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JournalISSN: 0003-1283

American Speech 

Duke University Press
About: American Speech is an academic journal published by Duke University Press. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): American English & Slang. It has an ISSN identifier of 0003-1283. Over the lifetime, 2377 publications have been published receiving 25156 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper showed that in many cases, discourses introduced by be + like can also represent internal thought, as Butters (1982) noted, and that the speaker is invited to infer that this is what the speaker was thinking or saying to himself as the girl approached.
Abstract: It can be seen here that like functions much in the same way as the verb say does in introducing reported speech. In both these examples a form of the verb be followed by like alternates with say, and where be + like occurs, it appears paraphrasable by say with no apparent change in referential meaning. However, we will qualify this considerably in the course of our analysis, because in many, if not most cases, discourses introduced by be + like can also represent internal thought, as Butters (1982) noted. In (3), for example, it is not certain that the speaker actually SAID "no." Rather, the hearer is invited to infer that this is what the speaker was thinking or saying to himself as the girl approached.

367 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper presented an analysis of Instant Messaging (IM), a one-to-one synchronous medium of computer-mediated communication, and found that IM is firmly rooted in the model of the extant language.
Abstract: This article presents an analysis of Instant Messaging (IM), a one-to-one synchronous medium of computer-mediated communication. Innumerable articles in the popular press suggest that increasing use of IM by teens is leading to a break- down in the English language. The analyses presented here are based on a unique corpus involving 72 teenagers and over a million words of natural, unmonitored IM. In addition, a corpus of speech from the same teenagers is examined for comparison. Targeting well-known IM features and four areas of grammar, we show that IM is firmly rooted in the model of the extant language. It reflects the same structured heteroge- neity (variation) and the same dynamic, ongoing processes of linguistic change that are currently under way in contemporary varieties of English. At the same time, IM is a unique new hybrid register, exhibiting a fusion of the full range of variants from the speech community—formal, informal, and highly vernacular. Teenagers in the early twenty-first century are using home com- puters for communication at unprecedented rates in ever-expanding virtual communities. A particularly favorite medium, at least when we conducted this research, was Instant Messaging (IM). IM is "a one-to-one synchronous form of computer-mediated communication" (Baron 2004, 13). It is "direct, immediate, casual online contact" (Schiano et al. 2002). In essence, IM is real-time "interactive written discourse" (Ferrara, Brunner, and Whittemore

325 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored the relationship between the English variable (ING) and two divergent accents (Southern and gay) as they are conceptualized and given social meaning in listeners' perceptions of spontaneous speech.
Abstract: This article reports on the relationship between the English variable (ING) and two divergent accents (Southern and gay) as they are conceptualized and given social meaning in listeners' perceptions of spontaneous speech. The study used an expanded form of the Matched Guise Technique, using recordings collected through sociolinguistic interviews with 8 speakers from North Carolina and California. Excerpts were digitally manipulated to create 32 matched pairs differing only in tokens of (ING), which were used to collect responses in group interviews (N = 55) and a Web-based experiment (N = 124). The alveolar variant -in increased the perceived strength of Southern accents and dampened an accent heard as gay and urban. The influence of (ING) on these accents is linked to shared social meanings of the alveolar form -in and Southern accents on the one hand (lack of education, the country, and the term "redneck") and the velar variant -ing and the gay accent on the other (lowered masculinity, the city, and the term "metrosexual"). These two accents are contrasted with a third variety, heard as nonaccented and aregional. These effects demonstrate the status of the three linguistic objects, the two accents and (ING), as social objects as well. The concept of accent is based on the observation that some people and groups speak differently than others. Despite the simplicity of this observa- tion, accent is a loaded construct, connecting linguistic patterns with social and economic divisions between individuals and groups. Cavanaugh (2005, 129) argues that accents must be treated as "acoustical things in the world, indexing both speakers (subjects), as well as qualities detachable from these speakers, and at times even places themselves (objects)." This characterization need not only apply to accents but is also appropriate for some individual variables, namely those which have achieved stereotype status (Labov 1966). This article explores the representation of two accents (Southern accent and the "gay accent") and their relationship to the English variable (ING) (the alternation between word-final (In) or (@n), here referred to as -in, and (IN), here called -ing), in the sociolinguistic reasoning of U.S. college students. I trace the connections between the two accents and the variable, showing both their ideological baggage and the ways they interact to influence social judgments of spontaneous speech samples.

288 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the history of street speech and formal speech in black and white societies, and discuss the origins and evolution of the street speech as a social dialect.
Abstract: Preface 1. Introduction: Street Speech as a Social Dialect 2. The Birth of Black Street Speech 3. Street Speech and Formal Speech: Linguistic Survival in Black and White Societies 4. The Scholar and the Street: Collecting the Data 5. Specialized Lexical Marking and Alternation Code Switching versus Style Shifting Topic-Related Shifting Syllable Contraction and Expansion Variable Forestressing of Bisyllabic Words Hypercorrection Lexical Summary 6. Unique Grammatical Usage Locating Suitable Examples Syntactic Constructions and Their Functions Grammatical Summary 7. Phonological Variation Suffix /-s/ Variation Consonant Cluster Reduction Is and Are Variation Postvocalic /r/ Variation Summary of Phonological and Morphological Variation 8. Educational Insights 9. Impediments to Employability 10. Dynamic Black Speech: A Nonideal Linguistic State Bibliography Index

251 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
20239
202232
202125
202029
201925
201822