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Showing papers in "African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development in 2023"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used qualitative document analysis (QDA) to collect and analyze the documentary data available in relevant statutes, namely the Engineers Registration Act (1969-2012), the Engineers Act (from 2012), and the Engineering Technology Act, as well as the Auditor-General’s annual reports.
Abstract: Regulation is usually justified by the public interest in theory but in practice may end up serving special interests. This paper evaluates the regulatory frameworks for engineers and engineering technologists in Kenya with the view to establishing whether they take the public interest into consideration or only other special interests. Taking public interest into account is necessary to foster development and avoid regulatory conflicts. The study used qualitative document analysis (QDA) to collect and analyze the documentary data available in relevant statutes, namely the Engineers Registration Act (1969–2012), the Engineers Act (from 2012), and the Engineering Technology Act, as well as the Auditor-General’s annual reports. The main aim of the study is to establish whether the regulators are motivated by public interest or not. The findings are that public interest is not the main goal because regulators focus on non-regulatory activities such as business investments, there is capture of regulatory instruments by the regulator, there is limited inclusion of other actors in the regulatory operations, there is engagement in extraprofessional activities with the risk of distraction from the core mandate of professional regulation, there is budgeting for excess funds, a lack of clear definition of the public interest in the relevant sections of the statute. The findings confirm pursuit of special interests by the regulators, rather than the public interest. The main contribution of the study is that in developing and African countries, regulatory mechanism of professions can be captured by the regulators to further narrow or special interests, just as it happens with the regulation of businesses.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors evaluated the effectiveness of multiple supervised machine learning models for tax fraud factors on an accurate data set with numerous tax types and found that Artificial Neural Network was the most robust model for predicting tax fraud.
Abstract: With the advancement in technology, the tax base in Rwanda has become broader, and as a result, tax fraud is growing. Depending on the dataset used, fraud detection experts and researchers have used different methods to identify questionable cases. This paper aims to predict features of tax fraud using the most robust supervised machine-learning model. This research provides a context where a fraud expert can use a machine-learning model, and an implemented model offers instant feedback to the fraud expert. We evaluate supervised machine learning models such as Artificial Neural Network, Logistic Regression, Decision Tree, Random Forest, GaussianNB and XGBoost. Based on different evaluation metrics, Artificial Neural Network was the most robust model for predicting tax fraud. Findings reveal that the time of business that indicates the difference in time from when a business started and the time it was audited, the domestic businesses, taxpayers who import and export goods, those with no losses, those whose businesses are located in the eastern province, and those registered on withholding and Value Added Tax types are more susceptible to tax fraud. This study is among the few to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple supervised machine-learning models for identifying tax fraud factors on an accurate data set with numerous tax types. The evidence generated in the current study will serve as a valuable tool for both tax policymakers and auditors, as well as for enhancing awareness of more robust methods for predicting tax fraud.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors developed a conceptual framework that explains how TTOs can catalyze these collaborations in Botswana and employed inductive analysis to synthesize interview data and analyze it using domain analysis and componential analysis.
Abstract: The university-industry contractual research collaborations to solve complex problems jointly and create social and economic impact have long existed. Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs) constitute formal technology intermediaries established to strengthen university-industry collaborations. However, the differences in needs and capabilities, individual and organizational backgrounds, and innovative learning modes inhibit effective partnerships. We develop a conceptual framework that explains how TTOs can catalyze these collaborations in Botswana. We use the grounded theory approach to examine the TTOs’ challenges and opportunities in strengthening university-industry linkages. Notably, we employ inductive analysis to synthesize interview data and analyze it using domain analysis and componential analysis. Data were extracted from the university and industry policies and documents and interviews with 102 participants from two universities (42.2%) and three industry firms (57.8%) involved in technology transfer. We found 71.6% had excellent knowledge and experience and 28.4% had varying degrees of experience. While individual or independent consultancies (44.1%) lead, TTOs facilitate collaboration through contractual research agreements (32.4%), technology licensing (22.5%), and joint ventures (10.8%). This demonstrates entities' significant access to each other's financial and technological resources. This allows entities to generate new knowledge, equip each other with tools and competencies required to produce commercial products and new revenue streams. Most significantly, while Botswana has displayed remarkable progress toward strengthening its institutional support systems for technology transfer and commercialization, there is a shortage of IP expertise at universities and industries, possibly leading to low levels of IP awareness. Also, most institutions have incomplete IP strategies, and there is inadequate administration and enforcement of intellectual property rights systems at the national level, possibly contributing to low national IP filings. Therefore, we recommend entities fully engage in vigorous IP activities, review and finalize their IP policies and make them flexible yet equitably based on the needs of the collaborating industry firms.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors focus on identifying the outbound logistical aspect of the pharmaceutical supply chain's performance measures and metrics, mainly based on previous studies and opinions of the case company's management staff.
Abstract: A lot of attention has been paid to performance measurement during the past few decades. There are several reasons for utilizing performance measurement in a business, but the most important one is that, when done right, it will increase productivity. Productivity is crucial to a business’s capacity to compete and generate long-term profitability while providing required customer service. A firm will not last in the fierce business world of today if it cannot use its resources effectively to provide value for its consumers. This is especially important for public companies with limited public investments. The creation of adequate and completely usable performance assessment systems, or sets of measures, has, nevertheless, proven to be a very difficult process. This research has focused on the identification of key performance measures and metrics, on which there is still no common understanding. It focuses on identifying the outbound logistical aspect of the pharmaceutical supply chain’s performance measures and metrics. The study is mainly based on previous studies and opinions of the case company’s management staff. Based on a review of previous studies on and discussions with the management staff of the case company, performance measures for a pharmaceutical supply chain (focusing on inventory management and distribution activities) are identified and categorized into quality, time, financial, and productivity measures. Quality measures are observed to be the most crucial metric while assessing pharmaceutical supply chain performance. The case company’s management can utilize the study as a base to develop their own performance measurement system.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors investigated smallholder farmers' intentions to continue using the Ugunduzi app in the Tanzanian districts of Masasi, Mvomero, and Bagamoyo.
Abstract: Farmer-led research of agro-ecological practices could support smallholder farmers in identifying the best-fit practices to improve crop production. A smartphone based app named Ugunduzi was developed purposefully to support farmers in their research activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate smallholder farmers’ intentions to continue using the Ugunduzi app in the Tanzanian districts of Masasi, Mvomero, and Bagamoyo. Cross-sectional research design was used in which qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 60 smallholder farmers who participated in the research and used the Ugunduzi app. Partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) using SmartPLS 3 was employed to analyze the data. The results indicated that the app could continue to be used by smallholder farmers in the study areas due to its usefulness in supporting them to identify best-fit agro-ecological practices in their areas and to have a better future season plan through records kept in the app. The app also showed great potential for increasing agro-ecological knowledge through sharing information. However, a few difficulties were observed, especially in the early stage of using the app due to some processes involved. From the study findings, it was recommended that, due to its effectiveness observed in supporting farmers, the app be promoted by development actors to be used by many smallholder farmers around the study areas to improve crop production. In order to support farmers in reducing the effort required to use the app, it was recommended that key stakeholders provide farmers more training on effective use of the app.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors investigated senior South African high school students' levels of knowledge, perception, attitude, and awareness toward nuclear energy using paper-based, semi-structured questionnaires and digital data collection instruments through online Google forms.
Abstract: This study investigated senior South African high school students’ levels of knowledge, perception, attitude, and awareness toward nuclear energy using paper-based, semi-structured questionnaires and digital data collection instruments through online Google forms. The sample consisted of 100 high school students from two schools. Fifty students were chosen from a public school, and fifty students were selected from a private/independent school. It was found that regardless of the type of school, students showed little to no knowledge, low awareness, and significant ignorance of nuclear energy. The majority of students had never heard of nuclear energy. In terms of initial exposure to the concept of nuclear energy, private school learners seemed to have been exposed to the industry more through television. In contrast, for public school learners, educators were their main sources of introduction. Conversely, the perception of this form of energy is much more positive in private schools than in public schools. This study highlights the existence of a severe gap in high school education regarding the teaching and learning of nuclear energy. Hence, an energy-cognizant curriculum is needed to bridge the gap in both public and private schools.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examined the effects of renewable energy use on the output growth convergence, as well as the impacts of renewable energies use for an alternative to carbon emission (CO2) abatement in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).
Abstract: This study examined the effects of renewable energy use on the output growth convergence, as well as the impacts of renewable energy use for an alternative to carbon emission (CO2) abatement in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The dual purpose followed the Solow growth model for output and the expanded Stokey pollution model for CO2 abatement, respectively. An error correction model was used to determine output convergence while a stepwise regression model was applied to ascertain the impacts of renewable energy use on CO2 abatement. The aggregated data on carbon emission intensity, output growth, per capita emission, and population growth were collected from World Bank development indicators for the period of 1990Q1 to 2017Q4 on SSA. Empirical evidence from the study reveals that output converges in SSA at 22% adjustment speed and it is largely accounted for by renewable energy use. The abatement of CO2 using renewable energy is not significant for adoption as the solution to carbon emission mitigation in SSA. The ratio of CO2 to renewable energy use shows a wide gap range of 3.12% to 1%. Therefore, the study recommends intensive pro-renewable energy use policies to close the gap and further redress the significance of renewable energy use as a sustainable alternative to the carbon abatement policy instrument. Furthermore, the sustainability of renewable energy use for a speedy economic growth and carbon emission reduction may not be significant with the current findings on renewable energy use in SSA.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors examined the construct validity of the Corporate Virtue Scale (CEV) and found if there is any association between ethical culture and its impact on employees' wellbeing.
Abstract: Ethical culture is the epitome of the success of various organizations and a prerequisite for progress. This study aimed to examine the construct validity of the Corporate Virtue Scale (CEV) and find if there is any association between ethical culture and its impact on employees’ wellbeing. The sample was composed of 277 managers from various government entities in the Buffalo Municipality in South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to validate the eight-factor CEV scale. The employees’ perceptions of ethical culture in public entities were associated with their stress levels and emotional exhaustion. Thus, the findings of this study revealed that the ethical culture of organizations plays a huge role in the wellbeing of employees. The study concludes that the CEV scale is a proven instrument with construct validity. The recommendation is that the government should focus on simplifying rules and procedures that help to cultivate an ethical culture within public entities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors present a biometric technology perception by members of staff from government agencies in Nigeria, namely: the National Identity Management Commission and Joint Admission Matriculation Board, on the use of selected technology for ethnicity recognition.
Abstract: Selected biometric technologies such as iris, face, gait, voice, etc. are widely used for the recognition of individuals. This paper presents a biometric technology perception by members of staff from government agencies in Nigeria, namely: the National Identity Management Commission and Joint Admission Matriculation Board, on the use of selected technology for ethnicity recognition. The study was conducted using the quantitative method. Data were collected from the staff of selected agencies. Fingerprint, facial, and iris biometrics were selected for this experiment. Using the modified Technology Acceptance Model framework, results from the experiment showed the perception of staff on selected technologies in ethnicity recognition. Results show that technology enhanced job effectiveness, the majority of respondents agreed that fingerprint and facial biometrics would improve ethnicity detection; hence they were a popular choice for ethnicity recognition. The study showed that determining ethnicity from iris biometric would be difficult as the majority do not see the iris as a means of identifying a particular ethnic group. Five different hypotheses were tested to determine compatibility, ease of use, and attitude towards use (ATU) of the selected technology. Results showed that selected biometrics can effectively determine an ethnic group with a significance value at 0.000.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors explored and described the Frugal innovation of female social entrepreneurs who are able to grow their endeavours, and found that the enablers of FrugAL Innovation in the social entrepreneurial context are leveraged by the women in the study to grow the endeavours towards systemic integration.
Abstract: The good practices of female social entrepreneurs in developing contexts who are able to grow their social entrepreneurial endeavours through innovative problem-solving processes should be understood in order to inform policymakers and models that enhance social value add and innovation for social good. This study explores and describes the Frugal Innovation of female social entrepreneurs who are able to grow their endeavours. Problems that the women deal with are linked to the dimensions of Frugal Innovation from a Design Thinking perspective to illustrate the complexity of the issues that these women encounter. A qualitative approach is applied to the study. A purposive sample of 11 cases of a South African sample frame of 45 was selected as these women displayed growth and innovation in their endeavours whilst engaging in solving complex problems. In a content analysis on their innovative problem-solving, findings indicate that the enablers of Frugal Innovation in the social entrepreneurial context are leveraged by the women in the study to grow their endeavours towards systemic integration. This way, they are creating more sustainable solutions that can be viewed as good practice which may inform policymakers and other social entrepreneurial models. The original contribution of this study lies in the application of the theoretical framework in an interdisciplinary way, to provide insight on Frugal Innovation in a social entrepreneurial context that might become increasingly relevant in a post-pandemic world.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors examined the significant differences in income between males and females before and after livelihood diversification and concluded that women earn higher marginal incomes than their male counterparts, and recommended that government policy focus on assistance for female rural dwellers in credit accessibility should be strengthened.
Abstract: Livelihood diversification is a coping strategy that functions as a cushioning effect owing to dwindling income from agriculture. This study examined the significant differences in income between males and females before and after livelihood diversification. The multi-stage sampling procedure was employed to select the respondents. Data were collected through the administration of well-structured questionnaires and were analyzed using both descriptive and multiple regression analyses. The mean annual income of male and female household heads before livelihood diversification was N195,200 ± 4,135 and N220,203 ± 5,300, respectively, while annual income after livelihood diversification averaged N206,195 ± 6,540 and N275,105 ± 4,100 for male and female, respectively. Age (p < 0.01) and years of formal education (p < 0.05) both had positive influence, and farm size (p < 0.01) which was negative were the determinants of livelihood diversification among males. The determinants of livelihood diversification of females were age (p < 0.05) which was negative, while positive factors included household size (p < 0.05), and access to credit (p < 0.01). It was concluded that livelihood diversification increased the earnings of the rural dwellers, with females earning higher marginal incomes than their male counterparts. The study, therefore, recommended that government policy focus on assistance for female rural dwellers in credit accessibility should be strengthened.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors investigated the factors that influence the extent of the use of fodder technologies in the Insiza District of Zimbabwe, as well as the reasons for their low adoption and the lower participation of women than men in fodder interventions.
Abstract: The study investigated the factors that influence the extent of the use of fodder technologies in the Insiza District of Zimbabwe, as well as the reasons for their low adoption and the lower participation of women than men in fodder interventions. A mixed methods approach was used and data were collected using a structured questionnaire, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions. The multi-stage sampling approach was used to generate a sample of 224 respondents who received training on fodder production from the Zimbabwe Resilience Building Fund (ZRBF) intervention. Using the ordered probit regression model, factors such as gender, education level attained, cattle herd size, total livestock units, land size, willingness to invest more in fodder, engagement in farm enterprises, and intensity of collaborations were found to significantly influence the number of improved fodder technologies adopted. In addition, farmers perceived that fodder technologies are beneficial. The imposition of externally determined innovations, as well as the scarcity of seed for fodder crops, were cited as the primary reasons for the low adoption of fodder technologies promoted prior to the ZRBF intervention. Findings also suggested the existence of gender-specific constraints emanating from the prevalence of a powerful patriarchal culture as the major factor limiting women’s participation in fodder interventions relative to men. Thus, the study recommends that the ZRBF and the government design well-packaged rural development policies, promote equitable gender participation and adopt participatory approaches when proffering solutions to local community problems. The study’s original contributions include the use of a mixed methods approach, a focus on the extent of fodder technology adoption rather than the probability of adoption, and an investigation into the reasons for women’s lower participation than men in fodder intervention.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the relative importance of the determinants of the intention to use autonomous vehicles was measured by using an online questionnaire to collect data and integrating this in a modified Technological Acceptance model.
Abstract: This study measures the relative importance of the determinants of the intentions to use autonomous vehicles. We hypothesize that the intention to use is influenced by perceived usefulness and perceived ease and that the perceived usefulness will be determined by driving pleasure and psychological ownership. The perceived risk may also negatively affect the intention to use autonomous vehicles. We also hypothesize that an external variable, public transportation, will too influence psychological ownership and the intention to use. We integrate this in a modified Technological Acceptance model. We use an online questionnaire to collect data. Based on our sample, we find that public transportation availability is not related to the intention to use and that psychological ownership is not associated with perceived ease of use. The significant direct relationships are that intention to use autonomous vehicles is influenced positively by psychological ownership, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use, and negatively by psychological driving pleasure and perceived risk. The primary recommendations for manufacturers of vehicles would be to indicate that the autonomous vehicle is not risky or that its risk is considerably less than that of a human-driven vehicle.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors provided empirical evidence on the determinants, perceptions, and constraints of crossbred dairy cow adoption decisions and intensity by dairy farmers through primary data sourced from 204 dairy farmers using a multi-stage sampling approach.
Abstract: Evidence on the factors that influence crossbred dairy cow adoption decisions and intensity by dairy farmers in the Debub Ari district is limited. This study provides empirical evidence on the determinants, perceptions, and constraints of crossbred dairy cow adoption decisions and intensity by dairy farmers through primary data sourced from 204 dairy farmers using a multi-stage sampling approach. Heckman’s two-stage model, the perception index, and Kendall’s coefficient of concordances were used for data analysis. This study found that there is a positive perception regarding crossbred dairy cows and a good attitude among farmers. However, less than fifty per cent of the dairy farmers had adopted crossbred dairy cows. Besides, the adoption decision of crossbred dairy cows is influenced by training, feed shortages, credit service, vet service, age, and experience; adoption intensity is influenced by extension services, vet services, feed shortages, and credit services. Therefore, the livestock sector of the district or regional government should work on the mentioned policy variables mainly related to the full package (feed, vet services, and credit access) of crossbreed dairy production because breed introduction alone does not enhance the adoption and intensity of using the technology.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the influence of workplace factors on creativity and innovation in micro and small enterprises (MSEs) was examined based on the componential model of organizational creativity to confirm the determinants of creativity of MSEs in the workplace setting.
Abstract: This study examines the influence of workplace factors on creativity and innovation in micro and small enterprises (MSEs). The study is based on the componential model of organizational creativity to confirm the determinants of creativity of MSEs in the workplace setting. The study employed a quantitative research approach and a cross-sectional survey design via an adapted questionnaire to gather information from participants. The questionnaire was distributed randomly among 286 respondents from different micro and small enterprises in Woldia city. The results revealed that organizational encouragement, supervisor support, sufficient resources, and absence of organizational impediments are statistically significant and positively related to MSEs’ creativity and innovation; however, challenging work is statistically significant and negatively associated with creativity and innovation. The remaining variables, workgroup support and job autonomy have no statistically significant effect on MSEs’ creativity and innovation. This study is significant in that it enables managers to understand that creativity and innovation success depend on many interrelated variables in the workplace, which must be considered in establishing strategies that encourage and recognize creativity and innovation in micro and small enterprises. This paper contributes to the thin scholarly literature on creativity and innovation in MSEs’ workplace settings by investigating the influence of workplace factors on creativity and innovation.


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TL;DR: In this article , the authors examined the blue economy in the context of marine communities' socioeconomic characteristics that could lead to changing patterns in the use of ocean resources and found that most marine households enjoy a reasonably high standard of living, which bodes well for blue economy principles.
Abstract: For centuries resource economists have persistently debated and discussed the potential of the green economy and how it should be protected and used sustainably. Most studies to date on the economic value of natural resources have thus concentrated on the green economy and how countries could harness its resources to achieve growth and development. However, perhaps the blue economy (i.e., ocean resources) could also help achieve growth and development. Studies on the blue economy are concept notes, reports and literature reviews on the evolving definition of the concept. Therefore, we examine the blue economy in the context of marine communities’ socioeconomic characteristics that could lead to changing patterns in the use of ocean resources. Using household survey data (Ghana Living Standard Survey – GLSS 7) and regression analysis, we investigate the socioeconomic lives and welfare of marine communities amidst blue economy principles. We found that most marine households enjoy a reasonably high standard of living, which bodes well for blue economy principles as livelihood diversification could reduce pressure on fishing as the only job in these communities. However, we also found that many rural coastal communities have more appalling socioeconomic living conditions than their urban counterparts, with poor amenities (like toilet facilities and waste disposal). These are potential threats to the achievement of a blue economy. Thus, policy implications are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Business Innovation Canvas as mentioned in this paper is a conceptual framework and canvas tool constructed from universal meaning and language for business innovation with the aim of providing a set of common questions that business practitioners could ask during times of innovation.
Abstract: In this conceptual work, we describe cross-disciplinary meaning and language related to the innovation phenomenon located in a business context. Our work attempts to find common meaning and language for innovation that can be applied across all business innovation projects irrespective of the business discipline, and to synthesize these common terms into an innovation communication and planning tool. The objective of providing a common meaning and language for innovation is to give practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders a shared communication platform, and common language and meaning that assist incumbents to discuss and collaborate during innovation projects without the boundaries created by siloed, nuanced, and discipline-specific understandings. The outcome of the paper is a conceptual framework and canvas tool constructed from universal meaning and language for business innovation with the aim of providing a set of common questions that business practitioners could ask during times of innovation. Furthermore, the Business Innovation Canvas provides new directions for future study and the development of tools that take advantage of common meaning and language to aid innovation practitioners and researchers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors used the propensity score matching (PSM) model to evaluate the impact of climate-smart crop varieties on food security and found that about 59.74% of the respondents were adopters of climate smart crop varieties.
Abstract: Climate-smart crop varieties (CSV) are vital in improving food security by enhancing productivity while reducing problems of climate change. However, there is a low adoption of these varieties by the farmers in the study area due to lack of awareness of their impact on food security. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze their impact on food security in southwestern Ethiopia. The data were collected from 385 randomly selected sample households using a semi-structured questionnaire. Both descriptive and econometric analyses were used to analyze the data. The propensity score matching (PSM) model was used to evaluate the impact of climate-smart crop varieties on food security. Descriptive analysis showed that about 59.74% of the respondents were adopters of climate-smart crop varieties. The PSM analysis result revealed that the adoption of climate-smart crop varieties had a significant positive impact on food security. This implies that the likelihood of being food secure would increase by a factor of 0.8 if the climate-smart crop varieties were adopted. Therefore, developing and disseminating the climate-smart crop varieties at the right time through educational improvement (strengthening collaboration) and allocating land for their development is suggested for policymakers to improve food security.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors present lessons learned from design projects conducted in Tanzania since 2015, which focused on solving Tanzanian challenges in a number of sectors: street vending businesses, women traders, small-scale farmers, micro traders, and education.
Abstract: Design science research (DSR) has become a well-accepted research paradigm in information system research. DSR aims at solving people’s obstacles by creating solutions and thus bringing about human development. In this paper, we present lessons learned from design projects conducted in Tanzania since 2015. These projects focused on solving Tanzanian challenges in a number of sectors: street vending businesses, women traders, small-scale farmers, micro traders, and education. We reviewed six projects carried out in Tanzania using documentary review and open-ended questionnaires. The findings revealed how researchers reinforce the DSR framework, and the motives, challenges, and lessons learned from the application of DSR in sparse resource settings to inform future designs. The findings of the current study will help existing and future IT designers, policymakers, curriculum developers, researchers, and other information and communications technologies for development stakeholders to come up with appropriate solutions for inclusive development.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors investigated the dynamics of online shopping focusing on mediation analysis of customer satisfaction on e-service quality and purchase intention, and found that system availability, efficiency, responsiveness, fulfilment, privacy and compensation can be collectively used to measure electronic service dimensions in online shopping.
Abstract: The study investigated the dynamics of online shopping focusing on mediation analysis of customer satisfaction on e-service quality and purchase intention. The study used a cross-sectional quantitative method where 324 responses were collected through a self-administered online survey questionnaire from South African consumers. The findings revealed that system availability, efficiency, responsiveness, fulfilment, privacy and compensation can be collectively used to measure electronic service dimensions in online shopping. These dimensions have a statistically significant relationship with purchase intention, while customer satisfaction has a mediation effect on the relationship. Customer satisfaction has a full mediation effect on the relationship between electronic service quality dimensions, compensation and privacy and trust with purchase intention and partial mediation between electronic service quality dimensions, responsiveness, efficiency and system availability with purchase intention. These findings inform businesses that are using online shopping platforms and assist them in prioritizing their resources. The contribution of the research is the use of the value-percept paradigm that is enhanced by importance-analysis within customer satisfaction as a mediator on e-service quality and purchase intention. This underpins the importance of customers' values and, more importantly, a 'customized' customer, where 'one size fit all' is diminishing during the time of technological advances.

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TL;DR: In this article , a propensity score matching model was employed to analyze the impact of participation in both agriculture and non-agriculture activities on household food security, and the results indicated that age, education level, household size, number of contacts with extension agents, and number of livestock in tropical livestock units have a significant effect on household participation.
Abstract: Using primary data collected from 462 farm households, this paper aims to examine the impact of income diversification on rural household food security in Ethiopia. A propensity score matching model was employed to analyze the impact of participation in both agriculture and non-agriculture activities on household food security. The results indicate that age, education level, household size, number of contacts with extension agents, and numbers of livestock in tropical livestock units have a significant effect on household participation in both agriculture and non-agriculture sources of income generation. The propensity score matching result suggested that participation in both agriculture and non-agriculture would increase the rural household food security status by 10.6% to 19.5%, mainly due to a positive effect of additional sources of income generation from non-agriculture activities as witnessed in present and past studies. Therefore, to make considerable improvement on the food security situation, there is need to promote and scale-up on-farm, off-farm and non-farm income-generating activities in rural areas to diversify income sources so as to improve food security status of the rural households in Ethiopia.

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TL;DR: In this article , a mixed-method study was conducted with managers and experts who were involved in the Iranian oil agreement writing and document reviewing teams, and the results showed that the realization of technological learning in the oil industry of developing countries depends on increasing the absorptive capacity of domestic enterprises as well as governments creating the necessary infrastructure.
Abstract: The important role of technological learning in the success of enterprises, especially in developing countries, is undeniable. Besides that, the complex nature of learning requires a comprehensive framework. So, developing countries need to have a learning strategy that can help them to increase learning through collaboration. In this research, a mixed method study, after reviewing the literature and previous research, the theoretical framework of the research was extracted and the protocol for the interview was formed. Then the dimensions and factors of technological learning were derived from interviews with managers and experts who were in the Iranian oil agreement writing and document reviewing teams. To form the framework presented in this study, it is necessary for developing countries to implement a transition from the control and prescription phase to the incentive and technology support phase. Motivational regulation can also lead to better results in industry. The results of this paper show that the realization of technological learning in the oil industry of developing countries depends on increasing the absorptive capacity of domestic enterprises as well as governments creating the necessary infrastructure. The results also show the dependency of technological learning on the cultural, social, and international relations of country.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors used structural equation modeling to test the relationship between organizational culture, customer relation, and employee relations that were positively and significantly related to innovation, and found that organizational culture positively moderated the relationships between continuous improvement, management leadership, and innovation.
Abstract: Previous studies on the total quality management and innovation relationship have had mixed findings. We predict that organizational culture could moderate the relationship between total quality management and organizational innovation. The study collected empirical data from 433 small and medium-sized enterprises in Lagos, Nigeria. Structural equation modelling–partial least squares were used to test the conceptualized model to determine the examined relationship with a moderating effect of organizational culture, customer relation, and employee relations that were positively and significantly related to innovation. However, management leadership was found to be negatively related to innovation. Organizational culture positively and significantly moderates the relationship between continuous improvement, management leadership and innovation, while it had a positive but insignificant moderating role on the relationship between employee relation and innovation. The study contributes to a better understanding of how organizations adopt a combination of cultural components to achieve total quality management and innovation performance. The study concludes that organizational culture interacts with continuous improvement and management leadership to influence positively the innovation performance of SMEs in Nigeria. The findings imply that the model of this study can be used in management literature as empirical evidence for selecting the critical elements for total quality management implementation and innovative culture. Using an extended method of analysis such as the importance performance map analysis to establish the direct and indirect relationships has provided the methodological rigor required for theory confirmation. Finally, the study made a significant contribution to the existing literature through testing and proving of the moderating role of organizational culture in the underlying relationship using empirical evidence.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examined evaluative instincts rooted in indigenous values, relational patterns, knowledge systems and other cultural realities, and observed that there are several tangible and intangible dimensions that are deeply-rooted in cultural values, maxims, norms and other social patterns within the indigenous communities.
Abstract: Evaluation within an indigenous society is a social activity. Thus, it requires both tangible and intangible or hidden factors such as cultural values, norms, communal relational structures, power dynamics, attitudes, consensus-building, community aspirations, empowerment and other practical knowledge to develop an inclusive evaluation framework. Utilizing a culturally responsive evaluation (CRE) approach, this study examined evaluative instincts rooted in indigenous values, relational patterns, knowledge systems and other cultural realities. Indigenous evaluation impulse exists in native ideas, social structures and other cultural realities but could these indigenous evaluative impulses augment and shape contemporary evaluation philosophies, approaches and practices in Ghana? The study observed that there are several tangible and intangible evaluative dimensions that are deeply-rooted in cultural values, maxims, norms and other social patterns within the indigenous communities. Consequently, comparable dimensions could be advanced and established in the present evaluation research to add further depth and rigour to the study in this field.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors analyzed the impact of knowledge transfer structures on knowledge transfer effectiveness in informal workplace practices in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania using correlation and binary logistics regression analyses.
Abstract: The combination of both Structured Knowledge Transfer (SKT) and Unstructured Knowledge Transfer (UKT) processes is important for Knowledge Transfer Effectiveness (KTE) in construction workplace practices. However, the extant literature suggests that there is a high level of KTE in informal construction practices where UKTs are dominant while SKTs are rare as prevailing Knowledge Transfer Structures (KTSs). This study, therefore, analyzes the impact of knowledge transfer structures on the KTE in informal workplace practices. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 417 craftsmen under informal construction practices in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Using correlation and binary logistics regression analyses, the strength of association between KTE under different KTSs was evaluated. The study suggests that both SKT and UKT positively influence KTE under different conditions, although the magnitude of effect is relatively higher in SKT than UKT, even when the overall process is considered informal. In addition, the increase in KTS increases KTE, providing some justification for planned and organized forms of knowledge transfer and sharing, even in informal workplace practices. In contrast to SKT processes, UKT processes are significantly influenced by codification, motivation, trade specialization and transferor-transferee agreement. The findings from this study contribute to the understanding of KTSs in informal workplace practices and that the transfer, though dominated by UKT processes, enables practitioners to internalise a high degree of structures well.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors investigated poverty transitions among rural households in 22 district municipalities in South Africa and found that poverty levels varied across districts and poverty was most prevalent in Zululand, OR Tambo and Sisonke districts.
Abstract: Persistent poverty is a major developmental challenge for South Africa and has multifaceted dimensions. This paper profiled and investigated poverty transitions among rural households in 22 district municipalities in South Africa. Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices were applied to panel data from the National Income Dynamics Study from 2008 to 2017. Findings indicate that poverty levels varied across districts and poverty was most prevalent in Zululand, OR Tambo and Sisonke districts. Furthermore, districts with high poverty rates also had high poverty gap ratios. Poverty transition analyses revealed that in 82% of the districts, poverty declined between 2008 and 2017, while it increased in 13% of the districts. This transition was not mirrored between waves, with the majority of households remaining in the same poverty status between waves. The study recommends that these traditional rural districts be a major focus of poverty alleviation efforts. The role of the state in providing stability to combat poverty is encouraged through promotion of higher education. Additionally, support for agriculture as a business is also recommended. Collaborations between district municipalities and provincial departments of agriculture could facilitate this. The study adds to existing literature by providing insights from disaggregated profile and analysis of rural poverty in district municipalities.