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Showing papers in "Al-Jami’ah: journal of islamic studies in 2016"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors survey the approach in developing Islamic finance, including the debate on replication and innovation in a product to the structure as well as the gaps between ideals and practices.
Abstract: Shariah contains the principles and foundations upon which financial system from an Islamic perspective is established and acts as guidance and framework on which the direction of the industry is set. This would include the whole processes from product conceptual inception of developing shariah product compliance manual, developing product structure, reviewing the legal documentation, and producing report or opinion on the product application in the market. Islamic finance is expected to offer something new to the market instead of a mere replication and modification of conventional practices in Islamic forms. The paper attempts to survey the approach in developing Islamic finance, including the debate on replication and innovation in a product to the structure as well as the gaps between ideals and practices. [Keuangan Islam dikembangkan berdasarkan atas semangat, filosofi dan prinsip-prinsip hukum Islam sebagaimana terangkum dalam ekonomi shariah. Makalah ini berusaha mengamati berbagai pendekatan dalam mengembangkan keuangan Islam, perdebatan mengenai replikasi ekonomi konvensional, dan inovasi dalam produk hingga struktur maupun kesenjangan antara yang ideal dengan kenyataannya. ]

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the teaching process of Islamic studies in Thai Islamic schools and explore opportunities within it for promoting religious and cultural diversities, and also look into possible opportunities for Islamic teachers to teach and students to learn about the diverse reality of society.
Abstract: Teaching religious and cultural diversities would possibly be one of the greatest challenges to teachers of Islamic in Southern Thai Islamic schools due to the strong Islamic ideology they hold, lack of proper training for their professional growth, and the ongoing ethno-political conflict in the area. This paper explores how such a challenge has been faced. It particularly describes the teaching process of Islamic studies in Thai Islamic schools and explores opportunities within it for promoting religious and cultural diversities. We also look into possible opportunities for Islamic teachers to teach and students to learn about the diverse reality of society. We found that the deliveries of Islamic fell squarely within the concept of teaching into religion using a heavy confessional approach. Indoctrination with a little encouragement of critical thinking was common in Islamic classes. The presentation of other faiths and cultures was designed to explore their weaknesses and fallacies from a single believed-Islamic perspective. [Pengajaran keragaman budaya dan agama merupakan sebuah tantangan besar bagi guru pendidikan keislaman pada sekolah di Thailand Selatan, seiring dengan pemahaman keislaman mereka yang kuat, kesenjangan tingkat perkembangan profesionalitas, dan konflik politik etnik di daerah tersebut. Tulisan ini mengetengahkan persoalan yang mereka hadapi, khususnya deskripsi proses pengajaran studi keislaman di sekolah Islam lokal dan peluang dalam promosi keragaman budaya dan agama. Tulisan ini juga melihat kemungkinan peluang bagi guru agama Islam dan anak didiknya untuk saling belajar dari realitas keragaman dalam masyarakat. Kami menemukan bahwa menyampaikan pengetahuan keislaman harus tepat dengan konsep pengajaran bagi pemeluk agamanya menggunakan pendekatan keyakinan yang lurus. Indoktrinasi dengan sedikit dorongan pemikiran kritis merupakan kewajaran dalam kelas agama. Presentasi agama dan budaya lain didesain untuk eksplorasi kekurangan dan kesalahan dari perspektif yang monolitik.]

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Al Makin1
TL;DR: In this article, the formulation of pluralism based on the reading of classical Javanese texts by choosing some excerpts of Hindu-Buddhist literature called kakawin and later Islamic works called serat and babad is discussed.
Abstract: This article sheds light on the formulation of pluralism based on the reading of classical Javanese texts by choosing some excerpts of Hindu-Buddhist literature called kakawin and later Islamic works called serat and babad. Dynamic practices of syncretism and harmonization of local and foreign religious traditions are found in the excerpts of Sutasoma, Kertagama, Dewa Ruci, Babad Tanah Jawa, and Centini. From reading of these messages, this writing finds that since the old time of Singasari and Majapahit, harmonization and syncretism of many religious traditions has been practiced as an essential part of the concept of pluralism. Hindu-Buddhist came first in the older literature and later Islamic elements added the complexity of syncretism. This study also finds that Hindu-Buddhist figures are reenacted in the Islamic literature with modifications. The accounts of the famous Javanese saint Sunan Kalijaga reflects the older source of Sutasoma, Ken Arok, Bhima, and other figures. Their stories tell us about the relativism of evil and good, in which evil is not annihilated but converted into goods. This article is an example of our endeavor that pluralism can be formulated based on local wisdom such as reading classical texts with the spirit of reinterpretation of indigenous virtues with a fresh perspective. [Artikel ini mencoba menemukan rumusan pluralisme dengan membaca ulang teks klasik Jawa dengan memilih bagian tertentu dari sastra Hindu-Buddha yang disebut kakawin dan karya Islami yang disebut serat dan babad. Praktik dinamis sinkretisme dan penyelarasan antara tradisi keagamaan lokal dan asing ditemui dalam Sutasoma, Kertagama, Dewa Ruci, Babad Tanah Jawa, dan Centini. Dari hasil bacaan teks-teks di atas, tulisan ini menemukan bahwa sejak masa kuno Singasari dan Majapahit, penyelarasan dan sinkretisme antara banyak tradisi keagamaan telah dipraktikkan sebagai bagian penting dari konsep pluralisme. Hindu-Buddha datang pertama lalu disusul oleh karya Islam yang menambah nuansa sinkretis. Studi ini juga menemukan bahwa tokoh Hindu-Buddha diceritakan ulang dalam karya Islam dengan berbagai modifikasi. Cerita tentang Sunan Kalijaga mencerminkan sumber yang lebih tua seperti Sutasoma, Ken Arok, Bhima, dan tokoh-tokoh lain. Kisah mereka mengajarkan kepada kita tentang relativitas antara kejahatan dan kebaikan; kejahatan tidak dimusnahkan tetapi diubah menjadi kebaikan. Artikel ini merupakan contoh usaha untuk merumuskan konsep pluralisme berdasarkan kebijakan lokal dengan membaca kembali teks-teks klasik dengan semangat penafsiran ulang ajaran lokal dengan perspektif baru.]

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors shed light into the most current phenomena of how Islamist groups create and expand their influence and membership in the Indonesian Tarbiyah movement, which matches young men and women to get married through Taʻāruf or Islamic introduction.
Abstract: This paper will shed light into the most current phenomena of how Islamist groups create and expand their influence and membership. In view of the Islamists like the Indonesian Tarbiyah movement, Islamisation of society and the state is the ultimate goal to be achieved. Families become the most important means of Islamisation. If all families have been successfully made “Islamic”, people and the country will follow suit. Preparing the family as the basis of making up society and the establishment of an Islamic state is, therefore, urgent. One of the ways is to match young men and women to get married through taʻāruf or “Islamic introduction”, which goes against the very popular trend of dating among youths nowadays. In addition to be practiced within Tarbiyah members, marriage is also promoted to the larger public. This group of Islamists use most contemporary modern media to expand their influence. By doing so, this kind of movement will have a tremendous and strong socio-political implication in the long run of Indonesian politics. [Tulisan ini mengkaji fenomena kontemporer tentang bagaimana sebuah kelompok (Gerakan Tarbiyah) membentuk dan meluaskan pengaruh serta keanggotaannya. Kelompok Islam tersebut melihat bahwa Islamisasi masyarakat dan Negara merupakan tujuan utama yang harus dicapai termasuk yang terpenting adalah keluarga. Mereka menganggap bahwa jika unit keluarga sudah menjadi ‘Islam’ maka masyarakat dan Negara secara otomatis akan mengikutinya. Oleh karena itu keluarga perlu disiapkan sebagai pondasi menuju masyarakat dan Negara yang Islamis. Salah satu cara paling awal adalah dengan memperkenalkan konsep Taʻāruf bagi muda mudi yang ingin menikah, sekaligus sebagai tandingan terhadap konsep ‘pacaran’ yang saat ini populer. Untuk mempromosikan konsep tersebut ke khalayak yang lebih luas, mereka pun menggunakan media yang paling modern dan masif. Sehingga gerakan mereka tampak kuat implikasinya dalam peta perpolitikan di Indonesia. ]

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss Masyumi's response towards pluralism, particularly about the political diversity in the first fifteen years of Indonesia independent era, and show the nature of Masymi's view and attitude in answering political diversity that in the long run indicates the real position of this party in pluralism in politics.
Abstract: This article discusses Masyumi’s response towards pluralism, particularly about the political diversity in the first fifteen years of Indonesia independent era. As the largest Islamic party in Indonesian history, Masyumi was well known by many as the champion of democracy and one of the essential elements in the nationalist movement. However, regarding pluralism, for some, Masyumi positive attitude on this matter has been doubtful, regarding this party as the guru of intolerance for some contemporary Islamic organisations. By exploring the ideals and practical aspects of this party, this article wants to show the nature of Masyumi’s view and attitude in answering political diversity that in the long run indicates the real position of this party in pluralism in politics. The discussion indicates that despite some weaknesses in undergoing the spirit of honouring diversity, in particular when dealing with the communists, Masyumi, in general, had proven its position as one of the essential elements in Indonesian political history that in many ways eager to develop and maintain the spirit of pluralism. [Tulisan ini mendiskusikan perihal respons Masyumi terhadap pluralisme, khususnya terkait dengan politik keragaman dalam rentang limabelas tahun setelah Indonesia merdeka. Sebagai partai Islam terbesar dalam sejarah Indonesia, Masyumi dikenal luas sebagai terdepan dalam praktik demokrasi dan pemain penting dalam gerakan nasionalisme. Meskipun demikian, bagi sebagian orang, respons positif Masyumi terhadap isu pluralisme tetap diragukan mengingat partai ini dianggap sebagai model intoleransi bagi organisasi Islam dewasa ini. Tulisan ini ingin menunjukkan bahwa pandangan dan sikap Masyumi dalam menjawab keragaman politik mengindikasikan posisinya yang jelas dalam pluralisme politik. Walaupun ada dukungan lemah terhadap semangat keragaman, khususnya terkait dengan kelompok komunis, secara umum Masyumi membuktikan dirinya sebagai elemen penting dalam sejarah politik Indonesia dengan berbagai cara dalam membangun dan mempertahankan semangat pluralisme. ]

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: By drawing on Ottoman-Turkish documents in the Prime Minister’s Ottoman Archives, the authors investigates the role of the Ottoman state and Pan-Islamic ideology on modernisation in Indonesia, and shows the Ottoman influence on the emergence of the Ethical Policy of 1901 in Indonesia.
Abstract: By drawing on Ottoman-Turkish documents in the Prime Minister’s Ottoman Archives, this paper investigates the role of the Ottoman state and Pan-Islamic ideology on modernisation in Indonesia. The article revisits the process defining the Ethical Policy (Politik Etis) as the turning point of the emergence of modernisation in Indonesia. In existing scholarship, the ‘Ethical Policy’ became the grand narrative in Indonesian history, meanwhile the influence of Pan-Islamism is only seen as the unsuccessful political propaganda of Abdulhamid II on the anti-colonialism movement in Indonesia. Many Indonesian and Ottoman historians view Pan-Islamism in the context of anti-colonialism fighting against the Dutch militarily in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This article proposes an alternative view to this narrative which acknowledges Pan-Islamism as a modernisation step for Indonesians which was signed by the Jawi students arrival in Istanbul and shows the Hadhrami community as the agent of modernisation. In short, the article shows the Ottoman influence on the emergence of the Ethical Policy of 1901 in Indonesia. [Menggunakan dokumen-dokumen Turki Utsmani yang disimpan di Prime Minister’s Ottoman Archives, makalah ini meneliti peran imperium Utsmani dan ideologi Pan-Islam dalam modernisasi Indonesia. Hal itu dilakukan dengan meninjau kembali proses mendefinisikan Politik Etis sebagai titik balik lahirnya modernisasi Indonesia. Dalam literatur yang ada sekarang, Politik Etis menjadi cerita utama dalam sejarah Indonesia, sementara Pan-Islamisme hanya dipandang sebagai propaganda gagal dari Abdulhamid II bagi gerakan anti kolonial di Indonesia. Kebanyakan sejarawan di Indonesia dan Turki dalam konteks perjuangan melawan penjajah Belanda. Artikel ini menawarkan narasi alternatif yang mengakui Pan-Islamisme sebagai salah satu tahapan penting modernisasi Indonesia yang ditandai dengan datangnya para mahasiswa Jawa di Istambul dan menunjukkan peran komunitas Hadhrami sebagai agen modernisasi.]

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The AMPA co-i ndai (ACNdai) is used only when the prospective groom is a government employee, for it is assumed as a social status raiser.
Abstract: This article draws on an ethnographic research that focuses on the cultural practice of female-paid matrimonial funding, ampa co’i ndai (ACN), among semi-urban Bimanese Muslims of Eastern Indonesia. The practice takes place when the bride, with the help of her parents and female relatives, pays her marriage payment (co’i, including mahr). It is used only when the prospective groom is a government employee, for it is assumed as a social status raiser. During the declaration of marriage, the payment is announced to have come from the groom. This article uses the practice as a site to examine the particularity of practising Islamic laws in everyday life of eastern Indonesian Muslims. The narratives of nineteen Muslim women who have been involved in ACN reveal what its functions as an equalising mechanism, through which gendered power-relations is minimised while perpetuating traditional position of wives and husbands as a complementary couple within their family as well as before society. I argue that ACN has been seen as a modified understanding of kafā’a in fiqh which means “equality” to “complementarity.” However, this local understanding of kafā’a is a testament to the complexities of gender power relations. [Artikel ini adalah penelitian etnografi tentang praktik AMPA co’i ndai (ACN) di kalangan masyarakat semi-urban muslim Bima di kawasan timur Indonesia. Budaya ini dilaksanakan dengan cara pengantin perempuan, dengan bantuan orang tua dan saudara perempuannya, menyediakan biaya pernikahan (co’i dan mahar). Tradisi ini dipraktikkan hanya ketika calon pengantin pria adalah pegawai negeri, yang diasumsikan memiliki status sosial yang lebih. Namun, saat resepsi pernikahan, deiumumkan bahwa biaya-biaya berasal dari pengantin pria. Narasi kehidupan dari sembilan belas perempuan yang terlibat mengungkapkan fungsi ACN sebagai mekanisme penyetaraan gender dengan meminimalkan relasi kuasa serta nmendudukkan pasangan untuk saling melengkapi dalam keluarga maupun masyarakat. Praktik ACN dapat dilihat sebagai bentuk lokal pemahaman konsep kafā’a, yang berarti “kesetaraan” untuk “melengkapi”. Namun, pemahaman lokal kafā’a ini merupakan bukti kompleksitas relasi kuasa dalam masalah gender.]

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Nina Nurmila1
TL;DR: In this article, the author argued that most polygamous marriages in Indonesia are illegal and this practice can be considered a form of resistance to the Law which requires a husband to ask the permission from the Religious Court before entering polygamous marriage.
Abstract: Most studies on polygamy mainly focus on the male normative interpretation of the Quran. This paper, however, will focus on the practices of polygamy. It will mainly explore whether the practices of polygamy are legal or illegal (unregistered for not following the procedure and requirements stated in the 1974 Marriage Law). This paper argues that most polygamous marriages in Indonesia are illegal. This practice can be considered a form of resistance to the Law which requires a husband to ask the permission from the Religious Court before entering polygamous marriages. This paper will also elaborate various living arrangements of legal and illegal polygamous marriages with various consequences on maintenance and property ownership among wives. [Kebanyakan studi tentang poligami berfokus pada interpretasi laki-laki terhadap al-Quran yang bersifat normatif. Akan tetapi, artikel ini akan berfokus pada praktik poligami. Artikel ini terutama akan menerangkan apakah praktik poligami itu legal atau tidak legal (tidak dicatatkan karena tidak mengikuti aturan yang ditetapkan dalam Undang-Undang Perkawinan/UUP 1974). Artikel ini berargumen bahwa kebanyakan perkawinan poligami itu dipraktikan secara illegal. Praktik ini merupakan bentuk dari penentangan terhadap UUP yang mengharuskan seorang suami memohon izin terlebih dahulu kepada Pengadilan Agama sebelum berpoligami. Makalah ini juga akan menjelaskan berbagai pengaturan hidup dalam perkawinan poligami baik yang legal ataupun yang tidak legal dengan berbagai konsekuensinya terhadap nafkah dan kepemilikan harta di antara para istri.]

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compare two great Muslim rulers in two different parts of the world in the first Islamic millennium: Mughal Emperor Akbar and Mataram’s Sultan Agung.
Abstract: This study seeks to expand the horizon of existing literatures on the dialectic of religion, legal culture and local dynamics by comparing two great Muslim rulers in two different parts of the world in the first Islamic millennium: Mughal Emperor Akbar and Mataram’s Sultan Agung. It specifically aims to analyze historical accounts on the dynamic relations between Islamic norms and local culture with corresponding results of distinctive ways of ruling by these two great rulers. While both rulers Akbar and Sultan Agung shared similar concerns in political imagination, their difference was particularly shown in the representation of religion in the courts’ political and legal culture, with the latter was heavily determined by different challenges they faced during their rule. This paper argues that a comparative overview of these two great figures, who ruled in different parts of the world and at rather successive periods, would be beneficial for the studies of religion-culture relations in flagging the variation and extent of manifestation of Islamic global norms in local legal cultures which heavily determined by their corresponding local dynamics. As a literary or library research, it uses eclectic, blended, with qualitative method in content analysis. [Studi ini berupaya memperluas horison literatur-literatur yang ada tentang dialektika agama, budaya hukum dan dinamika lokal dengan membandingkan dua penguasa besar Muslim di dua belahan dunia yang berbeda pada millennia Islam pertama yaitu Raja Akbar dari Dinasti Mughal dan Sultan Agung Kerajaan Mataram. Secara spesifik, studi ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa catatan-catatan historis relasi dinamis antara norma Islam dengan budaya lokal dengan hasil temuan yang menunjukkan cara berkuasa/memerintah yang berbeda diantara dua penguasa tersebut. Sementara keduanya (Akbar dan Agung) memiliki kemiripan dalam imajinasi politik, di sisi lain, perbedaan mereka ditunjukkan dalam hal representasi agama dalam budaya hukum dan politik terutama ditentukan oleh perbedaan tantangan yang mereka hadapi ketika mereka berkuasa. Studi ini membuktikan bahwa dengan membandingkan dua figur yang memerintah di belahan dunia yang berbeda pada masa yang berurutan, akan memberikan manfaaat terhadap studi relasi agama dan budaya dalam mewarnai variasi dan lingkup manifestasi norma-norma global Islam dalam budaya hukum lokal yang banyak ditentukan oleh dinamika lokal yang bersesuaian. Sebagai penelitian kepustakaan (literer), studi ini menggunakan pendekatan eklektik dengan metode kualitatif dalam analisis ini (content analysis)].

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Ratno Lukito1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors tried to analyse the legal Islamization programs undertaken by Gerakan Reformis Islam (GARIS) in Cianjur, West Java, since their inception in early 2001 and its inclination to various intolerant attitudes towards others.
Abstract: In its endeavour, Islamization projects done by some Muslim organisations in Indonesia can lead to certain treats of intolerance, especially to those rejecting the missions wrought about in the movements. Using qualitative approach, this paper tries to analyse the legal Islamization programs undertaken by Gerakan Reformis Islam (GARIS) in Cianjur, West Java, since their inception in early 2001 and its inclination to various intolerant attitudes towards others. The movement of Islamization is probed on the basis of the three main GARIS projects, namely, reviewing the draft of Indonesian penal law, engaging contra-Christianization movements and the struggle against Ahmadiyah. Describing the movement, one will see how the idea of legal Islamization is carefully and persistently moulded in the field to make it so fluid and adequate to accomplish a purpose. What seems appearing in this phenomenon is not a theoretical legal quandary but more a political one, as legal Islamization is in its practice more sensed as a political movement than that of law. [Dalam praktiknya, gerakan Islamisasi yang dilakukan oleh beberapa organisasi Islam di Indonesia dapat memunculkan tindakan intoleransi, utamanya hal itu menimpa mereka yang menolak gerakan tersebut. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, paper ini berusaha untuk menganalisis program-program Islamisasi hukum yang dilakukan oleh Gerakan Reformis Islam (GARIS) di Cianjur, Jawa Barat sejak mula berdirinya organisasi ini di awal 2001 dan kecenderungannya kepada perilaku intoleransi kepada kelompok lain. Gerakan Islamisasi dari GARIS ini dikaji berdasarkan pada tiga program mereka yang paling utama yaitu: usulan perbaikan terhadap draf amandemen hukum pidana Indonesia, gerakan perlawanan terhadap kristenisasi, dan perlawanan terhadap kelompok Ahmadiyah. Melalui kajian yang mendalam terhadap organisasi ini, kita dapat melihat bagaimana program Islamisasi hukum tersebut dilakukan dengan kesungguhan di lapangan sehingga dapat meraih hasil sesuai dengan yang dicanangkan. Apa yang dapat kita lihat dari fenomena ini sejatinya bukanlah pergumulan teori hukum namun lebih sebagai perhelatan politik, karena pada praktiknya gerakan Islamisasi hukum itu lebih menonjol sisi gerakan politiknya ketimbang hukumnya.]

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Arif Maftuhin1
TL;DR: In this paper, a first effort to explore the Tārīkhu-t-tashrī' literature through a historiographical analysis was made. But despite its popularity, academics of Islamic historiography seem not interested in studying it.
Abstract: Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ (the history of sharia affairs) is a relatively new genre of Islamic historiography and very popular among students of Islamic Law. Despite its popularity, academics of Islamic historiography seem not interested in studying it. There is hardly any academic paper seriously studied the literature. This paper is a first effort to explore the Tārīkhu’t-tashrī‘ literature through a historiographical analysis. As an initial exploration, it argues that Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ is the latest development of Islamic historiography, developed in the 19th century, but it is a genre of the old Islamic historiography with some new elements. The new elements are influenced by both modern Western historiography and the need to re-open the supposedly closed gate of ijtihād. The paper studied books of Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ available during the research between 2013-2015. [Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ adalah genre yang relatif ‘baru’ dalam matarantai perkembangan historiografi Islam­. Literatur ini sangat popular dan menjadi mata kuliah wajib di fakultas-fakultas Syariah di Indonesia maupun Timur Tengah. Hanya saja, meskipun ia sangat populer sebagai mata pelajaran, Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ belum banyak menarik minat para peneliti historiografi. Makalah in berusaha mengeksplorasi literatur Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ dengan pendekatan historiografi. Makalah ini berpendapat bahwa Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘, meski terlihat ‘modern’ dari segi kelahirannya, tidak banyak berbeda dengan literatur historiografi klasik. Perbedaan terjadi karena adanya pengaruh historiografi Barat dalam model penulisannya dan karena kebutuhan untuk membuka kembali pintu ijtihad yang tertutup. Kajian dilakukan terhadap kitab-kitab Tārīkh al-Tashrī‘ yang dapat ditemukan selama riset antara 2013-2015 ]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined Kuwait Law of Waqf and the contemporary implementation of temporary waqf in Kuwait and proposed to encourage other Islamic countries to implement this concept of temporary wakf as an alternative benefit.
Abstract: Temporary waqf is a restricted endowment for a specific duration. This paper examines Kuwait Law of Waqf and the contemporary implementation of temporary waqf in Kuwait. The research shows that Kuwait law of waqf allowed the application of all types of waqf as temporary, the duration of waqf should not exceed sixty years and no more than two layers of generations. This paper proposes to encourage other Islamic countries to implement this concept of temporary waqf as an alternative benefit. [Konsep wakaf sementara adalah wakaf yang dibatasi masa berlakunya selama periode waktu tertentu. Makalah ini mendiskusikan Undang-Undang Wakaf Kuwait dan implementasi wakaf sementara di Kuwait. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa perundang-undangan di Kuwait membolehkan penerapan wakaf sementara ini dalam semua jenis wakaf, dengan batasan tidak boleh melebihi 60 tahun dan melewati dua generasi. negara-negara Islam lainnya disarankan dapat menerapkan konsep wakaf sementara ini sebagai alternatif perluasan manfaat wakaf.]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the prevalence of child marriage in South-Sulawesi Indonesia including people's perceptions and its factors contributing to child marriage and the use of religion to justify their actions.
Abstract: This article examines the prevalence of child marriage in South-Sulawesi Indonesia including people’s perceptions and its factors contributing to child marriage and the use religion to justify their actions. They perceive child marriage as the marriage conducted prior to the age of 16 for woman and of 19 for man as stipulated in the Marriage Law No.1 of 1974, as well as the marriage before ‘akil balig’. Various determinants for child marriage are cultural norms or values of ‘siri’ (shame) for family honour; family prestige and kinship; uneducated parents; economic burden for family and inconsistency in legislation. No religious teachings or Islamic Law clearly support the prevalence of child marriage because the purpose of marriage in Islam is to perform a happy and harmonious relationship among the couple. The use of the Prophet Muhammad’s marriage to Aisha in the age of six as the fundamental basis for child marriage is unjustified. [Tulisan ini membahas kasus-kasus pernikahan anak di Sulawesi Selatan, termasuk persepsi masyarakat dan faktor-faktor pendukungnya diantaranya penggunaan dalil agama (Islam) untuk membenarkan tindakan tersebut. Masyarakat memahami pernikahan anak sebagaimana tercantum dalam UU Pernikahan No. 1 Tahun 1974 bahwa pernikahan anak terjadi pada usia dibawah 19 tahun bagi laki-laki dan 16 tahun bagi perempuan dan atau mereka yang belum akil balig’. Beberapa factor dominan dalam pernikahan anak antara lain; norma adat lokal (‘siri), kehormatan keluarga dan kerabat, orangtua yang kurang terpelajar, beban ekonomi keluarga dan ketidakkonsisten penegakan peraturan. Pada dasarnya tidak ada ajaran Islam atau fiqih yang secara tegas mendukung pernikahan anak karena tujuan dari pernikahan dalam Islam adalah kebahagiaan dan keharmonisan hubungan antar suami istri. Menggunakan rujukan pernikahan Nabi Muhammad dengan Aisyah saat usia enam tahun merupakan perkara yang tidak bisa dibenarkan.]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the consequences and implications of a political disintegration during the Abbasid era for the architectural development and serviceability of the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah.
Abstract: This article discusses the contributions of the Abbasid caliphs to the architectural development of the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah. Those contributions began almost as early as the Abbasid caliphal government had officially emerged as the successor to the Umayyads, and ended with a major rebuilding and renovation work in 887 AH/1482 CE, about 35 years before the ultimate dissolution of the Abbasid regime. The last work was executed by the Mamluk rulers as the Abbasid proxies. The paper focuses on discussing the consequences and implications of a political disintegration during the Abbasid era for the architectural development and serviceability of the mosque. The article concludes that the Abbasid contributions to the architectural development of the Mosque were rather inadequate. The blame is to be attributed partly to the Abbasids themselves and partly to the prevalent circumstances in the state that eventually incapacitated the Abbasid government from performing its entrusted duties and responsibilities. However, even for the creation and fostering of the latter, it was again the Abbasids who more than anybody else are to be held accountable. [Artikel ini membahas peran para khalifah Abbasiyah dalam pengembangan arsitektur Masjid Nabawi di Madinah. Kontribusi mereka dimulai sejak awal pemerintahan Abbasiyah muncul sebagai penerus Umayyah dan berakhir dengan renovasi besar pada 887 H/1482 M, sekitar tiga dasawarsa menjelang berakhirnya pemerintahan Abbasiyah di Mesir. Pekerjaan terakhir dilakukan oleh penguasa Mamluk sebagai wakil Dinasti Abbasiyah. Fokus makalah ini adalah konsekuensi dan implikasi dari disintegrasi politik selama era Abbasiyah terhadap pengembangan arsitektur dan fumgsi Masjid Nabawi. Artikel ini menyimpulkan bahwa kontribusi Dinasti Abbasiyah untuk pengembangan arsitektur Masjid Nabawi kurang memadai, sebagai cerminan ketidakmampuan para khalifah Abbasiyah menjalankan peran, fungsi, dan tanggung jawabnya. Bahkan sebenarnya dalam renovasi yang terakhir pun, orang lain yang bertanggung jawab.]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined Islamic ritual performance of Eid prayer amongst Muslims in Diaspora at al-Farooq Mosque in Atlanta, the US, whose congregational members come from all around the world.
Abstract: This article examines Islamic ritual performance of Eid prayer amongst Muslims in Diaspora at al-Farooq Mosque in Atlanta, the US, whose congregational members come from all around the world. Using textual and ethnographical methods, this study focuses on the implementation of shari’a law concerning Islamic prayer and on the meaning and experience of the ritual that emerge amongst the participants who perform it. This study demonstrates that the Eid ritual performance has created a special meaning and particular experience. The ritual is seen as the medium through which the performers forge their piety and strengthen the spirit of brotherhood. The ritual strengthens the brotherhood of the performers, who hold different ethnical and cultural backgrounds. However, the core ritual of Eid prayer remains Islamic and is built on the Muslim Hanafi School. Shari’a law concerning prayer is upheld to maintain the basic requirement where every ritual must be based on the sound Islamic texts. This suggests that the context, namely diasporic Muslim in America, has (re)shaped the meaning of the ritual but does not change the core of the ritual practice. [Tulisan ini mengkaji praktik ritual shalat hari raya (Eid) di masjid al-Farooq Atlanta, Amerika Serikat pada kalangan muslim perantauan dari berbagai belahan dunia. Kajian ini, dengan menggunakan pendekatan tektual dan etnografi, mengamati penerapan hukum Islam dalam hal peribadatan dan pemaknaan serta pengalaman ritual diantara mereka. Studi ini menunjukkan bahwa shalat hari raya memberi makna dan pengalaman khusus. Perayaan ini dilihat sebagai medium untuk menunjukkan kesalehan dan menguatkan ikatan persaudaraan sesama muslim meskipun mempunyai latar belakang etnik dan budaya yang berbeda. Meskipun demikian, inti dari ritual tersebut menunjukkan aliran mazhab Hanafi. Pelaksanaan fiqih dalam sholat Eid tetap berpegang pada Qur’an dan Hadits. Dengan kata lain, konteks geografi dan budaya yang berbeda telah membentuk makna baru namun tetap tidak merubah inti dari praktik ibadah yang bermazhab Hanafi.]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored the political thought of a seasoned reforming Mogul whose thought is significant to democratic sustenance in Nigeria, Maulana Abul A'la Mawdudi (1903 -1979), who enunciated some political principles which if strictly studied and adhered to, will help in ensuring sustainable democratic governance whose leadership will not regret leading its people and the populace will not eventually curse such a leader.
Abstract: The inseparability of religion and politics is demonstrated in the involvement of prominent ulama (religious scholars) in politics directly or indirectly. Being an important stakeholder in politics, such scholars have been raising their voices on political matters and influencing political decisions in their respective countries. In some cases, such religious scholars performed oppositional role with a view to forcing the ruling government to check their actions which were contradictory to the dictate of their religion. The Islamic revolution in Iran is a living testimony to the fact that religious scholars are relevant to effect new sociological and religio-political paradigms for their countries. It is on this basis that this paper shall explore the political thought of a seasoned reforming Mogul whose thought is significant to democratic sustenance in Nigeria, Maulana Abul A’la Mawdudi (1903 -1979). This sage enunciated some political principles which if strictly studied and adhered to, will help in no small measure in ensuring sustainable democratic governance whose leadership will not regret leading its people and the populace will not eventually curse such a leader. [Agama dan politik dalam banyak hal tidak dapat dipisahkan. Hal ini ditunjukkan antara lain oleh keterlibatan ulama dalam politik, langsung atau tidak. Menjadi bagian dari sistem politik, ulama dapat menyuarakan pandangan mereka dan mempengaruhi keputusan politik di negara masing-masing. Dalam beberapa kasus, para ulama juga melakukan oposisi untuk memaksa pemerintah melihat kebijakan yang bertentangan dengan ajaran agama. Revolusi Islam di Iran adalah contoh nyata dengan fakta bahwa ulama memiliki peran yang erat terkait dengan paradigma sosiologis dan religio-politik baru bagi negara. Makalah ini akan mengeksplorasi pandangan Maulana Abul A’la Maududi (1903 -1979), tokoh reformist yang pemikirannya sangat penting untuk pengembangan demokrasi di Nigeria. Beberapa prinsip politik akan membantu dalam memastikan pemerintahan yang demokratis berkelanjutan, jika dipelajari dan diikuti dengan benar.]

Journal ArticleDOI
Syamsul Anwar1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the principles of unified Islamic calendar in the perspective of Uṣūl al-Fiqh and discuss some concepts on unifying Islamic calendar as well as compares between Turkey and Morocco calendars.
Abstract: This paper discusses the principles of unified Islamic calendar in the perspective of Uṣūl al-Fiqh. It answers questions about the possibility of applying the theory of maqāṣid al-syarīʻah in unifying the Islamic calendar and whether ru’yat al-hilāl is the purpose of the shariah since it is legally stated by the Prophet. Since the unification of the Islamic calendar necessities al-hisāb al-falaky, is it allowed to not performing ru’yat al-hilāl? The author also discusses some concepts on unifying Islamic calendar as well as compares between Turkey and Morocco calendars. [Makalah ini membahas prinsip penyatuan kalender Islam dalam perspektif Uṣūl al-Fiqh. Pertanyaan yang akan dijawab antara lain tentang kemungkinan menerapkan teori maqāṣid al-syarīʻah dalam upaya penyatuan kalender Islam. Pertanyaan lainnya adalah apakah rukyat secara langsung merupakan tujuan dari syariat, padahal penyatuan kalender Islam meniscayakan metode hisab sebagai pedoman. Lantas, bolehkah meninggalkan rukyat dan mempedomani hisab? Penulis juga mendiskusikan beberapa konsep tawaran penyatuan kalender Islam serta membandingkan antara kalender Turki dan Maroko.]