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Showing papers in "American Journal of Plant Sciences in 2019"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of existing work that considers indoor growing conditions (light, temperature, CO2 concentration, humidity, growing media, and nutrient supply), management practices (irrigation, fertilization, pruning & training, and harvest timing), and post-harvest treatment (drying and storage) for cannabis indoor production is presented.
Abstract: Cannabis has attracted a new wave of research attention as an herbal medicine. To deliver compliant, uniform, and safe cannabis medicine, growers should optimize growing environments on a site-specific basis. Considering that environmental factors are interconnected, changes in a factor prompts adjustment of other factors. This paper reviews existing work that considers indoor growing conditions (light, temperature, CO2 concentration, humidity, growing media, and nutrient supply), management practices (irrigation, fertilization, pruning & training, and harvest timing), and post-harvest treatment (drying and storage) for cannabis indoor production.

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the immature seeds of Vanda pumila for in vitro culture and then the protocorms developed were used as explants for seedling development and mass propagation.
Abstract: The Vanda pumila is a monopodial orchid with beautiful flowers that are native to Thailand but now found across South Asia. The immature seeds of Vanda pumila were used for in vitro culture and then the protocorms developed were used as explants for seedling development and mass propagation. Protocorms were cultured on 1/2 MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium fortified separately with Kinetin (Kn), 6-Benzyl amino purine (BAP) and Gibberellic Acid (GA3) each in different concentrations as (0.5 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L) well as each on each concentrations of each medium supplemented with 5% and 10% coconut water (CW) respectively. The greatest number of shoots (9.50 ± 0.29 shoots per culture) was developed on 1/2 MS medium fortified with 1.0 mg/L Kn plus 10% CW and the longest shoots (0.78 ± 0.07 cm per culture) developed on 1/2 MS medium fortified with 2.0 mg/L BAP plus 10% CW. The shoots derived from protocorms were then developed on 1/2 MS medium fortified with three different rooting hormones viz. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), each in four concentrations (0.5 mg/L, 1.0 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L) as well as 1.0 mg/L of each hormone supplemented with 10% CW. The 1/2 MS medium fortified with 0.5 mg/L IAA was found to be the most effective condition for the development of maximum number of root (5 ± 0.0 roots per culture) and root length (0.93 ± 0.07 cm). Hence, the present study could be useful for standardizing the protocol for mass propagation of the endangered orchid V. pumila.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the current growing conditions of microgreens in vertical farming are reviewed, such as crop selection, media, light, nutrient solution, and containers, while identifying knowledge gaps.
Abstract: With the growing global urban population and the emergence of megacities, there is a huge demand for arable land to meet the food demand and reduce malnutrition. Conventional agricultural practices lead to deforestation of the land for crop production and agricultural intensification to produce higher yield per unit area. These activities have been established to have negative impact on the environment thereby causing soil and water pollution. It is important to consider the use of vertical farming technology, which utilizes both horizontal and vertical space, and efficiently uses nutrients, water, and time (off season production with artificial lighting) more effectively to produce higher yield per unit volume of space than the conventional outdoor farming. Microgreens are taken into consideration to be grown under innovative vertical farming technology since they are rich in phytonutrients and they can be harvested in a short period of time. This paper reviews the current growing conditions of microgreens in vertical farming such as crop selection, media, light, nutrient solution, and containers while identifying knowledge gaps. Further, study in this area may lead to improved growing conditions to help solve the global issues and challenges surrounding food security, safety, and resource optimization.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review includes reports on pharmacological aspects like antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, hepatoprotective, insecticidal, mosquitocidal, nematicidal, wound healing, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic properties/activity of Tagetes.
Abstract: Importance of medicinal plants to health care has been great and herbal preparations are being produced at industrial scale particularly in developing countries. The plant products obtained have a long history of use in therapeutics, aromatherapy and food depending on the chemical constituents and their bioactivity. In the recent past, marigolds have received a great attention in scientific research, because of their multiple use and also the information available about their phytochemistry and bioactivity. Tagetes species commonly known as marigold is native to Mexico, being used for medicinal and ornamental purposes. The plant is useful due to its unique phytoconstituents for a range of diseases and disorders and is reportedly effective against piles, kidney troubles, muscular pain, ulcers and wound healing and the flowers are helpful in fever, stomach and liver complaints and also in eye diseases. In India, marigold is also extensively used on religious and social occasions such as in the beautification of mandaps and pooja places; offerings at temples; marriage decorations and landscape planning due to variable size and colour of its flower. Present review is an effort to bring together the different strategies developed for the growth and cultivation of marigold, its ecophysiological and remediation relevance under a variety of environmental conditions and possible allelopathic potential. It includes reports on pharmacological aspects like antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, hepatoprotective, insecticidal, mosquitocidal, nematicidal, wound healing, antioxidant, anticancer and antidiabetic properties/activity of Tagetes.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The review investigates the molecular level of phenomena in polysomic polyploid plants such as enlarging organ size and stabilizing meiosis, increasing phytochemical content and metabolic products, and changing in gene regulation to silence or adjust the expression levels involve in sequence elimination, methylation, gene suppression, sub functionalization, neo-functionalization, and transposon activation.
Abstract: Polyploidization is one of the most crucial pathways in introducing speciation and broadening biodiversity, especially in the Plant Kingdom. Although the majority of studies have focused only on allopolyploid or disomic polyploids, polysomic polyploid species have occurred frequently in higher plants. Due to the occurrence of the capabilities of more copies of alleles in a locus which can have additive dosage effects and/or allelic interactions, polysomic polyploids can lead to unique gene regulations to silence or adjust the expression level to create variations in organ size, metabolic products, and abiotic stress tolerance and biotic stress resistance, etc. This review aims to comprehensively summarize the contemporary understanding and findings concerning the molecular mechanisms of gene expression as well as gene regulation in natural typed and resynthesized polysomic polyploid plants. The review investigates the molecular level of phenomena in polysomic polyploid plants such as 1) typically enlarging organ size and stabilizing meiosis, 2) increasing phytochemical content and metabolic products, 3) enhancing the ability to adapt with biotic and abiotic stress, and 4) changing in gene regulation to silence or adjust the expression levels involve in sequence elimination, methylation, gene suppression, subfunctionalization, neo-functionalization, and transposon activation.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New Perilla SSR markers developed from transcriptome analysis can be useful for the identification of cultivars, conservation of Perilla germplasm resources, and genetic mapping and designating of important genes/QTLs for future Perilla crop breeding programs.
Abstract: Based on RNA sequences using transcriptome analysis, 37 new simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer sets were developed for Perilla species. These new SSR markers were applied to analyze the genetic diversity among 15 accessions of Perilla species. A total of 182 alleles were confirmed in 37 loci, with an average of 4.9 alleles per locus and from 2 to 9 alleles per locus. The MAF (major allele frequency) per locus varied from 0.200 to 0.733, with an average of 0.463. The gene diversity (GD) ranged from 0.391 to 0.853, with an average of 0.670. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.624, ranging from 0.315 to 0.838. The new SSR markers of Perilla species reported in this study may provide potential markers to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic relationships of Perilla species. In addition, new Perilla SSR markers developed from transcriptome analysis can be useful for the identification of cultivars, conservation of Perilla germplasm resources, and genetic mapping and designating of important genes/QTLs for future Perilla crop breeding programs.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gene expression analyses revealed the presence of gametophytes- and sporophyte-specific AMT1 genes that were up-regulated transiently and continually, respectively, under nitrogen-deficient conditions, and an expansion of the ancient AMT gene has producedAMT1 functional variants differing in temporal and nitrogen starvation-inducible expression patterns during the life cycle of P. yezoensis.
Abstract: Nitrogen deficiency induces senescence and the expression of genes encoding ammonium transporters (AMTs) in terrestrial plants where the AMT family is subdivided into AMT1 and AMT2 subfamilies. Nitrogen starvation in the red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis causes senescence-like discoloration. In this study, we identified five genes in P. yezoensis encoding AMT domain-containing proteins, which were phylogenetically categorized into the AMT1 subfamily. We also found a gene encoding a Rhesus protein (Rh) that was related to, but diverged from, AMTs. Moreover, our phylogenetic analysis showed that AMT domain-containing proteins from micro- and macro-algae belonged to either the AMT1 or Rh subfamily, indicating the absence of AMT2 in algae. Gene expression analyses revealed the presence of gametophyte- and sporophyte-specific AMT1 genes that were up-regulated transiently and continually, respectively, under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In addition, up-regulated sporophyte-specific gene expression was suppressed when nitrogen was resupplied. Accordingly, an expansion of the ancient AMT gene has produced AMT1 functional variants differing in temporal and nitrogen starvation-inducible expression patterns during the life cycle of P. yezoensis. These findings help elucidate the unique nutrition starvation responses involving functionally diverse AMT1 and Rh subfamilies in red seaweed.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide general information about the carrot weed's current distribution status and its impact on agricultural crops, animals and human health in Africa and highlight areas for research in managing this noxious weed in the African habitats.
Abstract: Carrot-weed (Parthenium hysterophorous L.) is a flowering plant of the Asteraceae family (tribe: Heliantheae). The weed became famous due to its notorious invasive role in the environment and agricultural fields. The plant has arisen as the seventh most disturbing weed globally. In Africa, the weed is spreading very fast and information on its biology, impact, and management is scarce. Therefore, this review provides general information about the carrot weed’s current distribution status and its impact on agricultural crops, animals and human health in Africa. The review also highlights areas for research in managing this noxious weed in the African habitats.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conducted an investigation to explain how four barley genotypes varied in their drought tolerance according to their genotype and their tested organs, which indicated that Giza 123 was the superior in its drought tolerance and Giza======129 was the interior and both cv. Giza 2000 and cv Giza 124 were the intermediated between them.
Abstract: This investigation was conducting to explain that four barley genotypes varied in their drought tolerance according to their genotype and their tested organs. It can be recorded that growth parameters (fresh, dry matter and length, water content, leaf area and pigment contents) were decreased as decreasing M. C. in the soil. This indicated that Giza 123 was the superior in its drought tolerance and Giza 129 was the interior and both cv. Giza 2000 and cv. Giza 124 were the intermediated between them. This concomitant with increase in soluble sugar and soluble protein content of both organs in Giza 123 and shoot Ca++, this related with lower value of OP other than genotypes, in Giza 2000 this was related with a huge accumulation in soluble protein of shoot and root, shoot amino acids and root proline reach 3-folds than control plants as decreasing M. C. Whereas drought stress increased soluble protein only in Giza 124 while in Giza 129 decreasing M. C. increased soluble protein, amino acids and proline contents in shoot and root and shoot Ca++. The values of OP increased as decreasing M. C. in four barley cultivars concomitant with their drought tolerance. Also, SA application was markedly enhanced the production of growth parameters in shoot and root with varied degree according to each tested barley genotypes. SA application was significantly increased OP in shoot, root and spike of barley pants. Spraying vegetative parts with 0.5 mM SA was markedly increased the soluble sugar, soluble protein and amino acids in shoot, root and spike of four barley cultivars. On the other side, SA application lowered the accumulation of proline in shoot and root of barley genotypes. SA treatment induced no significant change in K+, Ca++, and Mg++ in shoot, root and spike of Giza 123, it significantly increased K+, Ca++, and Mg++ in shoot and root of Giza 2000. SA application enhanced accumulation of K+, Ca++ in shoot and root of Giza 124 and K+, Ca++ and Mg++in three organs of Giza 129.

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that teak micropropagation can be simplified in two phases in vitro, the establishment and multiplication; followed by rooting ex vitro and acclimatization, which would imply a reduction in production costs, since most of the multiplication would take place in RITA® containers.
Abstract: In Latin America the forestry of exotic species such as teak has been increasing in recent decades, due to their advantages in wood quality, rapid growth; and the relative ease of producing clones and their multiplication with respect to native species. Therefore, there is great interest in developing larger-scale propagation strategies that reduce costs and intensive manual labor. Culture in liquid media with temporary immersion and the semi-automation of the system has raised expectations for large-scale micropropagation. We report a protocol for teak, which reuses the primary explants in several culture cycles in semi-solid medium to produce nodal explants for the multiplication phase in temporary immersion bioreactors (RITA® ). The control of factors such as cytokinin concentration, explants density, immersion frequencies and culture duration was analyzed. The number of shoots increased with 0.5 mg·l-1 of BA (6-Benzyladenine), alone or in combination with 0.5 mg·l-1 of Kinetin, with 2 daily immersions of 1 minute each; however, these shoots showed a high degree of hyperhydricity. When 0.05 mg·l-1 of BA was used with 1 immersion of 1 minute every 2 days, the hyperhydricity decreased. Although the number of shoots was lower, they showed good length to be used during multiplication and rooting ex vitro. Our results suggest that teak micropropagation can be simplified in two phases in vitro, the establishment and multiplication; followed by rooting ex vitro and acclimatization. This would imply a reduction in production costs, since most of the multiplication would take place in RITA® containers.

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results strongly suggested that further studies of effects of plant population density on biomass production in cup plant should include evaluation of, in addition to, densities higher than 68,000 plants ha-1.
Abstract: The North American genus Silphium is receiving global attention for its potential in the development of new food, forage, and industrial crops, including cellulosic biomass for biofuel. Little is known about the effect of plant population density on biomass production in large, coarse perennial forbs. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of variation in plant density on biomass production and stand morphology of cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.). Plant population densities of 17,000, 34,000, and 68,000 plants ha-1 were evaluated for biomass production in a single-harvest per annum system for three years at Brookings, SD and Arlington, WI. Biomass increased linearly by 43% between the low and high density at Brookings; whereas, at Arlington, response to variation in plant density was year dependent. Shoots plant-1 was inversely related to plant density with linear regression explaining >95% of the variation. Our results strongly suggested that further studies of effects of plant population density on biomass production in cup plant should include evaluation of, in addition to, densities higher than 68,000 plants ha-1.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present paper is based on the finding of floristic diversity inventory research work conducted in Lower Kanchenjungha Singhalila Ridge, in Nepal side of Eastern Himalaya, which finds Rosaceae was found to be the largest family with 23 species followed by Ericaceae 17, and Lauraceae 9 species.
Abstract: The present paper is based on the finding of floristic diversity inventory research work conducted in Lower Kanchenjungha Singhalila Ridge, in Nepal side of Eastern Himalaya. Knowledge on floristic diversity of an area can reflect the total resources, their use patterns and conservation status which have a key role for making conservation strategies and policies. Analysis of vegetation helps to develop detailed picture of plant communities of that region. A total of 299 plant species belonging to 184 genera and 86 families were found in the Lower Kanchenjungha Singhalila Ridge. Dicotyledonous flora includes 69 families, 150 genera and 229 species whereas Monocotyledonous flora includes 15 families, 32 genera and 39 species. On the basis of floristic analysis Rosaceae was found to be the largest family with 23 species followed by Ericaceae 17, and Lauraceae 9 species. Current study furnishes three new addition to the flora of Nepal viz. Begonia flaviflora H. Hara (Begoniaceae), Carex cruciate Wahlenberg var. argocarpa C. B. Clarke (Cyperaceae), and Strobilanthes helicta Anderson (Acanthaceae). Of this total, 30 woody tree species with 551 individuals and 23 genera were recorded from the altitudinal range of 2100 - 3000 m of study area. The highest relative frequency was recorded by Lithocarpus pachyphylla (18.48%), Symplocos ramosissima (16.30%), Rhododendron falconeri (13.95%), Symplocos dryophylla (10.20%). Eurya acuminate and Symplocos species were found to be dominant in lower elevation whereas Lithocarpus pachyphylla and Rhododendron species were found to be dominant in upper elevation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is a positive and significant correlation between the morphological traits of fruits and those of seeds of L. lanceolata and these results can be useful in the selection of early breeding tree in Atacora Chain phytodistrict and high-yielding trees from individuals in the Borgou-Nord and Borgou
Abstract: Lophira lanceolata is an oleaginous tree species whose fruit is used for vegetable oil production in Benin. The present study highlighted the fruit production and characterization of the morphological traits of the fruits and seeds of this species. A total of 196 mature trees in production were randomly sampled in Borgou-Nord, Borgou-Sud and Atacora Chain phytodistricts. Descriptors were characterized globally at the level of phytodistricts surveyed. Pearson correlation test stands out the relationships between the different descriptors. The effect of phytodistricts on fruit production was analyzed using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the variation of morphological traits between phytodistricts was examined through Kruskal-Wallis test. Finally, SMA regression was used to test the influence of the phytodistrict on the relationship between L. lanceolata seed and fruit weight. This study revealed that there is a positive and significant correlation between the morphological traits of fruits and those of seeds. Trees descriptors (e.g. total height, diameter at breast height, and leaf petiole length) predict fruit production of L. lanceolata, but are not significantly correlated with fruit and seed traits. In the Atacora Chain phytodistrict, breeding trees are entering production with small diameter, low height and produce little number of fruits per tree with higher weight, unlike the Borgou-Nord and Borgou-Sud phytodistricts. These results can be useful in the selection of early breeding tree in Atacora Chain phytodistrict and high-yielding trees from individuals in the Borgou-Nord and Borgou-Sud phytodistricts.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article is devoted to the economic and biological characteristics of promising desert semi-shrub halophytes to improve saline lands of the Kyzylkum desert.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the economic and biological characteristics of promising desert semi-shrub halophytes (Kochia prostrate, Salsola orientalis, Ceratoides ewersmaniana, Halothamhus subaphyllus, Camphorosma lessingii) to improve saline lands of the Kyzylkum desert.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The intraspecific genetic variations of 322 cultivated tomato genotypes, including 300 breeding lines developed by three Texas A&M breeding programs, are explored as an initial step toward implementing molecular breeding approaches.
Abstract: Genetic variation developed in plant breeding programs is fundamental to creating new combinations that result in cultivars with enhanced characteristics. Over the years, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) breeding programs associated with the Texas A&M University system have developed morphologically diverse lines of tomatoes selected for heat tolerance, fruit quality, and disease resistance to adapt them to Texas growing conditions. Here we explored the intraspecific genetic variations of 322 cultivated tomato genotypes, including 300 breeding lines developed by three Texas A&M breeding programs, as an initial step toward implementing molecular breeding approaches. Genotyping by sequencing using low coverage whole-genome sequencing (SkimGBS) identified 10,236 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and phylogenetic relationship between genotypes and breeding programs. Model-based population structure analysis, phylogenetic tree construction, and principal component analysis indicated that the genotypes were grouped into two main clusters. Genetic distance analysis revealed greater genetic diversity among the products of the three breeding programs. The germplasm developed at Texas A&M programs at Weslaco, College Station, and by Dr. Paul Leeper exhibited genetic diversity ranges of 0.175 - 0.434, 0.099 - 0.392, and 0.183 - 0.347, respectively, suggesting that there is enough variation within and between the lines from the three programs to perform selection for cultivar development. The SNPs identified here could be used to develop molecular tools for selecting various traits of interest and to select parents for future tomato breeding.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a total of 142 underutilized edible plants were collected, identified and documented from three districts (Kohima, Phek and Tuensang) of Nagaland, India.
Abstract: With the rapid rise in the population, there is higher demand of the food supply to fed millions of people. As such dependence on the few major staple crops to meet the needs of the people has led to increases in starvation and poverty. Underutilized edible plants offer a cheaper and affordable option in providing more crop diversification to tackle these problems and provide food security to the poor to the world in general and to the developing countries in particular. In the present investigation, a total of 142 underutilized edible plants were collected, identified and documented from three districts (Kohima, Phek and Tuensang) of Nagaland, India. The collected plant consists of 126 species of plants and 16 wild edible mushrooms or macro fungus species. The collected plants were categorized according to types of plant and their parts used collected during the period 2012-2016 with their scientific name, family, common name, vernacular name and accession number. The study discusses the need to promote these plants for providing food security and income generation through sustainable collection, cultivation and marketing and to workout proper conservation strategies to prevent depletion and lost of the natural habitat caused by anthropogenic activities. The study also encourages more survey and researches in the rest of the districts of the state and to study the phytochemical constituents to harness the nutraceutical properties of these plants.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the effect of high tunnel production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. "Two Star" and "New Red Fire") and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv "Mountain Fresh" on their nutritional quality relating to major nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals.
Abstract: High tunnel production of horticultural food crops is becoming increasingly popular and has a significant impact on their growth, productivity and nutritional quality. The present study examines the effect of high tunnel production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. “Two Star” and “New Red Fire”) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. “Celebrity” and “Mountain Fresh”) on their nutritional quality relating to major nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals. High tunnel environment increased the concentration of N (protein) in both lettuce and tomato relative to the open field cultivation. The accumulation pattern of mineral nutrients in high tunnel was similar in green-leaf and red-leaf lettuce varieties. Lettuce varieties grown in high tunnel had higher accumulation of C, S and Zn relative to those grown in open field. However, high tunnel environment suppressed the accumulation of many micronutrients such as Mg, Fe, Cu and Mn in both lettuce varieties but not in tomato. For example, accumulation of Fe was reduced by more than 80% in “Two Star” and by more than 55% in “New Red Fire” under high tunnel. It also suppressed the levels of many health-promoting phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, rutin and kaempferol in green-leaf lettuce and gallic acid in red-leaf lettuce. High tunnel environment improved the soil nutrient status but reduced the radiation levels (PAR, UV-A and UV-B) received by the crops. The results show that the high tunnel production has a significant impact on the nutritional quality relating to protein and mineral nutrients in both crops and health-promoting phytochemicals in lettuce.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of supplemental radiation on the growth and nutritional quality of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa) varieties (red leaf “New Red Fire” and green leaf ‘Two======Star”) was studied.
Abstract: Spectral quality of radiation has a major impact on the growth, development and nutritional quality of crops. The effect of supplemental radiation (blue, red and far-red) on the growth and nutritional quality with regard to health-promoting phytochemical and micronutrient composition of two lettuce (Lactuca sativa) varieties (red leaf “New Red Fire” and green leaf “Two Star”) was studied. Supplemental radiation was provided by blue (450 nm), red (660 nm) or far-red (730 nm) LEDs against a background of white light (fluorescent lighting, PAR; 270 μmol/m2/s) in a growth chamber study. All the supplemental radiation treatments increased dry shoot biomass in both varieties. However, supplemental far-red radiation increased both fresh and dry shoot biomass in both varieties. In addition, supplemental far-red radiation produced distinct morphological characteristics in lettuce plants. It produced the largest shoot biomass, bigger and taller plants, fewer leaves but with larger leaf area compared to the control, similar to the shade avoidance response. With regard to the accumulation of phytochemicals, supplemental blue radiation enhanced the total phenolic compound concentration in both varieties. In addition, supplemental blue radiation sharply increased the accumulation of several phenolic compounds in green leaf lettuce including chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, rutin, kaempferol, luteolin and apigenin. For example, the leaf concentration of rutin in green leaf lettuce increased by 20-fold under supplemental blue radiation. Similarly, supplemental red radiation increased the concentration of many of these phenolic compounds in red leaf lettuce. However, supplemental far-red radiation had an inhibitory effect on the accumulation of chlorogenic acid, chicoric acid, rutin and kaempferol in red leaf lettuce. While supplemental radiation did not affect the accumulation of most of the micronutrients, it had a negative impact on the accumulation of some micronutrients, the response being variety dependent. The results show that supplementing white light with specific spectral quality has a major impact on the biomass accumulation, morphology and on the accumulation of many health-promoting phytochemicals and micronutrients in lettuce. While it had a large positive effect in enhancing the accumulation of several phytochemicals, it also suppressed the accumulation of some micronutrients.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that the superior drought tolerance of Honeycrisp was due to its anatomical and morphological characteristics, which possibly contributed to the maintenance of higher photosynthetic capacity than Yanfu 3.
Abstract: Apple is one of the most important fruit trees in temperate zones, and is cultivated widely throughout the world. Drought stress affects the normal growth of apple tree, and further affects fruit yield and quality. The present study examined the effects of drought on photosynthesis and water use efficiency (WUE) of two apple cultivars (Honeycrisp and Yanfu 3) that differ in drought tolerance. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate decreased in response to drought stress for both cultivars, with significant differences in intensity. Values for net photosynthetic rate (Pn) in stressed Yanfu 3 remained significantly lower than in the controls, while, for Honeycrisp, only a slight drop in photosynthesis. Similarly, stomatal conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration rate (Tr) were markedly reduced in Yanfu 3 under drought stress. However, Honeycrisp showed only minor changes. Under drought stress, the contents of Chl a, Chl b and Chl t in Yanfu 3 were all decreased significantly compared with the control. However, little difference in Honeycrisp was noted between stressed plants and controls. Values for WUE in stressed Yanfu 3 remained higher than in the controls from day 3 until the end of the experiment, while no significant difference was observed in Honeycrisp. Furthermore, Honeycrisp also exhibited superior physiological traits, as indicated by its anatomical and morphological characteristics. Therefore, we conclude that the superior drought tolerance of Honeycrisp was due to its anatomical and morphological characteristics, which possibly contributed to the maintenance of higher photosynthetic capacity than Yanfu 3.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Research gaps identified in the study are the need for breeding new varieties with tolerance/resistance to both CMD and CBSD viruses as well as the extensive use of rapid multiplex diagnostic tools to ensure early diagnostic and availability of good quality planting material at farmers’ level.
Abstract: A survey was completed during the last five years (2014-2018) to update and assess changes in the cassava pests and diseases occurrence as well as to understand how these changes occur regarding the recent new viruses spread under a climate change context in the South-Kivu region, Democratic Republic of Congo. The eight territories of South-Kivu were surveyed during the rainy seasons from 2015 until 2017 except for Uvira and Fizi where data were recorded in 2018 regarding the prevalence of unstable agro ecological factors which may influence pest and diseases dynamic in these two territories. During the data collection, pests and disease incidence and severity were recorded as well as the sampling of cassava leaves for molecular viruses’ detection. The recorded data showed that Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) remains the most encountered disease (75% - 80%) and its vector (the whitefly Bemisia tabaci) the most important pest (10 - 18 adult whiteflies per leaf). The major changes were recorded for Cassava brown streak disease, recently reported in the region, for which a significant increase was recorded, with not reports before 2012 to 70% - 80% incidence in 2018 in the Ruzizi plain area (Uvira and Fizi). Molecular detection revealed a coexistence of both two viruses, the cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) in single and mixed infections. Co-infections cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak diseases were frequently recorded resulting in severe expression leaves’ symptoms and tuber yields’ losses. Common pests and diseases considered as minor have drastically become serious threat to cassava production by increasing both their incidence and severity values. The cassava bacterial blight (20%), cassava green mite (20% - 70%), cassava mealy bugs and cassava grasshoppers were recorded as a great challenge in relation with an occurrence of long dry season resulting in four consecutive dry months without rain. The high occurrence of CBSD on new CMD-resistant varieties has enforced farmers to recover local CMD-susceptible varieties which revealed a relative CBSD-tolerance and moderate yield losses. This need for virus control is really challenging cassava crop in a region where the diseases pressure is high and people consume cassava and its products seven days a week. Research gaps identified in the study are the need for breeding new varieties with tolerance/resistance to both CMD and CBSD viruses as well as the extensive use of rapid multiplex diagnostic tools to ensure early diagnostic and availability of good quality planting material at farmers’ level.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The effect of selenate (Na2SeO4) and sulphate on growth and metabolism in two rice cultivars cv. satabdi and Cv. khitish was investigated in this paper.
Abstract: The effect of selenate (Na2SeO4) and sulphate (Na2SO4) was studied on growth and metabolism in two rice cultivars cv. satabdi and cv. khitish. Selenate at low concentration (2 μM) expressed growth promoting effect on rice seedlings as opposed to its high concentration (≥20 μM) where the test seedlings showed stunted growth with browning at the apices of both roots and shoots. The chlorophyll contents showed a dose dependent effect. Both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents were inhibited with increase in selenate concentrations. The effect was more pronounced in cv. satabdi compared to cv. khitish.The level of accessory pigments was deferentially affected by selenium treatment. Simultaneously, the fluorescence intensity and Hill activity decreased with increase in selenate concentrations in the test seedlings. It is assumed that selenium plays a protective role in plants subjected to stress and prevents the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. Higher selenate concentrations (≥20 μM) exerted variable effect on the activities of enzymatic antioxidants viz.; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catechol peroxidase (CPX) and catalase (CAT) in the test seedlings. The activity of SOD increased with increase in selenate concentrations, whereas activities of CAT and CPX decreased. Under high selenate concentrations, the levels of oxidative stress markers, viz.; proline, H2O2 and MDA were also enhanced. Selenium induced accumulation of total soluble sugar and increased the level of both reducing and non reducing sugars in both the test cultivars. The starch contents concomitantly decreased with rise in selenate concentrations. Moreover, the nutrient contents of test seedlings were significantly influenced by selenium. The Na and K levels gradually increased whereas Ca, Mg and Fe levels decreased on application of selenate. Joint application of 10 mM sulphate and selenate showed significant alterations on all parameters tested with respect to selenate treatment alone. Partial to complete amelioration occurred in the test seedlings treated with high concentrations of selenate and sulphate. Our study shows that selenium at low concentration had a stimulatory effect on growth and metabolism as against high concentrations which proved to be toxic to the rice seedlings obtained from both the cultivars. Effects were more pronounced in cv. satabdi than in cv. khitish which is considered to be comparatively tolerant to selenium. The dose dependent influence of selenium on the physiological and biochemical responses of test seedlings may be reversed by co-application with sulphate.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The sustainable management of Detarium senegalense in the forest can only be secured through a sustainable harvesting of seeds and actives promotion of natural regeneration.
Abstract: Detarium senegalense J. F. Gmel., of the family of Fabaceae is one of the most exploited tree species in Togo. However, there are only few scientific studies on the distribution of this specie. This study is a contribution to the promotion of multi-purpose tree species in Togo with particular emphasis on a better knowledge of Detarium senegalense. It provides data on the ecology of the specie and his state of regeneration. The data on the specie are based on sample plots in the areas identified as hosts of the specie in Togo. A total of 77 circular plots of 1000 m2 (17.8 m radius) were established in ecological zones II, IV and V of Togo. The dendrometric parameters identified are: the total height and diameter at breast height (DBH) of Detarium senegalense and of all species found in each plot. Detarium senegalense trees of DBH < 10 cm are considered as potential regenerations. Detarium senegalense is more abundant in zones IV (forest area), followed by zone II. In zone V, Detarium senegalense is located only in the forest of “Have”. The structure of Detarium senegalense has a bell-shaped distribution with predominance of trees with large and intermediate diameters ranging between 30 and 70 cm. Trees of small DBH (<30 cm) are often lacking in natural forest stands where Detarium senegalense occurs. This indicates a low regeneration rate of the specie. However, the structure of all species inventoried has a negative exponential distribution with predominance of small diameter trees. The sustainable management of Detarium senegalense in the forest can only be secured through a sustainable harvesting of seeds and actives promotion of natural regeneration.

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TL;DR: A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut peat on growth and yield response of Ipomoea aquatica for Pirojpur soil series and yielded contributing characters like number of leaves, fresh weight and dry weight were significantly different from the control.
Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut peat on growth and yield response of Ipomoea aquatica for Pirojpur soil series during the period of 24th May to 25th June, 2017. The experiment was laid to fit a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments [control (T0), 1000 kg coconut peat ha-1 (T1), 1500 kg coconut peat ha-1 (T2), 2000 kg coconut peat ha-1 (T3) and 2500 kg coconut peat ha-1 (T4)] each having three replications for this experiment. After plant harvesting, the laboratory investigation was carried out in the Soil, Water and Environment Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh. Yield contributing characters like number of leaves, fresh weight and dry weight were significantly (P T3 > T2 > T1 > T0 and significantly (P < 0.05) difference in plant growth from the control (T0).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a callus induction and regeneration method was developed using different plant growth regulators (PGRs), and basal media (Murashige and Skoog (MS), CHU (N6) and Gamborg (B5) of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.
Abstract: In-vitro callus induction and regeneration method was developed using different plant growth regulators (PGRs), and basal media (Murashige and Skoog (MS), CHU (N6) and Gamborg (B5) media) of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck. Observations of the effect of PGRs were carried out using different concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D),1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and combinations of 2,4-D and NAA using different basal media. This study found Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck exhibited a high frequency of callus induction on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L 2,4-D and callus induction frequency was 86.7% ± 3.4% whereas N6 and B5 showed lower callus induction frequency of 83.3% ± 8.8% and 82.2% ± 1.9% respectively compared to that of MS media with supplementation of the same hormone. Among the induced calli, the morphological analysis showed only 40% - 50% was embryogenic calli. Regeneration of plantlets from calli was done using different concentrations and combinations of auxin and cytokinin. The study showed that 3 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) supplemented medium has the maximum potential to promote regeneration of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck from embryogenic calli with the frequency of 89.3% ± 8.8% but no regeneration occurred from the non-embryogenic calli. The regenerated plantlets were rooted on MS medium with supplementation of 5 mg/l NAA. These observations in Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck regeneration will be helpful for genetic improvement with desired traits.

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TL;DR: Horticultural Cucurbitaceae plants have interspecific variation in the pattern of silicon deposition in leaf trichomes, which was observed by an X-ray microanalyzer coupled with an environmental scanning electron microscope.
Abstract: Silicon deposition in leaf trichome of six horticultural Cucurbitaceae species, cucumber (Cucumis sativus), pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima), melon (Cucumis melo), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria var. hispida) was observed by an X-ray microanalyzer coupled with an environmental scanning electron microscope. The elements that presented in the surface of three or four leaves of the individual species were detected and mapped by the X-ray microanalyzer. In leaves of cucumber, pumpkin, and melon, high accumulation of silicon was detected in cells surrounding the bases of the trichome hair and the hair itself deposited calcium. On the other hand, in sponge gourd and bottle gourd, high accumulation of silicon was detected only in the hair. In watermelon leaves, silicon deposited both in the hair and in cells surrounding the bases of the hair. Thus, horticultural Cucurbitaceae plants have interspecific variation in the pattern of silicon deposition in leaf trichomes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a model for soybean seed emergence based on a quadratic model and measured the relationship between the seed emergence rate and temperature in two soybean cultivars, Asgrow AG5332 and Progeny P 5333 RY.
Abstract: Developing a model for soybean seed emergence offers a tool producers could use for planting date options and in predicting seedling emergence. In this study, temperature effects on soybean seed emergence were quantified, modeled, and validated. The data for seed emergence model development was generated at varying temperatures, 20°C/12°C, 25°C/17°C, 30°C/22°C, 35°C/27°C, and 40°C/32°C, on two soybean cultivars, Asgrow AG5332 and Progeny P 5333 RY. Time for 50% emergence (t50%) was recorded, and seed emergence rate (SER) was estimated as reciprocal to time at each temperature in both the cultivars. No differences were observed between the cultivars in their response to temperature. A quadratic model (QM) best described the relationship between t50% and SGR and temperature (R2 = 0.93). Two sets of experiments were conducted to validate the model. In Experiment 1, 17 time-series planting date studies with the same cultivars were used by utilizing diurnal and seasonal changes in temperature conditions. In the second experiment, sunlit growth chambers with 3 different day/night temperatures, low—20°C/12°C, optimum—30°C/22°C, and high—40°C/32°C, and 64 soybean cultivars belonging MG III, IV, and V, were used. Air temperature and t50 were recorded, and SGR was estimated in all experiments. No differences were recorded among the cultivars for t50% and SGR, but differences were observed among seeding date and temperature experiments. We tested QM and traditionally used Growing Degree Days models against the data collected in validation experiments. Both the model simulations predictions agreed closely with the observed data. Based on model statistics, R2, root mean square errors (RMSE), and comparison of observations and predictions to assess model performance, the QM model performed better than the GDD model for soybean seed emergence under a wide range of cultivars and environmental conditions.

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TL;DR: The results reveal that there are three morphological groups of P. erinaceus in Cote d’Ivoire, and these could be useful for varietal selection of this species.
Abstract: Pterocarpus erinaceus is a high socio-economic tree of African savannahs. It is overexploited due to technological qualities of its wood, forage value and medicinal uses. The main objective of this study is the assessment of the morphological variability within this species in Cote d’Ivoire, in sight of rational management. Fourteen morphological traits were used to appraise the variability within 144 trees in production from six sites (Yalo, Moyenne Marahoue, Kahanso, Kouassi-Ndawa, Ouarigue and Teguirdouo). The results indicate that the variability reaches 6.60 for the height of the fruit and 45.99 for the weight of the fruit. The results reveal also that there are three morphological groups of P. erinaceus in Cote d’Ivoire. Of the four traits that revealed a distinction among the three morphotypes, only the width of leaves and the number of leaflets enabled their complete distinction. Trees of group 1 have long leaves with a high number of leaflets and large fruits. Trees of group 2 have small leaves with a reduced number of leaflets and large fruits. Then trees of group 3 have intermediate value of width of leaves and number of leaflet and small fruits. The three morphological groups could be useful for varietal selection of P. erinaceus in Cote d’Ivoire.

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TL;DR: The results suggest that Tuxpeno-Reid × Suwan-Lancaster may be possible new heterotic patterns in the southern region of China.
Abstract: Reid, Lancaster, Tuxpeno and Suwan are the most common maize (Zea mays L.) germplasms. Reid × Lancaster and Suwan × Tuxpeno are very important heterotic patterns in temperate areas and tropical areas, respectively. Broadening the genetic basis of maize has usually been conducted in inter-populations formed by crossing temperate and tropical germplasms. Reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS) is a breeding procedure to improve the inter-populational cross of two base populations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of reciprocal recurrent selection on grain yield in the TR (Tuxpeno-Reid) and SL (Suwan-Lancaster) maize populations. The populations and the inter-populational crosses of each selection cycle, as well as two commercial hybrids, were evaluated in four environments. The effect of mean grain yield on TR × SL inter-population crosses was 4.63% (or 0.365 Mg·ha-1) cycle-1. The grain yield of SL increased by 2.78% (or 0.20 Mg·ha-1) cycle-1, but the grain yield of TR essentially did not change. Most changes in other agronomic traits occurred in the desired direction. After 3 selection cycles, the ear tip-barrenness length decreased in TR × SL, TR and SL by 39.70%, 37.50% and 24.57%, respectively, which indicates that the increase in grain yield may be largely due to a decreasing ear tip-barrenness length. The mid-parent heterosis of grain yield of the inter-populational cross increased from 15.49% to 25.96% from C0 to C3. The mean grain yields of TRC3 × SLC3 were 100.01% and 103.88% of the mean grain yields of the commercial single-crosses GD8 and QD16, respectively. The results suggest that Tuxpeno-Reid × Suwan-Lancaster may be possible new heterotic patterns in the southern region of China.

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TL;DR: The low and quite variable kaempferitrin content as well the wide variability of the flavonoid profiles brings into question the dubious matter of using these compounds as chemical markers for this medicinal species.
Abstract: The leaves of Bauhinia forficate L. (Fabaceae) are used in Brazilian folk medicine mainly as antidiabetic agent. They are rich in polyphenols, and kaempferitrin and other flavonoids are currently considered as basic chemical criteria for the quality and the effectiveness of extracts and phytopharmaceuticals derived from them. Aiming to expand the scope of current data of the chemical profile of B. forficate subsp. forficate, the present study employed HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS to compare the flavonoid profile and kaempferitrin content in the leaves of specimens collected seasonally during one year, in two different locations in Southeastern Brazil: Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Sao Paulo (SP) states. The data showed a variation in the flavonoid profile and in the kaempferitrin content depending on the place of collection and the season of the year. The target compound, kaempferitrin, was found to be only a minor constituent in RJ (0.21 - 1.02 μg/mg), and was mostly absent or occurred as trace in SP location (0.00 - 0.12 μg/mg). Some degree of similarity was observed in the flavonoid profiles according to the region of collection. In agreement with some published reports, the low and quite variable kaempferitrin content as well the wide variability of the flavonoid profiles brings into question the dubious matter of using these compounds as chemical markers for this medicinal species.

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TL;DR: Allelopathic sweet potato cultivars high in chlorogenic acid production can effectively suppress Palmer amaranth with minimal dependence on chemicals to manage weeds and harmful pests under sustainable agricultural system.
Abstract: Allelopathic compounds have the potential to inhibit the growth and development of other organisms in a diverse manner ranging from shifting nutrients and enhancing their growth to inflicting diseases. In addition, these compounds influence seedling growth and seed germination of various crops. The goal of this study was to identify and quantify different allelochemicals in various sweet potato cultivars through high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. Selected sweet potato slips (weight: 2.0 - 2.5 grams/slip) were propagated in separate glass tubes filled with 10.0 mL distilled water. Water extract from each glass tube was collected after 2, 4, and 6 weeks after transplanting (WAP) to identify and quantify allelochemical compounds by comparing their peaks with the retention time of standards. Results show that the concentration of allelochemicals in water extract was increased from 2 to 4 WAP but remained constant in the sixth week. Quantitative analysis revealed that the amount of chlorogenic acid was higher in all sweet potato cultivars compared to other allelochemicals. Some sweet potato cultivars, A5 and A39, exhibited higher allelopathy (18.28 - 19.37 ppm/slip) and reduced the height and biomass of Palmer amaranth the most due to the presence of increased concentration of combined allelochemicals, while other cultivars produced lesser allelochemicals (10.90 ppm/slip) and did not reduce the growth of the weed species. Allelopathic sweet potato cultivars high in chlorogenic acid production can effectively suppress Palmer amaranth with minimal dependence on chemicals to manage weeds and harmful pests under sustainable agricultural system.