odot$ and $29^{+4}_{-4} M_\odot$, and the final black hole mass is $62^{+4}_{-4} M_\odot$, with $3.0^{+0.5}_{-0.5} M_\odot c^2$ radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals.These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.

8,011 citations

[...]

01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an overview of the design of web, mail, and mixed-mode surveys, and present a survey implementation approach for web-based and mail-based surveys.
Abstract: Preface to the 2007 Update.Preface to the Second Edition.Acknowledgments.Part One: ELEMENTS OF THE TAILORED DESIGN METHOD.1 Introduction to Tailored Design.2 Writing Questions.3 Constructing the Questionnaire.4 Survey Implementation.5 Reduction of Coverage and Sampling Errors.Part Two: TAILORING TO THE SURVEY SITUATION.6 Mixed-Mode Surveys.7 Alternative Questionnaire Delivery: In Person, to Groups, and through Publications.8 When Timing Is Critical: Diary, Customer Satisfaction, and Election Forecast Surveys.9 Household and Individual Person Surveys by Government.10 Surveys of Businesses and Other Organizations.11 Internet and Interactive Voice Response Surveys.12 Optical Scanning and Imaging, and the Future of Self-Administered Surveys.References.2007 Appendix: Recent Developments in the Design of Web, Mail, and Mixed-Mode Surveys.Appendix References.Index.

7,853 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: The decimal code scale for indicating the growth stages of cereals as developed by the authors and published by Eucarpia is explained and described.
Abstract: The decimal code scale for indicating the growth stages of cereals as developed by the authors and published by Eucarpia is explained and described

7,715 citations


Authors

Showing all 26947 results

NameH-indexPapersCitations
Anil K. Jain1831016192151
Martin Karplus163831138492
Herbert A. Simon157745194597
Suvadeep Bose154960129071
Rajesh Kumar1494439140830
Kevin Murphy146728120475
Jonathan D. G. Jones12941780908
Douglas E. Soltis12761267161
Peter W. Kalivas12342852445
Chris Somerville12228445742
Pamela S. Soltis12054361080
Yuehe Lin11864155399
Howard I. Maibach116182160765
Jizhong Zhou11576648708
Farshid Guilak11048041327
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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Institution in previous years
YearPapers
202265
20212,785
20202,783
20192,691
20182,370
20172,509