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JournalISSN: 1539-9087

ACM Transactions in Embedded Computing Systems 

About: ACM Transactions in Embedded Computing Systems is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Scheduling (computing) & Cache. It has an ISSN identifier of 1539-9087. Over the lifetime, 1406 publication(s) have been published receiving 30784 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Different approaches to the determination of upper bounds on execution times are described and several commercially available tools1 and research prototypes are surveyed.
Abstract: The determination of upper bounds on execution times, commonly called worst-case execution times (WCETs), is a necessary step in the development and validation process for hard real-time systems. This problem is hard if the underlying processor architecture has components, such as caches, pipelines, branch prediction, and other speculative components. This article describes different approaches to this problem and surveys several commercially available tools1 and research prototypes.

1,832 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Power management is an important concern in sensor networks, because a tethered energy infrastructure is usually not available and an obvious concern is to use the available battery energy efficiently. However, in some of the sensor networking applications, an additional facility is available to ameliorate the energy problem: harvesting energy from the environment. Certain considerations in using an energy harvesting source are fundamentally different from that in using a battery, because, rather than a limit on the maximum energy, it has a limit on the maximum rate at which the energy can be used. Further, the harvested energy availability typically varies with time in a nondeterministic manner. While a deterministic metric, such as residual battery, suffices to characterize the energy availability in the case of batteries, a more sophisticated characterization may be required for a harvesting source. Another issue that becomes important in networked systems with multiple harvesting nodes is that different nodes may have different harvesting opportunity. In a distributed application, the same end-user performance may be achieved using different workload allocations, and resultant energy consumptions at multiple nodes. In this case, it is important to align the workload allocation with the energy availability at the harvesting nodes. We consider the above issues in power management for energy-harvesting sensor networks. We develop abstractions to characterize the complex time varying nature of such sources with analytically tractable models and use them to address key design issues. We also develop distributed methods to efficiently use harvested energy and test these both in simulation and experimentally on an energy-harvesting sensor network, prototyped for this work.

1,435 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Sang-Won Lee1, Dong-Joo Park2, Tae-Sun Chung3, Dong-Ho Lee4  +2 moreInstitutions (5)
TL;DR: There is much room for performance improvement in the log buffer block scheme, and an enhanced log block buffer scheme, called FAST (full associative sector translation), is proposed, which improves the space utilization of log blocks using fully-associative sector translations for the log block sectors.
Abstract: Flash memory is being rapidly deployed as data storage for mobile devices such as PDAs, MP3 players, mobile phones, and digital cameras, mainly because of its low electronic power, nonvolatile storage, high performance, physical stability, and portability. One disadvantage of flash memory is that prewritten data cannot be dynamically overwritten. Before overwriting prewritten data, a time-consuming erase operation on the used blocks must precede, which significantly degrades the overall write performance of flash memory. In order to solve this “erase-before-write” problem, the flash memory controller can be integrated with a software module, called “flash translation layer (FTL).” Among many FTL schemes available, the log block buffer scheme is considered to be optimum. With this scheme, a small number of log blocks, a kind of write buffer, can improve the performance of write operations by reducing the number of erase operations. However, this scheme can suffer from low space utilization of log blocks. In this paper, we show that there is much room for performance improvement in the log buffer block scheme, and propose an enhanced log block buffer scheme, called FAST (full associative sector translation). Our FAST scheme improves the space utilization of log blocks using fully-associative sector translations for the log block sectors. We also show empirically that our FAST scheme outperforms the pure log block buffer scheme.

666 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Yi Zou1, Krishnendu Chakrabarty1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: A virtual force algorithm (VFA) is proposed as a sensor deployment strategy to enhance the coverage after an initial random placement of sensors to improve the coverage of cluster-based distributed sensor networks.
Abstract: The effectiveness of cluster-based distributed sensor networks depends to a large extent on the coverage provided by the sensor deployment. We propose a virtual force algorithm (VFA) as a sensor deployment strategy to enhance the coverage after an initial random placement of sensors. For a given number of sensors, the VFA algorithm attempts to maximize the sensor field coverage. A judicious combination of attractive and repulsive forces is used to determine the new sensor locations that improve the coverage. Once the effective sensor positions are identified, a one-time movement with energy consideration incorporated is carried out, that is, the sensors are redeployed, to these positions. We also propose a novel probabilistic target localization algorithm that is executed by the cluster head. The localization results are used by the cluster head to query only a few sensors (out of those that report the presence of a target) for more detailed information. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

496 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An introduction to the challenges involved in secure embedded system design is provided, recent advances in addressing them are discussed, and opportunities for future research are identified.
Abstract: Many modern electronic systems---including personal computers, PDAs, cell phones, network routers, smart cards, and networked sensors to name a few---need to access, store, manipulate, or communicate sensitive information, making security a serious concern in their design. Embedded systems, which account for a wide range of products from the electronics, semiconductor, telecommunications, and networking industries, face some of the most demanding security concerns---on the one hand, they are often highly resource constrained, while on the other hand, they frequently need to operate in physically insecure environments.Security has been the subject of intensive research in the context of general-purpose computing and communications systems. However, security is often misconstrued by embedded system designers as the addition of features, such as specific cryptographic algorithms and security protocols, to the system. In reality, it is a new dimension that designers should consider throughout the design process, along with other metrics such as cost, performance, and power.The challenges unique to embedded systems require new approaches to security covering all aspects of embedded system design from architecture to implementation. Security processing, which refers to the computations that must be performed in a system for the purpose of security, can easily overwhelm the computational capabilities of processors in both low- and high-end embedded systems. This challenge, which we refer to as the "security processing gap," is compounded by increases in the amounts of data manipulated and the data rates that need to be achieved. Equally daunting is the "battery gap" in battery-powered embedded systems, which is caused by the disparity between rapidly increasing energy requirements for secure operation and slow improvements in battery technology. The final challenge is the "assurance gap," which relates to the gap between functional security measures (e.g., security services, protocols, and their constituent cryptographic algorithms) and actual secure implementations. This paper provides an introduction to the challenges involved in secure embedded system design, discusses recent advances in addressing them, and identifies opportunities for future research.

460 citations

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