Abstract: This paper presents an in-depth study and analysis of the image feature extraction technique for ancient ceramic identification using an algorithm of partial differential equations. Image features of ancient ceramics are closely related to specific raw material selection and process technology, and complete acquisition of image features of ancient ceramics is a prerequisite for achieving image feature identification of ancient ceramics, since the quality of extracted area-grown ancient ceramic image feature extraction method is closely related to the background pixels and does not have generalizability. In this paper, we propose a deep learning-based extraction method, using Eased as a deep learning support platform, to extract and validate 5834 images of 272 types of ancient ceramics from kilns, celadon, and Yue kilns after manual labelling and training learning, and the results show that the average complete extraction rate is higher than 99%. The implementation of the deep learning method is summarized and compared with the traditional region growth extraction method, and the results show that the method is robust with the increase of the learning amount and has generalizability, which is a new method to effectively achieve the complete image feature extraction of ancient ceramics. The main content of the finite difference method is to use the ratio of the difference between the function values of two adjacent points and the distance between the two points to approximate the partial derivative of the function with respect to the variable. This idea was used to turn the problem of division into a problem of difference. Recognition of ancient ceramic image features was realized based on the extraction of the overall image features of ancient ceramics, the extraction and recognition of vessel type features, the quantitative recognition of multidimensional feature fusion ornamentation image features, and the implementation of deep learning based on inscription model recognition image feature classification recognition method; three-layer B/S architecture web application system and cross-platform system language called as the architectural support; and database services, deep learning packaging, and digital image processing. The specific implementation method is based on database service, deep learning encapsulation, digital image processing, and third-party invocation, and the service layer fusion and relearning mechanism is proposed to achieve the preliminary intelligent recognition system of ancient ceramic vessel type and ornament image features. The results of the validation test meet the expectation and verify the effectiveness of the ancient ceramic vessel type and ornament image feature recognition system.