# Showing papers in "Advances in Radio Science in 2008"

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that even during one gait cycle the velocity of the torso, which constitutes the major part of the reflection, is not constant and a smaller portion of the signal is reflected from the legs.

Abstract: . Human locomotion consists of a complex movement of various parts of the body. The reflections generated by body parts with different relative velocities result in different Doppler shifts which can be detected as a superposition with a Continuous-Wave (CW) Radar. A time-frequency transform like the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) of the radar signal allows a representation of the signal in both time- and frequency domain (spectrogram). It can be shown that even during one gait cycle the velocity of the torso, which constitutes the major part of the reflection, is not constant. Further a smaller portion of the signal is reflected from the legs. The velocity of the legs varies in a wide range from zero (foot is on the ground) to a velocity which is higher than that of the torso. The two dominant parameters which characterise the human gait are the step rate and the mean velocity. Both parameters can be deduced from suitable portions of the spectrogram. The statistical evaluation of the two parameters has the potential to be included for discrimination purposes either between different persons or between humans and other moving objects.

36 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the characteristics of small carbon nanotube (CNT) dipole antennas are investigated on the basis of the thin wire Hallen integral equation (IE), and a surface impedance model for the CNT is adopted to account for the specific material properties resulting in a modified kernel function for the integral equation.

Abstract: . In this paper the characteristics of small carbon nanotube (CNT) dipole antennas are investigated on the basis of the thin wire Hallen integral equation (IE). A surface impedance model for the CNT is adopted to account for the specific material properties resulting in a modified kernel function for the integral equation. A numerical solution for the IE gives the current distribution along the CNT. From the current distribution the antenna driving point impedance and the antenna efficiency are computed. The presented numerical examples demonstrate the strong dependence of the antenna characteristics on the used material and show the limitations of nanoscale antennas.

25 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an open composite left-handed/right-handed (CRHLH) substrate integrated waveguide performs well as a low-profile leaky wave antenna, which is derived from the approved equivalent circuit model of the H10 rectangular hollow waveguide mode, and the wave propagation behavior is visualised by the dispersion diagram calculated by two different methods, infinite periodic full-wave simulation and matrix-pencil analysis of driven field solutions.

Abstract: . The presented "open" composite left-handed/right-handed (CRHLH) substrate integrated waveguide performs well as a low-profile leaky wave antenna. This design is distinguished due to the fact that it is derived from the approved equivalent circuit model of the H10 rectangular hollow waveguide mode. The wave propagation behaviour is visualised by the dispersion diagram calculated by two different methods, infinite periodic full-wave simulation and Matrix-Pencil analysis of driven field solutions. The periodic configuration is also analysed in terms of the Bloch impedance. Although FR-4 serves as substrate the antenna features an efficiency of about 50% to 60%. The radiation performance demonstrates nearly backfire to almost endfire scanning capability of the antenna by mere frequency variation. Broadside radiation is possible due to the balanced state at 4 GHz.

22 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a state-of-the-art analysis for IC functionality in submicron technologies requires access through chip backside using the formation of local trenches using the bottom of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) as endpoint for focused ion beam (FIB) milling.

Abstract: . Physical analysis for IC functionality in submicron technologies requires access through chip backside. Based upon typical global backside preparation with 50–100 µm moderate silicon thickness remaining, a state of the art of the analysis techniques available for this purpose is presented and evaluated for functional analysis and layout pattern resolution potential. A circuit edit technique valid for nano technology ICs, is also presented that is based upon the formation of local trenches using the bottom of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) as endpoint for Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling. As a derivative from this process, a locally ultra thin silicon device can be processed, creating a back surface as work bench for breakthrough applications of nanoscale analysis techniques to a fully functional circuit through chip backside. Several applications demonstrate the power and potential of this new approach.

14 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a waveguide taper concept is presented for low-precision radar measurements of liquid materials in large metal tubes, so-called stilling wells, bypass or still pipes.

Abstract: . This contribution deals with guided radar level measurements of liquid materials in large metal tubes, so-called stilling wells, bypass or still pipes. In the RF domain these tubes function as overmoded circular waveguides and mode-matched excitation structures like waveguide tapers are needed to avoid higher order waveguide modes. Especially for high-precision radar measurements the multimode propagation effects need to be minimized to achieve submillimeter accuracy. Therefore, a still pipe simulator is introduced with the purpose to fundamentally analyze the modal effects. Furthermore, a generalized design criterion is derived for the spurious mode suppression of compact circular waveguide transitions under the constraint of specified accuracy levels. According to the obtained results, a promising waveguide taper concept will finally be presented.

13 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a fully integrated converter is presented, which is able to boost ac-voltages greater than |0.35 V| to an output dc-voltage of 2.0 V −2.5 V.

Abstract: . This paper presents novel circuit concepts for integrated rectifiers and voltage converting interfaces for energy harvesting micro-generators. In the context of energy harvesting, usually only small voltages are supplied by vibration-driven generators. Therefore, rectification with minimum voltage losses and low reverse currents is an important issue. This is realized by novel integrated rectifiers which were fabricated and are presented in this article. Additionally, there is a crucial need for dynamic load adaptation as well as voltage up-conversion. A circuit concept is presented, which is able to obtain both requirements. This generator interface adapts its input impedance for an optimal energy transfer efficiency. Furthermore, this generator interface provides implicit voltage up-conversion, whereas the generator output energy is stored on a buffer, which is connected to the output of the voltage converting interface. As simulations express, this fully integrated converter is able to boost ac-voltages greater than |0.35 V| to an output dc-voltage of 2.0 V–2.5 V. Thereby, high harvesting efficiencies above 80% are possible within the entire operational range.

13 citations

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TL;DR: The paper presents a novel method of evaluating the square root function in FPGA that uses a lin- ear approximation subsystem with a reduced size of a look- up table and introduces a concept of a variable step look-up table.

Abstract: The paper presents a novel method of evaluating the square root function in FPGA. The method uses a lin- ear approximation subsystem with a reduced size of a look- up table. The reduction in the size of the lookup table is twofold. Firstly, a simple linear approximation subsystem uses the lookup table only for the node points. Secondly, a concept of a variable step look-up table is introduced, where the node points are not uniformly spaced, but the spacing is determined by how close to the linear function the approxi- mated function is. The proposed method of evaluating non- linear function and specifically the square root function is practical for word lengths of up to 24 bits. The evaluation is performed in one clock cycle.

11 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the shielding performance of different shielding cabinets by means of numerical simulations and measurements inside a fully anechoic chamber and a GTEM-cell and used a downscaled model of the shielding cabinet.

Abstract: . Recently, new definitions of shielding effectiveness (SE) for high-frequency and transient electromagnetic fields were introduced by Klinkenbusch (2005). Analytical results were shown for closed as well as for non closed cylindrical shields. In the present work, the shielding performance of different shielding cabinets is investigated by means of numerical simulations and measurements inside a fully anechoic chamber and a GTEM-cell. For the GTEM-cell-measurements, a downscaled model of the shielding cabinet is used. For the simulations, the numerical tools CONCEPT II and COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS were available. The numerical results agree well with the measurements. They can be used to interpret the behaviour of the shielding effectiveness of enclosures as function of frequency. From the measurement of the electric and magnetic fields with and without the enclosure in place, the electric and magnetic shielding effectiveness as well as the transient shielding effectiveness of the enclosure are calculated. The transient SE of four different shielding cabinets is determined and discussed.

9 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe an methodology for human body model (HBM) simulations with an improved ESD-failure coverage and a novel methodology to replace capacitive nodes within a resistive network by current sources for CDM simulation.

Abstract: . Verification of ESD safety on full chip level is a major challenge for IC design. Especially phenomena with their origin in the overall product setup are posing a hurdle on the way to ESD safe products. For stress according to the Charged Device Model (CDM), a stumbling stone for a simulation based analysis is the complex current distribution among a huge number of internal nodes leading to hardly predictable voltage drops inside the circuits. This paper describes an methodology for Human Body Model (HBM) simulations with an improved ESD-failure coverage and a novel methodology to replace capacitive nodes within a resistive network by current sources for CDM simulation. This enables a highly efficient DC simulation clearly marking CDM relevant design weaknesses allowing for application of this software both during product development and for product verification.

8 citations

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TL;DR: Efficient solutions of the Lyapunov equations for port to port subsystems for order reduction of systems with multiple input/output ports are introduced.

Abstract: . This paper addresses issues related to the order reduction of systems with multiple input/output ports. The order reduction is divided up into two steps. The first step is the standard order reduction method based on the multipoint approximation of system matrices by applying Krylov subspace. The second step is based on the rejection of the weak part of a system. To recognise the weak system part, Lyapunov equations are used. Thus, this paper introduces efficient solutions of the Lyapunov equations for port to port subsystems.

7 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a 3rd-order current-mode Butterworth filter in 120 nm CMOS is realized for software radio applications in system-on-chips, which is used for reconstruction purposes between a current-steering DAC and a currentmode mixer.

Abstract: . For software radio applications in system-on-chips, a 3rd-order current-mode Butterworth filter in 120 nm CMOS is realized. This filter is used for reconstruction purposes between a current-steering DAC and a current-mode mixer. Power can be reduced by using a current-mode architecture. The cut-off frequency of this filter is switchable between 1 MHz and 4 MHz, the current consumption is 4.5 mA at VDD=1.5 V, the inband noise density is 100 pA/√Hz and it has a dynamic range up to 65 dB.

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TL;DR: In this article, the transmission line matrix (TLM) method in conjunction with the GA was presented for the bandwidth optimization of a low profile patch antenna, supplemented by a system identification (SI) procedure.

Abstract: . The transmission line matrix (TLM) method in conjunction with the genetic algorithm (GA) is presented for the bandwidth optimization of a low profile patch antenna. The optimization routine is supplemented by a system identification (SI) procedure. By the SI the model parameters of the structure are estimated which is used for a reduction of the total TLM simulation time. The SI utilizes a new stability criterion of the physical poles for the parameter extraction.

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TL;DR: A hierarchical multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) platform that can be used for fast integration and evaluation of novel hardware accelerators for cryptography based on elliptic curves is presented and a metric to analyze the resource efficiency by means of chip area, execution time and energy consumption is introduced.

Abstract: . In this paper we explore different hardware accelerators for cryptography based on elliptic curves. Furthermore, we present a hierarchical multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) platform that can be used for fast integration and evaluation of novel hardware accelerators. In respect of two application scenarios the hardware accelerators are coupled at different hierarchy levels of the MPSoC platform. The whole system is implemented in a state of the art 65 nm standard cell technology. Moreover, an FPGA-based rapid prototyping system for fast system verification is presented. Finally, a metric to analyze the resource efficiency by means of chip area, execution time and energy consumption is introduced.

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TL;DR: A network alteration is proposed, which allows for a much higher model reduction than standard approaches, and the system of the altered network can be more efficiently reduced with standard model order reduction algorithms in order to speed up frequency-simulations.

Abstract: . This article adresses the model reduction of IC conducted emission models. A method to efficiently deal with the high number of independent sources in IC conducted emission models, which are a strong limitation for model order reduction, is presented. A network alteration is proposed, which allows for a much higher model reduction than standard approaches. The system of the altered network can be more efficiently reduced with standard model order reduction algorithms in order to speed up frequency-simulations. Synthesising the reduced system into a passive electrical network enables fast time-simulations to be made with circuit simulators. The whole procedure is validated by reducing an example of an IC conducted emission model of an 32 Bit microcontroller.

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TL;DR: This paper presents a coaxial combline filter for a class-S power amplifier for an operating frequency of 450 MHz and different ways to miniaturise the filter are proposed and their features and disadvantages discussed.

Abstract: . This paper presents a coaxial combline filter for a class-S power amplifier for an operating frequency of 450 MHz. According to the measurement results, the filter provides a bandwidth of 26 MHz, an insertion loss of 0.55 dB, and a second pass-band only at 2.8 GHz. As the filter dimensions are crucial for the envisaged application, different ways to miniaturise the filter are proposed and their features and disadvantages discussed.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the concept of equivalent material values is validated by large "global" simulations of a wedge structure, and the limitations of this concept are discussed, since in some cases the macroscopic behavior of an LHM cannot be accurately described by equivalent material value.

Abstract: . In order to characterize three-dimensional, left-handed metamaterials (LHM) we use electromagnetic field simulations of unit cells. For waves traveling in one of the main directions of the periodic LHM-arrays, the analysis is concentrated on the calculation of global quantities of the unit cells, such as scattering parameters or dispersion diagrams, and a careful interpretation of the results. We show that the concept of equivalent material values – which may be negative in a narrow frequency range – can be validated by large "global" simulations of a wedge structure. We also discuss the limitations of this concept, since in some cases the macroscopic behavior of an LHM cannot be accurately described by equivalent material values.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a method based on the segmentation of the initial problem into subproblems with respect to the coupling mechanisms, under the assumption that the obtained classes can be handled separately, the sub-problems are solved and superposed to the overall solution.

Abstract: . In complex systems like ships or airplanes many tasks vital to the function of the system are executed by electronic equipment. Earlier research Camp (2004) – Nitsch (2005) has shown that there are frequency ranges in many of these systems, in which disturbances in the system will be observed if an external electromagnetic field exceeds a certain amplitude limit. On the basis of a simplified model in which the dominating coupling mechanisms in complex systems are shown, we will present a method which allows to analyze the vulnerability to electromagnetic fields. The method is based on the segmentation of the initial problem into subproblems with respect to the coupling mechanisms. Under the assumption that the obtained classes can be handled separately, the subproblems are solved and superposed to the overall solution. The Electromagnetic Topology Baum (1982) – Lee (1982) is used to solve the subproblems. This leads to a hybrid method combining different solution approaches. The subproblems are decomposed into smaller subproblems with respect to the shielding levels. This procedure allows us to determine the coupled disturbances into the system. Finally the solution is verified with respect to prescripted limits.

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TL;DR: Different approaches and structures for the realization of a multiplication with variable precision are presented and an objective comparison is performed and a high throughput at low precision through parallelism, or a high precision through concatenation can be achieved.

Abstract: Binary multiplication continues to be one of the essential arithmetic operations in digital circuits Even though field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are becoming more and more powerful these days, the vendors cannot avoid implementing multiplications with high word-lengths using embedded blocks instead of configurable logic But on the other hand, the circuit's efficiency decreases if the provided word-length of the hard-wired multipliers exceeds the precision requirements of the algorithm mapped into the FPGA Thus it is beneficial to use multiplier blocks with configurable word-length, optimized for area, speed and power dissipation, eg regarding digital signal processing (DSP) applications In this contribution, we present different approaches and structures for the realization of a multiplication with variable precision and perform an objective comparison This includes one approach based on a modified Baugh and Wooley algorithm and three structures using Booth's arithmetic operand recoding with different array structures All modules have the option to compute signed two's complement fix-point numbers either as an individual computing unit or interconnected to a superior array Therefore, a high throughput at low precision through parallelism, or a high precision through concatenation can be achieved

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TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that the branch set of a modified multiport can be augmented with so-called auxiliary branches whereas its constitutive equations are always in conductance form, and that an interconnection of a family of multiports can always be analyzed by means of a system of nodal voltage equations.

Abstract: . A theorem is presented describing a transformation by means of which it is possible to assign to an elementary multiport with fairly general constitutive equations (including all kinds of controlled sources, nullors, ideal transformers, etc.) a modified multiport with the same all-pole terminal behavior. The branch set of this modified multiport is augmented with so called auxiliary branches whereas its constitutive equations are always in conductance form. Therefore an interconnection of a family of multiports transformed in this manner can always be analyzed by means of a system of nodal voltage equations. It will be shown that this system of equations is equivalent to a system of modified nodal voltage equations set up for the network that is an interconnection of the elementary multiports originally given.

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TL;DR: Three techniques to improve the accuracy of the FFT based frequency offset estimation respectively to reduce the number of needed FFT points are demonstrated and the communications and FPGA implementation performance is presented.

Abstract: . Carrier synchronization is a vital part of every inner receiver in wireless communications. Frequency offset and phase offset of the received burst must be estimated and the received samples must be corrected according to the estimation. An approximation of the maximum likelihood estimation of frequency offset is given by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The accuracy of the estimation as well as the hardware complexity and throughput depend on the number of FFT points. We demonstrate three techniques to improve the accuracy of the FFT based frequency offset estimation respectively to reduce the number of needed FFT points. These three techniques as well as the reference algorithm without improvements combine phase offset estimation with frequency offset estimation. We present the communications and FPGA implementation performance of these techniques.

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TL;DR: In this article, the influence of a receiving antenna height scan and the angle increment of the turntable scan on the detection of the maximum of the electrical field strength was discussed.

Abstract: . Some emission and susceptibility EMC standards already require measurements above 1 GHz or test site validations (IEC 2006, CISPR 2006). A simple assignment of the established measurement methods below 1 GHz to the frequency range above 1 GHz bears some risks. The ratio between the physical size of the equipment under test (EUT) and the wave-length rises with frequency. This increases the electrical size of the EUT. The directivity may become larger and the radiation pattern of the EUT is getting more complex which reduces the probability to detect the maximum emission with a simple planar cut scan. To analyse these effects in more detail this paper shows radiation characteristics of an exemplary EUT. The influence of a receiving antenna height scan and the angle increment of the turntable scan on the detection of the maximum of the electrical field strength will be discussed. As a result some ideas will be given to reduce the measurement time but keeping the reliability of the measurement results constant.

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TL;DR: In this article, the impact of on-chip inductance on power supply integrity is analyzed based on product related scenarios, and it is shown that in a regular power grid with regular bump connections, the impact on the cycle average of the supply voltage can be neglected, even for a worst case estimation of on chip inductance.

Abstract: . Based on product related scenarios, the impact of on-chip inductance on power supply integrity is analyzed. The impact of varying current profiles is shown to be minimal. In a regular power grid with regular bump connections, the impact of on-chip inductance on the cycle average of the supply voltage can be neglected, even for a worst case estimation of on-chip inductance. Whereas, the maximum transient power supply drop can be significantly underestimated by neglecting on-chip inductance. The impact of on-chip inductance in a System-on-Chip (SoC) environment also can be neglected if the on-chip inductance is conservativly estimated.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined a database-based method to reduce the number of calibration cycles by using a database of contactless vector network analysis, which showed that the measurement results showed deviations smaller than 7% in comparison to the conventional vector analysis.

Abstract: . The scattering parameters of embedded devices can be measured by means of contactless vector network analysis. To achieve accurate measurement results, the contactless measurement setup has to be calibrated. However, if the substrate material or the planar transmission lines on the substrate changes, a new calibration is necessary. In this paper a method will be examined, which reduces the number of calibration cycles by using a database. Analytical results show that by using this database method, errors occur which depend on the coupling coefficients and on the load impedances of the contactless probes. However, the measurement results show deviations smaller than 7% in comparison to the conventional vector network analysis, which is sufficient for the most pratical applications.

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TL;DR: VLSI-based routing-switch implementations are presented and the costs and performance of routing-switches are compared for different parameter combinations and benchmarked to other routing- switch implementations like Aetheral and xpipes.

Abstract: . Future Systems-on-Chip (SoC) will consist of many embedded functional units like e.g. embedded processor cores, memories or FPGA like structures. These SoCs will have huge communication demands, which can not be fulfilled by bus-based communication systems. Possible solutions to this problem are so called Networks-on-Chip (NoC). These NoCs basically consist of network-interfaces which integrate functional units into the NoC and routing-switches which connect the network-interfaces. Here, VLSI-based routing-switch implementations are presented. The characteristics of these NoCs like performance and costs (e.g. silicon area respectively logic elements, power dissipation) depend on a variety of parameters. As a routing-switch is a key component of a NoC, the costs and performance of routing-switches are compared for different parameter combinations. Evaluated parameters are for example data word length, architecture of the routing-switch (parallel vs. centralized implementation) and routing-algorithm. The performance and costs of routing-switches were evaluated using an FPGA-based NoC-emulator. In addition different routing-switches were implemented using a 90 nm standard-cell library to determine the maximum clock frequency, power-dissipation and area of a VLSI-implementation. The power consumption was determined by simulating the extracted layout of the routing-switches. Finally, these results are benchmarked to other routing-switch implementations like Aetheral and xpipes.

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TL;DR: In this article, the microphysical properties of the liquid hydrometeors were examined and the Rayleigh approximation for small particles (raindrops at C-band) and the drop size distribution by Ulbrich (Γ-DSD) lead to the calculation of the reflectivity at horizontal polarisation ZHH, the reflectivities at vertical polarization ZVV and the differential reflectivity ZDR.

Abstract: . Raindrops are one type of precipitation in stratiform and convective clouds. To get relationships for describing the raindrops two different methods were used. In the first way, the microphysical properties of the liquid hydrometeors were examined. For this the use of the Rayleigh approximation for small particles (raindrops at C-Band) and the drop size distribution by Ulbrich (Γ-DSD) lead to the calculation of the reflectivity at horizontal polarisation ZHH, the reflectivity at vertical polarisation ZVV and the differential reflectivity ZDR. In the second way, rain signatures were separated from polarimetric measurements. The database of these measurements consists of datasets measured by the dual polarimetric C-Band weather radar POLDIRAD (DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen). The aim of this study was then to combine and to compare the results from the real radar measurements against the theoretical calculations in the ZHH-ZDR plane. Based on these observations and calculations, scientific results for future practical use will be presented in form of empirical equations including ZHH-ZDR. Finally in form of scientific discussion, the ZHH-ZDR plane will be critically assessed for outstanding problems or issues.

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TL;DR: To overcome the problems related to multipath propagation effects, a method is proposed that estimates the origin of a multipath signal and maps the distorted position information back to the true position.

Abstract: . In a cooperative sensor system for pedestrian protection, a pedestrian and other road users exchange data by means of radio frequency communication. In the proposed system, the pedestrian carries a transponder which is interrogated by a vehicle and sends an anonymous identification (ID) sequence. By decoding the ID, the interrogation unit in the vehicle detects the presence of the transponder. Evaluating the incident wave of the transponder's answer, a localisation is possible. In the proposed localization system, the measurement results can be distorted by multipath propagation. Multipath errors result if signals of the same transponder arrive simultaneously at the receiver unit from different directions. In this case, erroneous distances and angles are measured. Because the signals arriving from different directions contain the same transponder ID, they can be assigned to their origin. One of the challenges in post-processing for signal improvement is enhancing the selection of the correct position information by making assumptions about the pedestrian's movement and by knowing the vehicle's current driving parameters. Additionally, information contained in multipath signals is used to form a better estimate for the true position of the transponder. To overcome the problems related to multipath propagation effects, a method is proposed that estimates the origin of a multipath signal and maps the distorted position information back to the true position. A fusion of tracked direct positions and mapped multipath signals leads to an improvement in positioning accuracy.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the results of a transient measurement campaign incorporating ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses applied to a large GTEM cell are presented. But the main purpose is to analyse the distortion effects on such a feeding pulse when transformed into a field pulse inside the cells testing volume.

Abstract: . This contribution deals with the results of a transient measurement campaign incorporating ultra-wideband (UWB) pulses applied to a large GTEM cell. The main purpose is to analyse the distortion effects on such a feeding pulse when transformed into a field pulse inside the cells testing volume. We will investigate if the TEM field distribution is interfered by multimode propagation, that may lead to location-dependent pulse distortion and ringing. Finally, conclusions on the applicability of GTEM cells for standardized transient EMC measurements will be drawn.

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TL;DR: A hybrid solution will be introduced in order to decrease computational complexity while retaining most of the interference suppression capabilities of the LMMSE equalizer.

Abstract: . Signals transmitted over a multi-path propagation channel exhibit Inter-Path Interference (IPI) and fading. The receiver has to employ measures to mitigate these effects or it will incur severe performance degradation. A classic approach in Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) communications is the Rake receiver. Alternatively, a Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) equalizer can further improve performance. This paper compares performance and computational complexity of these two algorithms. A hybrid solution will be introduced in order to decrease computational complexity while retaining most of the interference suppression capabilities of the LMMSE equalizer.

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TL;DR: A real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC) for low power wireless applications that follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements is introduced.

Abstract: . This paper introduces a real-time Multiprocessor System-On-Chip (MPSoC) for low power wireless applications. The multiprocessor is based on eight 32bit RISC processors that are connected via an Network-On-Chip (NoC). The NoC follows a novel approach with guaranteed bandwidth to the application that meets hard realtime requirements. At a clock frequency of 100 MHz the total power consumption of the MPSoC that has been fabricated in 180 nm UMC standard cell technology is 772 mW.

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TL;DR: A bistatic extension of a broadband monostatic FMCW Radar working in the Millimetre-Wave (MMW) region and its bistatics imaging properties used for imaging purposes is presented.

Abstract: . We present a bistatic extension of a broadband monostatic FMCW Radar working in the Millimetre-Wave (MMW) region and its bistatic imaging properties used for imaging purposes. Due to the different perspective of a bistatic setup compared to a monostatic one, additional information can be obtained. A wide bandwidth of approx. 10 GHz is used for the task of high resolution imaging as it could be used for the detection of threats at a person's body in security-sensitive environments. Since MMWs propagate easily through common clothing, it is feasible to image objects like concealed weapons worn under the clothing. MMW-Imaging of humans is one possibility to enhance the capabilities of nowadays security checkpoints, e.g. at airports.