American Sociological Review
About: American Sociological Review is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Politics. It has an ISSN identifier of 0003-1224. Over the lifetime, 8900 publication(s) have been published receiving 994156 citation(s).
Topics: Population, Politics, Poison control, Social change, Social class
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Apr 1983-American Sociological Review
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that rational actors make their organizations increasingly similar as they try to change them, and describe three isomorphic processes-coercive, mimetic, and normative.
Abstract: What makes organizations so similar? We contend that the engine of rationalization and bureaucratization has moved from the competitive marketplace to the state and the professions. Once a set of organizations emerges as a field, a paradox arises: rational actors make their organizations increasingly similar as they try to change them. We describe three isomorphic processes-coercive, mimetic, and normative—leading to this outcome. We then specify hypotheses about the impact of resource centralization and dependency, goal ambiguity and technical uncertainty, and professionalization and structuration on isomorphic change. Finally, we suggest implications for theories of organizations and social change.
01 Apr 1960-American Sociological Review
TL;DR: The notion of complementarity and reciprocity in functional theory is explored in this article, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation" and the need to distinguish between complementarity, reciprocity, and the generalized moral norm of reciprocity.
Abstract: The manner in which the concept of reciprocity is implicated in functional theory is explored, enabling a reanalysis of the concepts of "survival" and "exploitation." The need to distinguish between the concepts of complementarity and reciprocity is stressed. Distinctions are also drawn between (1) reciprocity as a pattern of mutually contingent exchange of gratifications, (2) the existential or folk belief in reciprocity, and (3) the generalized moral norm of reciprocity. Reciprocity as a moral norm is analyzed; it is hypothesized that it is one of the universal "principal components" of moral codes. As Westermarck states, "To requite a benefit, or to be grateful to him who bestows it, is probably everywhere, at least under certain circumstances, regarded as a duty. This is a subject which in the present connection calls for special consideration." Ways in which the norm of reciprocity is implicated in the maintenance of stable social systems are examined.
01 Jan 1983-American Sociological Review
01 Aug 1979-American Sociological Review
TL;DR: In this paper, a "routine activity approach" is presented for analyzing crime rate trends and cycles. But rather than emphasizing the characteristics of offenders, with this approach, the authors concentrate upon the circumstances in which they carry out predatory criminal acts, and hypothesize that the dispersion of activities away from households and families increases the opportunity for crime and thus generates higher crime rates.
Abstract: In this paper we present a "routine activity approach" for analyzing crime rate trends and cycles. Rather than emphasizing the characteristics of offenders, with this approach we concentrate upon the circumstances in which they carry out predatory criminal acts. Most criminal acts require convergence in space and time of likely offenders, suitable targets and the absence of capable guardians against crime. Human ecological theory facilitates an investigation into the way in which social structure produces this convergence, hence allowing illegal activities to feed upon the legal activities of everyday life. In particular, we hypothesize that the dispersion of activities away from households and families increases the opportunity for crime and thus generates higher crime rates. A variety of data is presented in support of the hypothesis, which helps explain crime rate trends in the United States 1947-1974 as a byproduct of changes in such variables as labor force participation and single-adult households.
01 Dec 1970-American Sociological Review
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