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JournalISSN: 1359-6454

Acta Materialia 

About: Acta Materialia is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Grain boundary & Dislocation. It has an ISSN identifier of 1359-6454. Over the lifetime, 16295 publication(s) have been published receiving 946965 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Akihisa Inoue1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Bulk metallic materials have ordinarily been produced by melting and solidification processes for the last several thousand years. However, metallic liquid is unstable at temperatures below the melting temperature and solidifies immediately into crystalline phases. Consequently, all bulk engineering alloys are composed of a crystalline structure. Recently, this common concept was exploded by the findings of the stabilization phenomenon of the supercooled liquid for a number of alloys in the Mg-, lanthanide-, Zr-, Ti-, Fe-, Co-, Pd-Cu- and Ni-based systems. The alloys with the stabilized supercooled liquid state have three features in their alloy components, i.e. multicomponent systems, significant atomic size ratios above 12%, and negative heats of mixing. The stabilization mechanism has also been investigated from experimental data of structure analyses and fundamental physical properties. The stabilization has enabled the pro- duction of bulk amorphous alloys in the thickness range of 1-100 mm by using various casting processes. Bulk amorphous Zr-based alloys exhibit high mechanical strength, high fracture toughness and good cor- rosion resistance and have been used for sporting goods materials. The stabilization also leads to the appearance of a large supercooled liquid region before crystallization and enables high-strain rate super- plasticity through Newtonian flow. The new Fe- and Co-based amorphous alloys exhibit a large super- cooled liquid region and good soft magnetic properties which are characterized by low coercive force and high permeability. Furthermore, homogeneous dispersion of nanoscale particles into Zr-based bulk amor- phous alloys was found to cause an improvement of tensile strength without detriment to good ductility. The discovery of the stabilization phenomenon, followed by the clarification of the stabilization criteria of the supercooled liquid, will promise the future definite development of bulk amorphous alloys as new basic science and engineering materials. # 2000 Acta Metallurgica Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

4,806 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: High entropy alloys (HEAs) are barely 12 years old. The field has stimulated new ideas and has inspired the exploration of the vast composition space offered by multi-principal element alloys (MPEAs). Here we present a critical review of this field, with the intent of summarizing key findings, uncovering major trends and providing guidance for future efforts. Major themes in this assessment include definition of terms; thermodynamic analysis of complex, concentrated alloys (CCAs); taxonomy of current alloy families; microstructures; mechanical properties; potential applications; and future efforts. Based on detailed analyses, the following major results emerge. Although classical thermodynamic concepts are unchanged, trends in MPEAs can be different than in simpler alloys. Common thermodynamic perceptions can be misleading and new trends are described. From a strong focus on 3d transition metal alloys, there are now seven distinct CCA families. A new theme of designing alloy families by selecting elements to achieve a specific, intended purpose is starting to emerge. A comprehensive microstructural assessment is performed using three datasets: experimental data drawn from 408 different alloys and two computational datasets generated using the CALculated PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) method. Each dataset emphasizes different elements and shows different microstructural trends. Trends in these three datasets are all predicted by a ‘structure in – structure out’ (SISO) analysis developed here that uses the weighted fractions of the constituent element crystal structures in each dataset. A total of 13 distinct multi-principal element single-phase fields are found in this microstructural assessment. Relationships between composition, microstructure and properties are established for 3d transition metal MPEAs, including the roles of Al, Cr and Cu. Critical evaluation shows that commercial austenitic stainless steels and nickel alloys with 3 or more principal elements are MPEAs, as well as some established functional materials. Mechanical properties of 3d transition metal CCAs are equivalent to commercial austenitic stainless steels and nickel alloys, while some refractory metal CCAs show potential to extend the service strength and/or temperature of nickel superalloys. Detailed analyses of microstructures and properties allow two major HEA hypotheses to be resolved. Although the ‘entropy effect’ is not supported by the present data, it has nevertheless made an enduring contribution by inspiring a clearer understanding of the importance of configurational entropy on phase stability. The ‘sluggish diffusion’ hypothesis is also not supported by available data, but it motivates re-evaluation of a classical concept of metallic diffusion. Building on recent published work, the CCA field has expanded to include materials with metallic, ionic or covalent bonding. It also includes microstructures with any number of phases and any type of phases. Finally, the MPEA field is shown to include both structural and functional materials applications. A significant number of future efforts are recommended, with an emphasis on developing high-throughput experiments and computations for structural materials. The review concludes with a brief description of major accomplishments of the field and insights gained from the first 12 years of research. The field has lost none of its potency and continues to pose new questions and offer new possibilities. The vast range of complex compositions and microstructures remains the most compelling motivation for future studies.

2,731 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The mechanical properties of amorphous alloys have proven both scientifically unique and of potential practical interest, although the underlying deformation physics of these materials remain less firmly established as compared with crystalline alloys. In this article, we review recent advances in understanding the mechanical behavior of metallic glasses, with particular emphasis on the deformation and fracture mechanisms. Atomistic as well as continuum modeling and experimental work on elasticity, plastic flow and localization, fracture and fatigue are all discussed, and theoretical developments are connected, where possible, with macroscopic experimental responses. The role of glass structure on mechanical properties, and conversely, the effect of deformation upon glass structure, are also described. The mechanical properties of metallic glass-derivative materials – including in situ and ex situ composites, foams and nanocrystalreinforced glasses – are reviewed as well. Finally, we identify a number of important unresolved issues for the field.

2,551 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Nanostructured Materials (NsM) are materials with a microstructure the characteristic length scale of which is on the order of a few (typically 1–10) nanometers. NsM may be in or far away from thermodynamic equilibrium. NsM synthesized by supramolecular chemistry are examples of NsM in thermodynamic equilibrium. NsM consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites (e.g. of Au or NaCl) with different crystallographic orientations and/or chemical compositions are far away from thermodynamic equilibrium. The properties of NsM deviate from those of single crystals (or coarse-grained polycrystals) and/or glasses with the same average chemical composition. This deviation results from the reduced size and/or dimensionality of the nanometer-sized crystallites as well as from the numerous interfaces between adjacent crystallites. An attempt is made to summarize the basic physical concepts and the microstructural features of equilibrium and non-equilibrium NsM.

2,440 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.

1,782 citations

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