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Showing papers in "African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues in 2014"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the trajectories of gender patterns in the Nigerian university system to further the interrogation of the problematic for fresh insights, as well as change comprehension and projection, and found that women have somewhat experienced gender opportunities restrictions and ceiling across societies and down the ages.
Abstract: The fact that there is gender imbalance at work and across social institutions particularly relative to value sharing in societies is no longer new. Women have somewhat experienced gender opportunities restrictions and ceiling across societies and down the ages. What is problematic however is the consistency and persistence of the imbalance even when change is constant. The academy as the citadel of learning and a point of convergence for societal barometer expected to sometimes respond to developments in unique ways has unfortunately been affected by gender imbalances. This article therefore explored the trajectories of gender patterns in the Nigerian university system to further the interrogation of the problematic for fresh insights, as well as change comprehension and projection.

11 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of numerical cognition and emotional freedom techniques on mathematics anxiety among non-science students with pseudo-dyscalculia in Oyo State were investigated.
Abstract: Anxiety in mathematics is a critical challenge facing secondary school students in Nigeria. Previous studies with focus on the improvement of this challenge are scarce. Specifically, there is paucity of studies using Numerical Cognition and Emotional Freedom techniques in solving the above challenges, This study therefore investigated the effects of numerical cognition and emotional freedom techniques on mathematics anxiety among non-science students with pseudo-dyscalculia in Oyo State. Pretest, post-test, control group quasi experimental design was adopted for the study. One hundred and two students were sampled through simple random sampling. Mathematics Anxiety Scale (α = 0.89), Mathematics Efficacy (α = 0.86) and Pseudo-dyscalculia scale (α = 0.93) were administered to obtain data for the study. Therapeutic packages used for the intervention were Numerical Cognition and Emotional Freedom. Seven hypotheses were tested at 0.01 level of significance. Data was analysed using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The study revealed main effect of treatment on Mathematics Anxiety; F (2,109) = 173.020, p<.01. Meridian-Based intervention was more effective (mean = 33.78) than Numerical cognition (mean = 45.35) in the reduction of Mathematics anxiety. There was significant main effect ; F(1, 109 = 21.00, p<.01); interactive effect F(2, 109 = 6.116, p<.01 of mathematics efficacy and Treatment on mathematics anxiety of the participants. The two packages were effective in reducing mathematics anxiety among the participants. Based on the findings, Educational Psychologists, Counselling Psychologist and other educational related bodies could adopt the packages for educational diagnosis to improve academic performance of students with academic phobia.

11 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a study critically examined the reasons for the menace, the vital perpetrators of the dastard act, the effects of the crime on the students, parents, schools, education sector, the society, and the nation at large, and recommended some remediative measures from the Counsellor's perspectives to eradicate the problem of examination malpractices in Nigeria.
Abstract: The problem of examination malpractice in Nigeria has turned a monster which is gradually destroying all other sectors and giving the country a vital place among corrupt nations in the world. This study critically examined the reasons for the menace, the vital perpetrators of the dastard act, the effects of the crime on the students, parents, schools, education sector, the society, and the nation at large. Hence, certain remediative measures were recommended from the Counsellor’s perspectives to eradicate the problem of examination malpractices in Nigeria.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the consequences of rape on the victims are found to be post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, sleep disorders, distrust of others, feeling of personal powerlessness, anxiety and emotional numbness.
Abstract: The secondary victimisation suffered by rape victims in socially conservative Nigeria is not only in the hands of their families, friends, and significant others, but also through the agents and process of criminal justice system of the country. Previous research into rape in Nigeria has often neglected the aftermath of forcible rape on the victims and coping mechanisms adopted. Therefore, this present study was designed to redress this imbalance and specifically, investigate the consequences of incidence of rape on the victims. Using qualitative information gathered from in-depth interviews of 23 rape victims and 4 key informants that consisted of medical personnel and counselling psychologists, the study found that the most critical effect of rape on victims are post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, sleep disorders, distrust of others, feeling of personal powerlessness, anxiety and emotional numbness. The adjustment of victims is remarkably impeded by social stigmatisation, lack of support, care and concern from families and friends, ineffective justice system and burden of proof. The victims do not seek for medical attention or counselling advice except when there are physical body injuries sustained from the incidence, which has serious physical and mental health implications. Therefore, a systemic approach to improving knowledge and altering attitudes regarding sexual offenses is needed. Specifically, education needs to focus on a woman’s right to consent and the overall eradication of stereotypical beliefs regarding rape victimisation, victims, and perpetrators.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines some developmental and behavioural factors leading to stress among the gifted learners and recommends ways on how parents, teachers and counselors can reduce stress on gifted students by encouraging flexibility, appropriate behaviour, and thereby assisting the gifted students to develop a realistic and accurate self-concept.
Abstract: Human beings display a vast range of intellectual abilities and the greater the degree of a person's intellectual difference, the greater the discomfort, such an intellect seems to bring to his or her world, and the world responds by creating discomfort for the individual. Thus, the gifted learners are vulnerable in a society that cannot accept differences, and they are often faced with stress of different kinds. The paper, examines some developmental and behavioural factors leading to stress among the gifted learners. It recommends ways on how parents, teachers and counsellors can reduce stress on gifted students by encouraging flexibility, appropriate behaviour, and thereby assisting the gifted students to develop a realistic and accurate self-concept.

6 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation was examined. But, there were no significant interaction effects of social support, personality, and personality on stress adaptation, and the findings suggested that males, type A persons and civil servants with high social support were found to exhibit a higher level of stress adaptation.
Abstract: Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental sampling techniques, a total of 210 civil servants (78 males and 132 females) from 10 Government Ministries in Akure, Ondo State were sampled. Participants completed measures of Type A behavior scale, Perceived social support scale and Job stress scale. One hypothesis was formulated and tested using 2×2×2 ANOVA analysis. The results revealed that gender (F (1,202) = 9.938, p < 0.05), social support (F(1,202)=20.263, p<0.01) and personality (F (1,202) = 12.630, p < 0.01) had significant effects on work stress adaptation. However, there were no significant interaction effects of gender, social support and personality on work stress adaptation. The findings suggested that males, type A persons and civil servants with high social support were found to exhibit a higher level of work stress adaptation. The implications of the findings were discussed and appropriate recommendations were made.

6 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Increased awareness and community education on the need to seek skilled care early in pregnancy and delivery is very important and health care facilities should be well equipped to manage PPH because it an emergency situation in order to prevent maternal mortality.
Abstract: Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. In developing countries, it accounts for the deaths of about 125 000 women (WHO, 2007). More than half of all maternal deaths occur within 24 hours of delivery, mostly from excessive bleeding. It is usually an emergency situation that requires urgent intervention (ICM and IFGO, 2006). These deaths are preventable if necessary care was received promptly but expert care is not easily accessible to Child bearing women in developing countries. Death of a woman has a lot of psychosocial implications which has long term effect on the family especially the new born. As the foundations of the child’s psychosocial development is affect from birth. Implementation of efficient preventive obstetric care can significantly reduce adverse physical and psychological outcomes of birth trauma ( Kahsay, Numbers, Martindale and Dalzell, 2010). Thus the need to prevent it cannot be overemphasized as many interventions to treat it result in other unpleasant outcomes. Increased awareness and community education on the need to seek skilled care early in pregnancy and delivery is very important. Health care facilities should be well equipped to manage PPH because it an emergency situation in order to prevent maternal mortality. Psychosocial support should be provided for the woman and her family in order to prevent long lasting negative psychosocial outcomes after complicated childbirth.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of age, gender and religious affiliation of adolescents on the attitude towards premarital sex was examined, and the results revealed that a conservative attitude towards Premarital Sex was revealed among adolescents.
Abstract: This paper explored the adolescents’ attitude towards premarital sex. The influence of age, gender and religious affiliation of adolescents on the variable was examined. Participants for this study were drawn from a survey of 1902 secondary school adolescents in Ibadan, South west Nigeria. The students whose ages ranged between 12-20 years (=16; SD = 1.46) were selected from public and private owned schools. On gender, male respondents constitute 48.2% while 51.8% were females. All the participants were in the Senior Secondary School (SSS) classes one to three. The results obtained revealed a conservative attitude towards premarital sex. A non significant difference was observed between male and female adolescents on attitude toward premarital sex, but age of adolescent and their religious affiliation has significant influence on attitude toward premarital sex.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is need to educate husbands about cervical cancer and the need for their wives to screen before symptoms are noticed, and correlation analysis showed that husbands’ cervical cancer related knowledge had a significant linear relationship with husbands' practices encouraging wives to go for cervical cancer screening while their attitude towards screening did not.
Abstract: Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women from both developed and developing countries of the world. About half a million new cases are seen worldwide each year, most occurring in developing countries where cervical cancer screening and treatment are less available and accessible. Several studies have identified various barriers to cervical screening in sub-Saharan African countries which may account for why only a few women are screening. This study aimed at assessing husbands’ cervical cancer related knowledge, attitude and practices encouraging their wives to screen for cervical cancer in Ibadan. Through a descriptive survey design, A self-developed validated instrument on Husbands’ Disposition to Cervical Cancer Screening (HDCCS) was used for data collection based on random sampling. Four research questions were raised in the study. Data collected was analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Descriptive statistics indicated that 70% of the husbands had good cervical cancer related knowledge. On attitude to screening, 55.1% of the husbands will encourage their wives to screen for cervical cancer if they knew a test that can detect cervical cancer early. Husbands’ behaviour encouraging wives to screen indicates that wives of 55.2% of the husbands have not gone for pap smear test, 89.1% of husbands did not know when their wives should go for pap smear test and 80% did not remind their wives to go for pap smear test Correlation analysis showed that husbands’ cervical cancer related knowledge had a significant linear relationship with husbands’ practices encouraging wives to go for cervical cancer screening while their attitude towards screening did not. It was concluded that there is need to educate husbands about cervical cancer and the need for their wives to screen before symptoms are noticed.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of peer tutoring and cooperative learning instructional strategies on mathematics achievement of students with learning disabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria was examined by using a pre-test, post-test control group quasi experimental design with 3x2x2 factorial matrix.
Abstract: This study examined the effect of peer tutoring and cooperative learning instructional strategies on mathematics achievement of students with learning disabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted a pre-test, post-test control group quasi experimental design with 3x2x2 factorial matrix, sampling one hundred and fifty six (156) students with learning disabilities in Mathematics selected through random sampling with the use of the Pupil Rating Scale, Mathematics Tests (A and B) for JSS1 Students, Extroversion and Introversion Scale, and Checklist for School Environment. Participants were exposed to eight weeks of instruction in mathematics, using the three instructional strategies and a control group. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyze the three hypotheses generated at 0.05 level of significance, with the results showing a significant effect on participants’ achievement scores in mathematics (F ( 2,143 ) = 32.497; P < 0.05). This implies that there is a significant difference in mathematics achievement of participants exposed to peer tutoring, cooperative learning, and the control group. Further analysis revealed that students exposed to cooperative learning instructional strategy performed better than students exposed to peer tutoring and the control. Also, results indicated that both personality and school environment did not have significant main effects on mathematics achievement of students with learning disabilities. Based on these findings, it was recommended that teachers of students with learning disabilities should incorporate the use of peer tutoring and cooperative learning in teaching Mathematics to students with learning disabilities. Key Words: p

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a cross-sectional survey design was adopted to explore the extent to which psychosocial and cultural factors correlate with perception of childlessness among women in South Western Nigeria.
Abstract: Studies show that the stereotype that childlessness is solely considered a woman's problem makes infertility a major disaster for childless women in Nigeria. This study adopted a cross sectional survey design to explore the extent to which Psychosocial and cultural factors correlate with perception of childlessness among women in South Western Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was utilized to draw out five hundred and fifty-four males and seven hundred females with age range of 20-45 ( =30.4; SD=8.6) from South Western Nigeria. A synchronized instrument with three sub- sections titled Psycho socio-cultural assessment of childlessness (r=0.75) was utilized for data collection. Two Research questions were answered and six null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive Statistics, Multiple Regression Analysis, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test for independent samples were used for data analysis. Results show that Nigerians irrespective of tribe, gender, age, educational status, self-esteem and religion consider childlessness a taboo and hold women solely responsible. This outcome has implications for improved sexual and reproductive health policy with respect to gender mainstreaming and counselling interventions for childless women.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria and found that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID because of their learning difficulties.
Abstract: Study investigated why teachers exclude children with intellectual disability from the regular classrooms in Nigeria. Participants were, 169 regular teachers randomly selected from Oyo and Ogun states. Questionnaire was used to collect data result revealed that 57.4% regular teachers could not cope with children with ID because of their learning difficulties. 84% of the teachers also disagreed that culture was a factor in the exclusion of children with ID. Teachers with higher years teaching experience were found to be more favourable to exclusion. It was recommended that as a matter of policy, regular teachers should be allowed to undergo training so as to enable them handle children with ID in the classroom. The Nigerian Government should also as a matter of policy discourage over population in the regular schools so that children with ID can be accommodated. Lastly, more experienced teachers should be encouraged to handle children at the Primary level of education in Nigeria.

Journal Article
TL;DR: It was discovered that the strength or quality of the father’s sperm can affect the health of the unborn and the interaction effect of external and maternal factors on child health was significant.
Abstract: The study investigated perceived impact of external and maternal factors on the health of unborn human beings. Using snowball method, a total of one hundred and eighty-four working mothers, comprising 140 University of Nigeria lecturers (age = 32 -58 years with a mean age of 45 years); 44 nurses, drawn from University teaching hospital Enugu (age 28-56years with a mean age of 42 years), freely participated in the study. External and maternal factor instrument developed and validated by the researcher was used for the study. Result showed that there was significant impact of external factors on the unborn human beings F (1, 181) = 203.7, p< .0001. Maternal factors had significant impact on the unborn human beings (1, 181) = 53.6 p<.0001. The interaction effect of external and maternal factors on child health was significant F (1,181) =8.65 p< .001. It was discovered that the strength or quality of the father‘s sperm can affect the health of the unborn. The implications of the findings were discussed and suggestions were made for further study.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study suggested the need for a special strategy targeting behaviour change among men in intimate relationships in the country.
Abstract: In Nigeria, few studies have focused on the relationship between male partner controlling behaviour and contraceptive use. This study examines the influence of male controlling behaviour on contraceptive use among women in Nigeria. Data was extracted from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The STATA Data Analysis software was used to analyse the data. Chi-square and binary logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between male controlling behaviour and contraceptive use. Results show: 18.3% contraceptive prevalence among the women; and 51.6% of the women had experienced partner’s being jealous if they were talking with other men. Results of the logistic regression among others show that: women whose partner’s were jealous if talking with other men were 26.2% less likely to use contraceptive (OR = 0.7375, p 0.05). The study suggested the need for a special strategy targeting behaviour change among men in intimate relationships in the country. Keywords :

Journal Article
TL;DR: This article explored the extent to which perceived organisational support and perception of inequality predict withdrawal cognition among 519 employees (266 males; 253 females) of distressed commercial banks, whose ages ranged from 19 to 65 (M = 34.02; SD = 9.54).
Abstract: This study explored the extent to which perceived organisational support and perception of inequality predict withdrawal cognition among 519 employees (266 males; 253 females) of distressed commercial banks, whose ages ranged from 19 to 65 (M = 34.02; SD = 9.54). Data were collected via validated questionnaires. The hypothesis generated was tested using multiple regression analysis. Results indicated that employees who perceived low organisational support and high inequality had high level of withdrawal cognition. Based on these findings, the researchers recommended that bank managers should provide adequate social supports for their employees and treat them equally or make sure that rewards commensurate with input/efforts for all organisational members.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the influence of self esteem, self efficacy, and gender on homesickness among freshmen in a public higher institution of learning in southwest Nigeria, where 306 respondents were selected using purposive sampling method.
Abstract: The transition from high school to college/university often involves separation from home as well as adapting to a new academic environment. For most new students, adjusting to an unfamiliar academic setting can induce homesickness. While most studies have investigated homesickness as a negative outcome of relocation, the present study extended the literature by examining the influence of self esteem, self efficacy, and gender on homesickness among freshmen in a public higher institution of learning in southwest Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional ex post facto research, in which 306 respondents were selected using purposive sampling method. The sample comprised 193 females and 113 males, and their age ranged between 15 and 29 years with a mean of 20.13. The instrument for data collection was a well-designed self-report questionnaire that measured self efficacy, self esteem and homesickness. Three hypotheses generated from the literature reviewed were tested. Results indicated significant influence of both self efficacy {t (303) = 4.54, p <.01}, and self esteem {t (303) = 5.50, p<.01} on homesickness. However, gender had no significant influence on homesickness. The findings were discussed alongside implications and conclusions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined self-blame, anxiety and depression as determinants of suicidal ideation among tertiary students with recent history of abortion and found that selfblame (r=0.69, p<.05), anxiety (r =0.43, p <.05) and depression (s=-.061, t=.143, p>.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine self-blame, anxiety and depression as determinants of suicidal ideation among tertiary students with recent history of abortion. The study adopted a quantitative method of analysis using an ex post facto research design for data collection from 202 individuals. Three hypotheses were developed from the literature review and tested using multiple regressions and correlation matrices. Results showed that self-blame (r=0.69, p<.05), Anxiety (r=0.43, p<.05) and Depression (r=0.27, p<.05) have positive significant correlations with suicide ideation among tertiary students with history of abortion. Also, self-blame, anxiety and depression jointly predicted suicide ideation among tertiary students with traumatic experiences of abortion at [R 2 =0.638; F (3,199) =35.70; p<.05]. Further analyses show that self-blame (s=-.312, t=-2.29, p<.05), anxiety (s=.121, t=3.01, p<.05) and depression (s=-.005, t=.050, p<.05) also had significant independent influence on suicide ideation among tertiary students with history of abortion. Family type, level of study and length of past abortion experience jointly predicted suicide ideation among tertiary students with traumatic experiences of abortion at [R 2 = 0.068; F (3,199) =5.396; p<.05]. However, only level of study was an independent predictor of suicide ideation among tertiary students with traumatic experiences of abortion at (s=-.379, t=-4.143, p<.05).The results showed that the predictive relationship of self-blame, anxiety, depression on suicide ideation among female tertiary students with recent history of abortion experiences cannot be treated with kids’ gloves. This finding and the additional findings that depression, anxiety, and self blame are also independently predictive of suicide ideation among college students have important clinical implications for suicide assessment and prevention. It was recommended that suicide prevention programs, counseling centers, and psychology clinics on college campuses should include suicide attitudes such as depression, anxiety, and self-blame in their assessment and identification of individuals who may be at risk for engaging in suicide behavior.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the sources of and attitude of female adolescents with hearing impairment towards reproductive health practices and found that the most preferred sources of reproductive health information available to female students with hearing impaired is the school, followed by health workers/health institutions and their fathers.
Abstract: Adequate information about sexuality is an important factor that affect attitude towards reproductive health practices. However, female adolescents with hearing impairment have problems of normal adolescents to contend with in addition to the problems occasioned by their hearing disability and unlike their normal counterparts, they acquire less information from various sources such as personal conversation, and through audio materials. It is against this backdrop that this study investigated the sources of and the attitude of female adolescents with hearing impairment towards reproductive health practices . A survey research design and multistage sampling procedure was employed to select 155 female adolescents with hearing impaired in Oyo and Lagos state respectively. Three research questions and one hypothesis were generated for the study. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.71. Data generated was analysed through descriptive statistics of frequency count and simple percentage and inferential statistics involving pearson moment correlation analysis. The study revealed that female students with hearing impairment obtain reproductive health information from School and family members while the most preferred sources of reproductive health information available to female students with hearing impairment is the school, followed by health workers/ health institutions and their fathers. The finding also revealed that the attitude of female adolescents with hearing impairment towards reproductive health practices is negative. Based on the findings, some recommendations were made. Keywords :

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the nature of activities that the volunteers engaged in, the reasons why people engage in volunteering and factors that maintain volunteer motivation and used an exploratory research design and qualitative methods in the form of focus group discussions were employed in the quest to gain greater insight into the volunteer motivation.
Abstract: HIV/AIDS psychosocial support services in Uganda are accessed by clients through community based initiatives. These small–scale HIV/AIDS community initiatives in Uganda are vulnerable to rapid decline or failure because they rely on energy and expertise of people who are volunteering their time, which they are free to withdraw at any time. Many have had difficulty attracting and retaining volunteers because of failure to understand volunteer motivation. The study explores volunteerism and emphasizes that volunteers derive personal satisfactions from voluntary activities other than monetary compensation. Volunteers “expect a return on their investment”. Most nonprofit organizations in Uganda working in HIV/AIDS intervention thrive on volunteer efforts. The study aimed at identifying the nature of activities that the volunteers engaged in, the reasons why People engage in volunteering and factors that maintain volunteer motivation. The study used an exploratory research design and qualitative methods in the form of focus group discussions were employed in the quest to gain greater insight into the volunteer motivation. Thematic analysis was employed on the data to identify major themes. Findings show that volunteers were driven by a sense of self serving and achievement motive, affiliation and relational motives and the power motive. Volunteers were intrinsically motivated and inspired by their religious beliefs or because the community appreciates their efforts. Volunteers reported drawing satisfaction from the positive impact on the recipient’s life. Continued participation gave them hope in terms of prospects of gainful employment, social support from their volunteer group and bonding with the community members.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Knowledge of the etiology of child obesity among the elites, awareness of therapeutic measures, efficacy of adopted measures and assumed solutions, and for more educational and preventive social policies to encourage positive nutritional and recreational habits are discussed.
Abstract: Child obesity is on the rise globally and evidence suggests that this upward trend has continued into the 21st century. Genetic, dietary and/or physical activity patterns are important factors explaining why increasing number of children and adolescents are becoming obese. Evidence also suggests that social class position may be important in understanding the upsurge in its occurrence. In Nigeria, information on parents’ perception of the obese status of their children is still inadequate. There is also a dearth of information on perceived causes and effect of child obesity among Nigerian elites. This article discusses knowledge of the etiology of child obesity among the elites, awareness of therapeutic measures, efficacy of adopted measures and assumed solutions. Utilizing both descriptive and survey research design, 180 high status residents in Bodija, Ibadan, were recruited as respondents through systematic random sampling techniques. Using purposive sampling, additional information on child obesity was obtained from ten medical and health service providers in the area. Research instruments comprised of questionnaires and unstructured interview guides. Results revealed that although respondents were generally aware of obesity and child obesity, and were generally conversant with its etiology, they were not unduly worried about the consequences of obesity although they recognized its possible harmful health outcomes. The article recommends for more educational and preventive social policies to encourage positive nutritional and recreational habits.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the influence of social change on traditional gender roles and found that women are no longer seen as solely responsible for family work and care House chores that were regarded as solely the females' work are now being shared by women and men.
Abstract: Our societies are changing such that the gender roles rapidly change The 21st century has seen a shift in gender roles due to multiple factors such as new family structures, education, media, and several others The article examines the influence of social change on traditional gender roles Two hundred and twenty seven respondents consisted of 135 Females (595%) and 92 Males (405%) participated in the survey The study adopted descriptive method of research design The age of respondents ranged between 15 to 56years with the mean age of 36years Two hypotheses were tested and the results revealed that there is statistically significant difference between traditional gender roles and contemporary gender roles in selected local government areas of Lagos State, Nigeria The study further reveals that there is statistically significant difference between social change and female gender supports in selected local government areas, Lagos Nigeria This research work attested to the fact that the shifts from male breadwinner and female career model to double-income and single-parent or female headed households have transformed the established ways of distributing work between men and women In policy terms at least, women are no longer seen as being solely responsible for family work and care House chores that were regarded as solely the females’ work are now being shared by women and men Contemporarily, though Male gender is still regarded as the head of the family and is still ahead of female gender in the provisions of family needs, female gender share in all household expenses, such as house-rent, decision making, payment of children school fees To promote gender equality in this post millennium development goals (MDGs) era, there is need for more women empowerment programmes and projects, enlightenment campaign on more female involvement in decision making and inclusion of women interest in development policies in Nigeria

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The influence of organizational culture on organizational commitment was investigated in this article, where a simple regression analysis was used to test the three hypotheses in this study and the results were discussed in relation to the theories and previous findings on commitment.
Abstract: The influence of dimensions of organizational culture on organizational commitment was investigated in this paper. A convenient sample made up of Two hundred (200) participants was randomly selected from private and public institutions in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. They were 113 males and 87 females whose age range between 20 and 63 years with a mean age of 35.4 years. The design adopted was a survey design. The predictor variable of interest in the study was organizational culture, and the dependent variable of interest was organizational commitment. A simple regression analysis was used to test the three hypotheses in this study. Hypothesis I which stated that “there will be a statistically significant influence of organizational culture on organizational commitment” was accepted. Hypothesis II which stated that “there will be a statistically significant influence of culture mission on affective commitment was confirmed, thus the hypothesis also accepted. However, hypothesis III which stated that “there will be a statistically significant influence of culture adaptability in continuance commitment was not confirmed. The results were discussed in relation to the theories and previous findings on organizational commitment. Implications of the study were discussed, it was, however, suggested that a more holistic and multi-level analysis be adopted by researchers investigating the relationships between organizational culture and employees’ commitment profiles. Keywords : organizational culture, organizational commitment, culture consistency, normative commitment, culture mission

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Suggestions for intervention include health education, especially during antenatal/postnatal sessions and aggressive advocacy on the effectiveness of EBF, as well as social action theory and Ajzen and Fishbien's Theory of Reasoned Action.
Abstract: Breastfeeding is a major factor in child growth and very effective as a birth-spacing method, yet its use is still low in developing countries. This study examined the impact of socio-demographic factors on the reported low usage of breastfeeding as a child-spacing method. The study utilized the combination of Max Weber's Social Action Theory and Ajzen and Fishbien's Theory of Reasoned Action as its theoretical framework. Three hundred and thirty-eight copies of a structured questionnaire were administered to nursing mothers. Additional data were collected through qualitative method, such as in-depth interview. A total of 71.4% of the nursing mothers who had post-secondary education had a higher knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) as a contraceptive, while 68.8% of the women with lower income would likely use EBF as a contraceptive. A total of 45.4% of the nursing mothers were using EBF as contraceptive, while 31.5% were complementing it with other family planning methods. Socio-demographic factors such as age, income, education and ethnic membership affected the use of EBF as a contraceptive. Suggestions for intervention include health education, especially during antenatal/postnatal sessions and aggressive advocacy on the effectiveness of EBF.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the aptitude of Islam to enforce and perpetuate peaceful coexistence as translated into human civic responsibility, democratic demeanor, responsible citizenship, cultured dialogue and tolerance among the peoples in Nigeria.
Abstract: According to Karl Marx; Religion is the opium of the masses, the sop of the oppressed while Sigmund Freud defined it as a childhood fear or neuroses. The foregoing definition indicates that religion is a product of fear and insecurity. Religion serves as a unifying factor among adherents who share a belief system but it should be noted that it also becomes a divisive factor among those who share different belief systems. Various religions exist in the world and a few of them are consistently at loggerheads with each other because each claims a monopoly of a supreme being or all powerful deities who direct and guide the affairs of the society. The constant clashes between various religions in a multicultural society tend to lead to the violation of universal human rights, intolerance and unforgiveness since such societies are marked by mistrust, intolerance and fear. The most notorious religions exhibiting intolerance the world over are Islam and Christianity because of their rabid belief in the supremacy of their deity. These two religions have been at loggerheads for a long time. Although they both claim to be religions of peace and love respectively but have practiced hatred and warfare consistently. This hypocritical mien creates a cause for concern given the stark difference between the theory and practice of their religion. This paper focuses on the aptitude of peace as presented and practiced in Islamic adherents in a multicultural state like Nigeria. Islam; although indicating peace etymologically has precipitated the exhibition of disruptive, violent, religio-phobic, religio-centric and terrorist behaviours among adherents in the Nigerian state. Muslims have been known to have killed Christians and destroyed their properties indiscriminately during religious conflict in many cases. The Christians also did not waste time before revenging. This paper critically pinpoints how Islamic principles can be utilized to enforce and perpetuate peaceful coexistence as translated into human civic responsibility, democratic demeanor, responsible citizenship, cultured dialogue and tolerance among the peoples in the multicultural society of Nigeria.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that informationseeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide, and make recommendations for improving library services and technologies to better meet the information needs of social sciences scholars in general.
Abstract: This article examines the information-seeking behavior of scholars in the social sciences, based on the premise that information-seeking behavior follows universally applicable stages and patterns worldwide. The study was conducted at the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research (NISER). Fifty eight active social sciences scholars were interviewed via a questionnaire about their information sources for research and consultancy purposes, their preference for electronic or printed formats, their use of electronic or Internet resources, and how they meet or satisfy their information needs, among others. Results show that journals and books were the most preferred information sources, and a large majority of scholars “regularly” used electronic information resources for their research and consultancy needs. The findings of the study also demonstrate diverse usage patterns for electronic information resources among users of different academic ranks and age range. Based on the research findings, the author provides suggestions on how current information services and products can be improved to better serve the users. The author also makes recommendations for improving library services and technologies to better meet the information needs of social sciences scholars in general. Keywords: Information-seeking behavior, social sciences scholars, information sources, electronic information resources, library, NISER

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a descriptive survey research design of correlational type is presented, where suicide ideation was the most potent contributor to victim of rape and sexual harassment, followed by depression and anxiety in that order and the others factors like anger, shock, fear and self blame are not significant.
Abstract: In everyday life, human beings are confronted with numerous psychological problems. These psychological problems are numerous and vital that at times they claim human life. One of such psychological problems is the one being face by victims of rape and sexual harassment in which many individual may be hesitant to talk about but it is something that should be discussed, because of its psychological and social effects of it on its victims. The study is a descriptive survey research design of correlational type. The study was carried out in four different locations in Ibadan metropolis and volunteering sampling technique was used for the study due to characteristics of the study. The total sample for the study was 552. Three research questions were raised and answered using correlation and regression analysis. It was found that suicide ideation was the most potent contributor to victim of rape and sexual harassment while flash back was the next significant contributor to victim of rape and sexual harassment, followed by depression and anxiety in that order and the others factors like anger, shock, fear and self blame are not significant. Parents should made efforts to be there for their children despite their age by giving them counsel and moral training. Victims/survivors to any form of sexual trauma should seek professional help in order to alleviate any negative effects or aversion it might have on them. Counsellors’ centres, office of crisis programme etc should be established and supported by government and parastatal for successful collaboration on this criminal act in our society.Conclusively, this study has been able to substantiate that schooling alone cannot produce a better and competitive future leaders but a full concerted effort using other various integrated and practical approaches that deal with skill acquisition and character. The study recommended inters alia that parents, guidance and significant others should try as much as possible to inculcate sound training to their child and ward before they become nuisance to the community.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the mediating role of mindfulness and opportunity identification in the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial actions among graduates, and found that mindfulness was an effective mediator in the relation between entrepreneurial belief and entrepreneurial action, while the effect of opportunity identification was unexpectedly not significant.
Abstract: Reducing unemployment challenges is possible with graduates becoming entrepreneurs. However, the challenge persists as a result of difficulties in transmitting entrepreneurial efficaciousness from training programmes to successful entrepreneurial actions. A dearth of studies exists with regard to how certain key entrepreneurial skills as habit and ways of the mind as well as opportunity identification influence entrepreneurial ship. This study investigated the possible mediating role of mindfulness and opportunity identification in the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial actions among graduates. Using the ex-post facto design, four hundred (400) hundred corps graduates in the National Youth Service Corp deployed to serve in Oyo state were selected for the study. Four standardized and valid scale were used for data collection. Two research hypotheses were tested in the study Data was analyzed, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Path analysis.. The result indicated that there were significant relationships among all four variables investigated. While mindfulness was an effective mediator in the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial action, the effect of opportunity identification was unexpectedly not significant. This study therefore suggest the inclusion and promotion of mindfulness and opportunity identification skills in entrepreneurial development programmes and course targeting graduates from tertiary institutions. Keywords: Entrepreneurial self-efficacy, Mindfulness, Opportunity identification, Entrepreneurial actions

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TL;DR: In this article, some psychosocial variables (Self-efficacy, school connectedness, parents attitude towards school, parent involvement, and peer influence) were investigated as predictors of school attendance behavior among secondary school students in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.
Abstract: Behavioural problems associated with school attendance have become a major concern to government and stakeholders in the education sector. Therefore, this study investigated some psychosocial variables (Self-efficacy, School Connectedness, Parents’ Attitude towards School, Parental Involvement and Peer Influence) as predictors of School Attendance Behaviour among secondary school students in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. A sample of 300 secondary school students drawn from the 3 Local Government Areas in Owerri participated in the study. They responded to six 6 valid and reliable instruments, namely: generalized self-efficacy developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem (1993), with a reliability coefficient at alphas level r = 0.72.; School Connectedness Rating Scale by Blum (2002) with reliability coefficients adequate at 0.80. Attitude Towards School Rating Scale by Samal (2012) with a coefficient alpha of r = 0.60. Parental Involvement Scale developed by Hicks (2006) ;r = 0.58. Peer influence scale was developed by Mangleburg, Doney and Bristol (2004) with an alpha level of r = 0.86. and finally School Attendance Behaviour Rating Scale by McCoach and Siegle (2002) with a Crumbach alpha of r = 0.69. Data analysis involved the use of Multiple Regression Analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) to seek possible predictive capacity of the 5 independent variables on School Attendance Behaviour. The result indicated positive correlations among variables, and the five independent variables when taken together, contributed 24%, while relative contributions revealed Parents’ Attitude towards School as the highest contributor with a β of .336, followed by Self-efficacy (β =.185); Peer Influence (β = .127); School Connectedness (β = .091) and Parent Involvement (β = -.094) respectively. On the basis of these findings, recommendations were made chief among which is that government should not rest on its oars else the free education policy will remain just a policy paper with no positive measurable outcome. Therefore, among other things government must embark on aggressive campaign using the mass media and other media as well as advocacy visits to the local communities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the cumulative occurrence of traumatic events and the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-V) criteria, in a high-risk sample of youth in urban city of Lagos, Nigeria.
Abstract: This study estimates the cumulative occurrence of traumatic events and the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-V) criteria, in a high-risk sample of youth in urban city of Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were interviewed about history of trauma and PTSD in 2011 – 2012 when their mean age was 16.5 years (n = 1, 702). The study revealed that the lifetime occurrence of assaultive violence was 62.5% in males and 33.6% in females. Females had a higher risk of PTSD than males following assaultive violence (odds ratio = 4.0, 95%) confidence interval (2.0 – 8.3), but not following other traumas. The findings of this study of youth in urban city in Lagos reveal (i)A high proportion of males 62.5% had experience one or more events involving assaultive violence: 20.3% had been mugged/threatened with a weapon, and 24.2% had been shot/stabbed.(ii) The overall conditional risk of PTSD was 8.7%; the PTSD risk following assaultive violence was the highest (16.3%).(iii) Females’ conditional risk of PTSD following exposure to assaultive violence was higher than that of males; females’ risk of PTSD did not exceed that of males following other event categories. A comparison of the results from this heterogeneous sample of youth from urban city of Lagos with the results from study of suburban sample in which the same criteria and measures of trauma and PTSD were used suggested the possibility that males’ risk for assaultive violence and females’ risk for PTSD following exposure to assaultive violence might vary by characteristics of the environment especially social environment.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the interplay among cognitive social learning variables that play a significant role in social mobilization, namely social capital, psychological sense of community, group member satisfaction and how they influence psychological empowerment.
Abstract: Many community mobilizers in Uganda do not recognize that psychological empowerment is central in social mobilization, and that social mobilization involves an interplay among several social psychological variables including; social capital, psychological sense of community and group member satisfaction to produce psychological empowerment for volunteers. This has led to rapid decline of well intended HIV/AIDS community initiatives. The study uses a cross-sectional survey design and explores the interplay among cognitive social learning variables that play a significant role in social mobilization, namely social capital, psychological sense of community, group member satisfaction and how they influence psychological empowerment. The study is grounded on the premise that the success of community initiatives relies on the strengths, commitment, expertise, skills and empowerment of volunteers. Data was collected from 370 respondents work ing as volunteers supporting people living with HIV/AIDS from five geographic clusters. The questionnaire used 4-point Likert scales in each of the four sections assessing social capital, psychological sense of community, group member satisfaction and psychological empowerment. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis are used to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study show that there is a significant relationship between group member satisfaction and psychological empowerment (p = 0.029), social capital and psychological sense of community (p = 0.000), and psychological empowerment and psychological sense of community (p = 0.000). Results also show that psychological sense of community (p = 0.000), is a stronger predictor of psychological empowerment than group member satisfaction (p = 0.060). The study recommends that in-order to be effective in social mobilization at the community level, it is essential to comprehend how the cognitive social learning variables interact to build psychological empowerment.