Education•West Chester, Pennsylvania, United States•
About: West Chester University of Pennsylvania is a education organization based out in West Chester, Pennsylvania, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Poison control. The organization has 1579 authors who have published 3368 publications receiving 84979 citations.
Topics: Population, Poison control, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, Higher education, Cosmic microwave background
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was shown to be more effective in reducing suicidal behavior and borderline personality disorder compared with non-behavioral psychotherapy experts.
Abstract: Context Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a treatment for suicidal behavior and borderline personality disorder with well-documented efficacy. Objective To evaluate the hypothesis that unique aspects of DBT are more efficacious compared with treatment offered by non–behavioral psychotherapy experts. Design One-year randomized controlled trial, plus 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. Setting University outpatient clinic and community practice. Participants One hundred one clinically referred women with recent suicidal and self-injurious behaviors meeting DSM-IV criteria, matched to condition on age, suicide attempt history, negative prognostic indication, and number of lifetime intentional self-injuries and psychiatric hospitalizations. Intervention One year of DBT or 1 year of community treatment by experts (developed to maximize internal validity by controlling for therapist sex, availability, expertise, allegiance, training and experience, consultation availability, and institutional prestige). Main Outcome Measures Trimester assessments of suicidal behaviors, emergency services use, and general psychological functioning. Measures were selected based on previous outcome studies of DBT. Outcome variables were evaluated by blinded assessors. Results Dialectical behavior therapy was associated with better outcomes in the intent-to-treat analysis than community treatment by experts in most target areas during the 2-year treatment and follow-up period. Subjects receiving DBT were half as likely to make a suicide attempt (hazard ratio, 2.66; P = .005), required less hospitalization for suicide ideation (F 1,92 =7.3; P = .004), and had lower medical risk (F 1,50 =3.2; P = .04) across all suicide attempts and self-injurious acts combined. Subjects receiving DBT were less likely to drop out of treatment (hazard ratio, 3.2; P 1,92 =6.0; P = .007) and psychiatric emergency department visits (F 1,92 =2.9; P = .04). Conclusions Our findings replicate those of previous studies of DBT and suggest that the effectiveness of DBT cannot reasonably be attributed to general factors associated with expert psychotherapy. Dialectical behavior therapy appears to be uniquely effective in reducing suicide attempts.
TL;DR: Among more severely depressed patients, behavioral activation was comparable to antidepressant medication, and both significantly outperformed cognitive therapy, and the implications of current treatment guidelines and dissemination are discussed.
Abstract: Antidepressant medication is considered the current standard for severe depression, and cognitive therapy is the most widely investigated psychosocial treatment for depression. However, not all patients want to take medication, and cognitive therapy has not demonstrated consistent efficacy across trials. Moreover, dismantling designs have suggested that behavioral components may account for the efficacy of cognitive therapy. The present study tested the efficacy of behavioral activation by comparing it with cognitive therapy and antidepressant medication in a randomized placebo-controlled design in adults with major depressive disorder (N = 241). In addition, it examined the importance of initial severity as a moderator of treatment outcome. Among more severely depressed patients, behavioral activation was comparable to antidepressant medication, and both significantly outperformed cognitive therapy. The implications of these findings for the evaluation of current treatment guidelines and dissemination are discussed.
TL;DR: Cognitive therapy can be as effective as medications for the initial treatment of moderate to severe major depression, but this degree of effectiveness may depend on a high level of therapist experience or expertise.
Abstract: Background There is substantial evidence that antidepressant medications treat moderate to severe depression effectively, but there is less data on cognitive therapy’s effects in this population. Objective To compare the efficacy in moderate to severe depression of antidepressant medications with cognitive therapy in a placebo-controlled trial. Design Random assignment to one of the following: 16 weeks of medications (n = 120), 16 weeks of cognitive therapy (n = 60), or 8 weeks of pill placebo (n = 60). Setting Research clinics at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, and Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn. Patients Two hundred forty outpatients, aged 18 to 70 years, with moderate to severe major depressive disorder. Interventions Some study subjects received paroxetine, up to 50 mg daily, augmented by lithium carbonate or desipramine hydrochloride if necessary; others received individual cognitive therapy. Main Outcome Measure The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale provided continuous severity scores and allowed for designations of response and remission. Results At 8 weeks, response rates in medications (50%) and cognitive therapy (43%) groups were both superior to the placebo (25%) group. Analyses based on continuous scores at 8 weeks indicated an advantage for each of the active treatments over placebo, each with a medium effect size. The advantage was significant for medication relative to placebo, and at the level of a nonsignificant trend for cognitive therapy relative to placebo. At 16 weeks, response rates were 58% in each of the active conditions; remission rates were 46% for medication, 40% for cognitive therapy. Follow-up tests of a site × treatment interaction indicated a significant difference only at Vanderbilt University, where medications were superior to cognitive therapy. Site differences in patient characteristics and in the relative experience levels of the cognitive therapists each appear to have contributed to this interaction. Conclusion Cognitive therapy can be as effective as medications for the initial treatment of moderate to severe major depression, but this degree of effectiveness may depend on a high level of therapist experience or expertise.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reexamine Asian stock market contagion by applying a dynamic multivariate GARCH model to daily stock-return data in nine Asian countries and the United States during the period from 1996 to 2003.
Abstract: This paper reexamines Asian stock market contagion by applying a dynamic multivariate GARCH model to daily stock-return data in nine Asian countries and the United States during the period from 1996 to 2003. The empirical results find supportive evidence of a contagion effect. By analyzing the correlation-coefficient series, this paper identifies two phases of the Asian crisis. The first phase shows an increase in correlation (contagion) and the second phase shows continued high correlation (herding). Statistical analysis of the correlation coefficients shows shifts in the level as well as in the variance of the correlation coefficients during the crisis period, casting some doubt on the benefit of international portfolio diversification. This study finds that international rating agents play significant role in shaping the structure of dynamic correlations in the Asian markets.
TL;DR: The purposes of this report were to illustrate how to implement the flipped classroom and to describe students' perceptions of this approach within 2 undergraduate nutrition courses.
Abstract: The flipped classroom is an innovative pedagogical approach that focuses on learner-centered instruction. The purposes of this report were to illustrate how to implement the flipped classroom and to describe students' perceptions of this approach within 2 undergraduate nutrition courses. The template provided enables faculty to design before, during, and after class activities and assessments based on objectives using all levels of Bloom's taxonomy. The majority of the 142 students completing the evaluation preferred the flipped method compared with traditional pedagogical strategies. The process described in the report was successful for both faculty and students.
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|Edward J. Wollack||104||732||102070|
|David B. Wake||71||280||20446|
|Patricia M. Davidson||68||781||26046|
|Paul E. Stang||55||130||13418|
|Frank E. Fish||47||154||7501|
|Giorgio A. Tasca||41||150||4569|
|Thomas W. Kaminski||40||162||6555|
|Charles H. Fletcher||38||110||3876|
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