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JournalISSN: 0002-9297

American Journal of Human Genetics

About: American Journal of Human Genetics is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Locus (genetics). It has an ISSN identifier of 0002-9297. Over the lifetime, 15067 publication(s) have been published receiving 1220462 citation(s). The journal is also known as: The American Journal of Human Genetics. more

Topics: Population, Locus (genetics), Gene mutation more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/519795
Shaun Purcell1, Shaun Purcell2, Benjamin M. Neale2, Benjamin M. Neale3  +14 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Whole-genome association studies (WGAS) bring new computational, as well as analytic, challenges to researchers. Many existing genetic-analysis tools are not designed to handle such large data sets in a convenient manner and do not necessarily exploit the new opportunities that whole-genome data bring. To address these issues, we developed PLINK, an open-source C/C++ WGAS tool set. With PLINK, large data sets comprising hundreds of thousands of markers genotyped for thousands of individuals can be rapidly manipulated and analyzed in their entirety. As well as providing tools to make the basic analytic steps computationally efficient, PLINK also supports some novel approaches to whole-genome data that take advantage of whole-genome coverage. We introduce PLINK and describe the five main domains of function: data management, summary statistics, population stratification, association analysis, and identity-by-descent estimation. In particular, we focus on the estimation and use of identity-by-state and identity-by-descent information in the context of population-based whole-genome studies. This information can be used to detect and correct for population stratification and to identify extended chromosomal segments that are shared identical by descent between very distantly related individuals. Analysis of the patterns of segmental sharing has the potential to map disease loci that contain multiple rare variants in a population-based linkage analysis. more

22,115 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: We describe a new basis for the construction of a genetic linkage map of the human genome. The basic principle of the mapping scheme is to develop, by recombinant DNA techniques, random single-copy DNA probes capable of detecting DNA sequence polymorphisms, when hybridized to restriction digests of an individual's DNA. Each of these probes will define a locus. Loci can be expanded or contracted to include more or less polymorphism by further application of recombinant DNA technology. Suitably polymorphic loci can be tested for linkage relationships in human pedigrees by established methods; and loci can be arranged into linkage groups to form a true genetic map of "DNA marker loci." Pedigrees in which inherited traits are known to be segregating can then be analyzed, making possible the mapping of the gene(s) responsible for the trait with respect to the DNA marker loci, without requiring direct access to a specified gene's DNA. For inherited diseases mapped in this way, linked DNA marker loci can be used predictively for genetic counseling. more

Topics: Microsatellite (63%), Genetic marker (61%), Gene map (61%) more

7,462 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/319501
Abstract: Current routine genotyping methods typically do not provide haplotype information, which is essential for many analyses of fine-scale molecular-genetics data. Haplotypes can be obtained, at considerable cost, experimentally or (partially) through genotyping of additional family members. Alternatively, a statistical method can be used to infer phase and to reconstruct haplotypes. We present a new statistical method, applicable to genotype data at linked loci from a population sample, that improves substantially on current algorithms; often, error rates are reduced by >50%, relative to its nearest competitor. Furthermore, our algorithm performs well in absolute terms, suggesting that reconstructing haplotypes experimentally or by genotyping additional family members may be an inefficient use of resources. more

Topics: Haplotype estimation (59%), Population (54%), Modal haplotype (53%)

7,223 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.AJHG.2010.11.011
Abstract: For most human complex diseases and traits, SNPs identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain only a small fraction of the heritability. Here we report a user-friendly software tool called genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA), which was developed based on a method we recently developed to address the “missing heritability” problem. GCTA estimates the variance explained by all the SNPs on a chromosome or on the whole genome for a complex trait rather than testing the association of any particular SNP to the trait. We introduce GCTA's five main functions: data management, estimation of the genetic relationships from SNPs, mixed linear model analysis of variance explained by the SNPs, estimation of the linkage disequilibrium structure, and GWAS simulation. We focus on the function of estimating the variance explained by all the SNPs on the X chromosome and testing the hypotheses of dosage compensation. The GCTA software is a versatile tool to estimate and partition complex trait variation with large GWAS data sets. more

4,497 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: Acceptance of the theory of evolution as the means of explaining observed similarities and differences among organisms invites the construction of trees of descent purporting to show evolutionary relationships. Whether such trees are based on fossil or living specimens, they may often be criticized for having a high subjective element. The purpose of this paper is to show how suitable evolutionary models can be constructed and applied objectively. In it we amplify and extend the methods we have given in previous communications (Edwards and Cavalli-Sforza, 1963a, b, 1964, 1965; Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards, 1964, 1966; Cavalli-Sforza, Barrai and Edwards, 1964; Cavalli-Sforza, 1966). Considering the great variety of information provided by living organisms, it is clear that the type of data will affect both the method of treatment and the validity of the results: the higher the correlation of data and genotype, the greater is the validity likely to be. Information on nucleic acid and protein structure comes first in the scale of relevance, and that on phenotypic measurements last; discrete and continuous variation demand different treatments, and evolutionary models appropriate to both cases will therefore be required for estimation purposes. Differences which are the result of mutation are formally discrete, and evolution a t the molecular level thus needs discontinuous treatment; but even in this case the limit of observation may turn the data into the more

Topics: Population (55%)

3,867 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

James R. Lupski

76 papers, 6.5K citations

Han G. Brunner

44 papers, 6.1K citations

Tim M. Strom

38 papers, 3.5K citations

Eric Boerwinkle

36 papers, 4.2K citations

Fowzan S. Alkuraya

35 papers, 1.6K citations

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