scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science in 1969"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In his Economic Opportunity Message to the Congress on February 19, 1969, Nixon mentioned briefly that the preliminary results of a Westinghouse Learning Corporation-Ohio University evaluation indicated that "the long-term effect of Head Start appears to be extremely weak." This terse announcement triggered a major public controversy that ranged over the Congress, the executive branch and the educational research community.
Abstract: In his Economic Opportunity Message to the Congress on February 19, 1969, President Nixon mentioned briefly that the preliminary results of a Westinghouse Learning Corporation-Ohio University evaluation indicated that "the long-term effect of Head Start appears to be extremely weak." This terse announcement triggered a major public controversy that ranged over the Congress, the executive branch, and the educational research community. Much of the debate focused on the esoteric techniques of modern statistical analysis, but the issues were far larger than the particular study. In conflict were two basic premises—one concerned with how to start programs and the other concerned with how to analyze them— that emerged independently in the mid-1960's. For the notion underlying much of the war on poverty—that effective programs could be developed quickly and launched full-scale (and Head Start was a prime case)—was being called into question by the type of evaluative analysis that lay at the base of the Planning...

83 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a case study of an evaluation-research project which utilized a controlled experiment for evaluation of the effectiveness of a social program, which encountered both technical difficulties and intraorganizational friction, which are virtually inherent in the utilization of an experimental design for the appraisal of the effects of a broad-aim, largely unstandardized, and inadequately replicated action-program.
Abstract: It is often assumed that the ideal study-design for evaluation of the effectiveness of a social program would be a controlled experiment. A case study is presented of an evaluation-research project which utilized such a design. The project encountered both technical difficulties and intraorganizational friction, which, it is argued, are virtually inherent in the utilization of an experimental design for the appraisal of the effects of a broad-aim, largely unstandardized, and inadequately replicated action-program. Among the technical difficulties are problems in the identification of criteria, problems having to do with the exclusion of alien variables, problems associated with the changing form of the intervention, and problems associated with the limitations of the experimental form as a source of new knowledge. Among the sources of intraorganizational friction are the constraints on stimulus-modification imposed by the experimental commitment, the tendency of operationalizations of aims to become aims ...

69 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The idea of maximum feasible participation (CAP) was introduced in the Economic Opportunity Act (EOA) as mentioned in this paper as a way to encourage more people to participate in community development programs for underdeveloped nations.
Abstract: Even among those who framed the Economic Opportunity Act, there is little consensus about how the phrase "maximum feasible participation" was formulated or about its intended meaning. An analysis of the social history of the idea suggests that its roots lie in community development programs for underdeveloped nations. The civil rights movement, coupled with a growing disquietude with existing welfare policy, gave impetus to translating community development notions to the domestic scene. Several demonstration projects emphasizing the need for citizen participation were precursors of CAP; some were already embroiled in heated conflicts. Yet, the revolutionary implications of what they were proposing escaped the framers of the act, in part, because of the preconceptions about poverty, race, and welfare that grip American thought and distort our vision. The struggle over defining and implementing the participation clause focused on policy-making and jobs. The most profound controversy settled around the poli...

62 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A series of experimental programs for delinquents have developed around a theory of the differential use of program elements, based on the assumption that the same treat ment program which is beneficial to some types of offenders may be detrimental to other types.
Abstract: Based on the assumption that the same treat ment program which is beneficial to some types of offenders may be detrimental to other types, a series of experimental programs for delinquents have developed around a theory of the differential use of program elements. The question asked has been: What kinds of treatment programs conducted by what kinds of workers in what kinds of settings are best for what kinds of youthful offenders? In approaching these in vestigations, several classification schemata—categorizing of fenders, treaters, environments, and treatment methods—have been developed. Attempts have then been made to study the "matching" of workers, settings, and methods with types of delinquents. These studies have produced a number of find ings : Offenders can be reliably classified in treatment-relevant ways. A large proportion of youthful offenders can be suc cessfully treated in community-based programs rather than institutions; however, incarceration leads to higher success rates with one type o...

60 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The child-saving movement was a conservative and romantic movement, designed to impose sanctions on conduct unbecoming youth and to dis qualify youth from enjoying adult privileges as discussed by the authors, which brought attention to, and thus "invented," new categories of youthful misbehavior which had been previously unappreciated or had been dealt with on an informal basis.
Abstract: Contemporary programs of delinquency-control can be traced to the enterprising reforms of the child-savers who, at the end of the nineteenth century, helped to create special judicial and correctional institutions for the labeling, processing, and management of "troublesome" youth. Child- saving was a conservative and romantic movement, designed to impose sanctions on conduct unbecoming youth and to dis qualify youth from enjoying adult privileges. The child- savers were prohibitionists, in a general sense, who believed in close supervision of adolescents' recreation and leisure. The movement brought attention to, and thus "invented," new categories of youthful misbehavior which had been previously unappreciated or had been dealt with on an informal basis. Child-saving was heavily influenced by middle-class women who extended their housewifely roles into public service and emphasized the dependence of the social order on the proper socialization of children. This analysis of the child-savers offers an opp...

59 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The American New Left is actually part of an international political tendency as discussed by the authors, which rejects both capitalism and bureaucratic communism, anti-imperialism, and an activist orientation, violent or nonviolent.
Abstract: The American New Left is actually part of an international political tendency. Despite differences in form, student movements of the 1960's in the United States, West Europe, and Japan share common concerns: rejection of both capitalism and bureaucratic communism, anti-imperialism, and an activist orientation, violent or nonviolent. The main intel lectual emphases of the American New Left appear to be anti- scholasticism, utopianism, and activism, as is illustrated in representative works by two authors whose ideas have greatly influenced the New Left: C. Wright Mills and Howard Zinn. The single most characteristic element in the thought-world of the New Left is the existential commitment to action, in the knowledge that the consequence of action can never be fully predicted; this commitment has survived all changes in political fashion. More concretely, the members of the New Left condemn existing American society as "corporate liberal ism," and seek to replace it with "participatory democracy." American...

55 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on three aspects of the hippie phenomenon: who are the hippies, what are the defining characteristics of their movement, and what impact have they had on the larger society.
Abstract: The following article focuses on three aspects of the hippie phenomenon: Who are the hippies? What are the defining characteristics of their movement? And what impact have they had on the larger society? Four hippie types are discussed: the visionaries, the freaks and heads, the midnight hippies, and the plastic hippies. The visionaries are utopians who pose an alternative to existing society. They repudiate conventional values on the grounds that they induce status anxi ety and a fetish for material acquisition. The community that they developed in Haight-Asbury can be viewed as a kind of experiment in social organization. Freaks and heads are the more drug-oriented hippies. They surround the use of drugs with an elaborate mythology suggesting a variety of benefits to be derived from "going out of one's mind." Midnight hip pies are older people, mostly in their thirties, who, having be come integrated into straight society, cannot adopt the hippie style of life, but, who are, nevertheless, sympathetic to...

40 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the 1960's, popular music in the US became a medium of vapid love lyrics, and popular music has taken on a new seriousness as discussed by the authors, where young musicians have begun to express their alienation from and disdain for American institutions and mores.
Abstract: Once a medium of vapid love lyrics, popular music in the 1960's has taken on a new seriousness. In the words of popular songs, young musicians have begun to express their alienation from and disdain for American institutions and mores. Part of this has taken the form of traditional attacks on war and intolerance. More significant, however, have been criticisms of the quality of life in an affluent society. In their music, youth have worried about such things as the impact of technology on man, the confused state of American sexual practices, and the repressive nature of supposedly democratic institutions. Affirming a strong faith in the freedom of the individual, song writers have turned their backs on pragmatic reality and have sought freedom in a transcendental exploration of man's internal reality. Part of this has been done with "mind-expanding drugs," and many songs have urged listeners on to the use of hallucinogens. For youth, music has come to serve the function of helping to define and codify the standards of their own subculture. And it has also put them in touch with more serious critiques of American life made by the intellectual community.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role played by conservative and liberal elements in the acceptance of compensatory fiscal policy is discussed in this paper, where the author argues that the role of the business community and Republican politics in the economic changes that occurred during this period of change is discussed.
Abstract: of the role played by &dquo;conservative&dquo; elements in the society in the acceptance of compensatory fiscal policy, the book remains of considerable value because of its excellent factual coverage of the many significant economic events which occurred during this period of fiscal change. These include: the hesitating emergence of New Deal expenditure policy during the 1930’s; the background to the passage of the Employment Act of 1946; the nature of the events leading up to the Treasury-Federal Reserve monetary-policy accord of 1951; the fiscal behavior of the Eisenhower administration during the recessionary and inflationary periods of the 1950’s, and, finally, the background to the enactment of the historic income tax reduction of 1964. In this context, the book is extremely useful, whether or not the reader accepts the author’s contention regarding the roles of the business community and Republican politics in the fiscal changes which transpired.

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The canon-law heritage of American divorce law resulted, in the nineteenth century, in a divorce law that necessitated pretense and perpetuated hypocrisy, and for the most part, in reality, there was divorce by consent as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The canon-law heritage of American divorce law resulted, in the nineteenth century, in a divorce law that necessitated pretense and perpetuated hypocrisy. Lawyers, courts, and the public paid lip-service to the rules, but institutionalized the processes of divorce. Two myths were the basis of the divorce, namely, that divorce should only be granted to an innocent and injured spouse and that a divorce action must take place in an adversary setting. This was circumvented by a variety of techniques, and for the most part, in reality, there was divorce by consent. After World War II, changes in the law of divorce were marked by an expansion of grounds and the contraction of defenses. Furthermore, collateral attacks upon divorce decrees were increasingly restricted by Supreme Court decisions, and non-fault-grounds supplemented the traditional fault-grounds for divorce. Current pressures for reform may be observed in the growth of family courts and counseling services; in the development of theories, such as th...

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors suggest that the potential information-user must be involved in the inquiry process as an active participant, giving him an investment in the produced output of the evaluation.
Abstract: The premise of this paper is that an evaluator's activity encompasses two distinct dimensions—a logic of inquiry and a system of social interaction that includes the evaluator, the sponsor of the evaluation, and the staff of the agency being evaluated. The influence of the social context is important and shapes some of the considerations of logical inquiry. It is obvious that participants in an evaluation may have varying perspectives on the purpose of evaluation and on how it should be conducted. These conflicting networks of self-interests and values are important data to be considered in any evaluation, and frequently act as a barrier to the involvement of academicians in evaluation activities. These same considerations often influence the utilization of the findings of an evaluation. We are suggesting that as an initial point of reference in utilization, the potential information-user must be involved in the inquiry process as an active participant, giving him an investment in the produced output of t...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored the tactics by which one such ministate, Nepal, has succeeded in developing an impressive repertory of responses to the intrusion of unwelcome, and often threatening, external influences: balancing external influences and tacking back and forth between its two neighbors.
Abstract: Can a ministate located precariously between hostile protagonist powers achieve a substantial degree of independence in the formulation and implementation of its foreign policy on the basis of its own capabilities, or can this only be the consequence of forbearance on the part of its more powerful neighbors? We have explored the tactics by which one such ministate, Nepal, has succeeded in developing an impressive repertory of responses to the intrusion of unwelcome, and often threatening, external influences: balancing external influences and tacking back and forth between its two neighbors—India and China. The objective is both to minimize the restrictions imposed on Nepal's freedom of action and to contribute to that country's internal and external security. Balance was sought through nonalignment in the disputes between its two neighbors during the past decade and through a process of political and economic diversification that was intended to mitigate Nepal's "semisatellite" relationship to India. Nei...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Community Action Program (CAP) of the Economic Opportunity Act (EOA) meant different things to different people, but few fully understood its theoretical underpinnings and its future directions could not be predicted as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Initially, the Community Action Program (CAP) of the Economic Opportunity Act (EOA) meant different things to different people, but few fully understood its theoretical underpinnings and its future directions could not be predicted. Since then, CAP has evolved into an "umbrella" for a collection of social, educational, political, and welfare-type programs. Half of CAP's funds for the first four years went to prepackaged national programs such as Head Start or Legal Services; the rest were spent largely on "local initiative" programs governed by broad federal guidelines, such as the neighborhood service centers. The cornerstone of community action was participation in the planning and implementation of programs by the poor or by their neighbors living in poverty areas. Local governments often left the community action programs alone, but in many cases the Establishment played a major role in the formulation of agencies and programs. On the whole, CAP monies were spread too thinly over too many areas to hav...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors make suggestions for redefining the functions of local jails by allocating some of their traditional functions to other social agencies, such as half way houses and work release.
Abstract: Local jails have been denounced by social critics and citizens alike, but moral indignation has effected little change. The obstacles to change are rooted in local control, public indifference, and low priority in the scale of social values. The result is underbudgeting, understaffing, over crowding or underutilization, and haphazard administration. Suggestions are made for redefining the functions of local jails by allocating some of their traditional functions to other social agencies. Measures designed to avoid pretrial or posttrial jail commitments are explored. Alternatives, such as half way houses and work release also are examined. Other sug gestions run the gamut, from central control by the state, to state-set minimum standards. Some political recommenda tions are made about prisoners' voting, and changing the limited tenure of office for sheriffs who cannot succeed them selves, in order to use political influence for purposes of reform rather than neglect. The prospects for local jail reform do ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The generation gap between youth and adults in contemporary American society reflects a real and serious conflict of interest rather than mutual misunderstanding as mentioned in this paper, which is the case in many aspects of American society.
Abstract: The "generation gap" between youth and adults in contemporary American society reflects a real and serious conflict of interest rather than mutual misunderstanding. In an open, bureaucratic society, sanctions against nepotism and the attrition of property through inheritance taxes lessen the utility of each generation to the other: the young cannot suc ceed. Youth, moreover, is a discriminated-against minority in America—more seriously so than any ethnic minority. It is excluded from economic opportunity, and is seriously exploited by being forced to supply, as members of the Armed Forces, its services at a fraction of their market value. School atten dance is less obviously exploitive, but is as much a forced sub sidy of the social and economic system by the young as "an opportunity to invest in the future." Compulsory school at tendance, the juvenile court system, and the Selective Service System all operate as serious, age-graded constraints from which adults are exempt—these constraints, indeed, defin...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The necessary beginning of a sustained explora tion of deterrence is the development of sensitivity to the differences in situation, audience, and goal which account for the great differences noted in the effects of threats on human behavior as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A commitment to corrections must not lead us to repudiate the notion of deterrence as a legitimate and often obtainable goal of criminal sanctions. Knowledge about de terrence can provide us with more rational means of crime control, and may well liberate corrections from the heavy burdens of unitary assumptions about deterrence and penal sanctions. The necessary beginning of a sustained explora tion of deterrence is the development of sensitivity to the differences in situation, audience, and goal which account for the great differences noted in the effects of threats on human behavior. A few distinctions basic to deterrence research are suggested by the authors.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a diffusion-of-power scale is constructed based on a content-analysis of thirty-one American communities that were the subject of decision-making studies, and this scale is related to community participation in four federal self-help programs (public housing, urban renewal, Model Cities, and the war on poverty).
Abstract: The debate among sociologists and political scientists about community power structure was concerned primarily with questions of methodology and the appropriate imagery for describing the distribution of power in American communities. The question of what difference it made for a local community and its citizens, if any, whether power was narrowly concentrated or widely dispersed was seldom raised. Two alternative hypotheses relating the concentration of community power to community-mobilization are discussed. The first argues for a positive relationship between concentration of power and community-mobilization while the second argues the obverse of this hypothesis. A diffusion-of-power scale is constructed based on a content-analysis of thirty-one American communities that were the subject of decision-making studies, and this scale is related to community participation in four federal self-help programs—public housing, urban renewal, Model Cities, and the war on poverty. The results show that the cities ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The California State Assembly requested its own Office of Research to report on the deterrent effects of criminal penalties and found that there is no evidence that severe penalties deter crime more effectively than less severe penal ties as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The California State Assembly requested its own Office of Research to report on the deterrent effects of criminal penalties. Previous Assembly experience had indicated that information assembled by legislative technical staff could have a significant impact on legislation and social change. This paper summarizes and comments on the criminal-penalties study. It was found that there is no evidence that severe penalties deter crime more effectively than less severe penal ties. Critical deterrents vary according to type of individual and type of offense. Prisons are more destructive than rehabilitative. Increased investments in community-level action, including improving the efficiency of police activity and of community rehabilitation programs, are probably more effective crime-control measures than reliance upon institu tionalization of offenders. This paper focuses upon the arbi trary parole-decision process as a critical and representative defect in the criminal-justice system. More recently, study has le...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The revolt of the urban ghettos in the mid-1960's was in large part the consequence of a dichotomy in the think ing of Caucasians regarding the city as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The revolt of the urban ghettos in the mid-1960's was in large part the consequence of a dichotomy in the think ing of Caucasians regarding the city. Accepting the city as a source of work but rejecting it as a desirable place to live, whites moved out to the suburbs and left the inner city to the underclasses. The minority groups, on the other hand, ini tially sought socioeconomic salvation within the city; it was, in the words of biographer Claude Brown, the "Promised Land." Instead, the ethnic groups suffered confinement to the ghettos and restricted opportunities within the city. The ghetto enclave produced a consciousness of experience among its residents, of which a sense of entrapment was an integral aspect. The more than one hundred major riots which ensued between 1964 and 1967 were spontaneous outbursts of hostility toward ghetto conditions and toward those who perpetuated the environment. A high level of support, demonstrated in both attitude and action, prevailed during the revolts. Significan...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The origins of the concept of co-ordinated action on behalf of the poor in the rise of Community Chests and welfare councils were described in this paper, where the Ford Foundation Gray Areas Program and the demonstration programs of the President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency provided the initial testing for the major themes later embodied in the Community Action Program of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
Abstract: The authors describe the origins of the concept of co-ordinated action on behalf of the poor in the rise of Community Chests and welfare councils. The Ford Foundation Gray Areas Program and the demonstration programs of the President's Committee on Juvenile Delinquency provided the initial testing for the major themes later embodied in the Community Action Program of the Office of Economic Opportunity. Community-action programs are credited with already having wrought major changes in the social welfare structure of American communities, particularly in spreading service programs to previously unorganized areas, enhancing competence of program-managers, reaching downward into poor and nearly poor groups for additional sources of leadership, training new black leaders, and developing the concept of subprofessional employment. Community-action agencies continue to be plagued by such major problems as, on the national policy level, guaranteed income, housing, and employment, and, on the local level, appropri...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the United States inherited its ideological commitment to revolution in the Third World from Lenin, it was only in Khrushchev's time, after industrialization and victory in World War II had made the Soviet Union a world power, that this commitment became an important component of Soviet foreign policy as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Although the Soviet Union inherited its ideological commitment to revolution in the Third World from Lenin, it was only in Khrushchev's time, after industrialization and victory in World War II had made the Soviet Union a world power, that this commitment became an important component of Soviet foreign policy. Khrushchev envisaged a fairly rapid transition by postcolonial states toward Soviet-type "socialism." This process was to be guided by the example of Soviet national development, protected by the deterrent shield of Soviet strategic power, and accelerated by a modicum of Soviet economic and military aid. But Khrushchev's vision exceeded the Soviet Union's power to fulfill it. Nationalists in power throughout the Third World advanced their own visions of the future, often at variance with Soviet views. And the Western powers were not restrained from intervening actively in the Third World where their interests were at stake. Khrushchev's successors have been less sanguine. They have tended to concent...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Protest by the right is based on the conviction that the Johnson administra tion has refused to seek "victory" in Vietnam as mentioned in this paper, and this dissent is undoubtedly one factor in President Johnson's decision not to seek re-election.
Abstract: Dissatisfaction with American policy in Vietnam has increased from early criticism by the Left to the point where nearly two-thirds of the people have expressed their disap proval. This dissent is undoubtedly one factor in President Johnson's decision not to seek re-election. Protest by the Right is based on the conviction that the Johnson administra tion has refused to seek "victory" in Vietnam. Protest from the Center and Left is more complicated. A useful, if some what arbitrary, categorization divides the arguments into two groups: those based on conceptions of national interest and those based on the alleged illegality and/or immorality of American actions. Within the first group, protestors have argued either that the war in Vietnam is not worth its costs in men and material or that it is simply unwinnable. Within the second group, there is a division between the many who are horrified by the means used by the Armed Forces and the few who reject the administration's ends (that is, a non-Commu nist S...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the early 1960s, students became aware of the logical interrelationships between issues being protested within and outside of the universities, and of the stifling effect exerted upon all dissent by the politi cal institutions of the Establishment.
Abstract: During its evolution from the sit-ins and picket lines of 1960, student protest in the universities broadened its base and became more politically active. Increasingly, students became aware of the logical interrelationships between issues being protested within and outside of the universities, and of the stifling effect exerted upon all dissent by the politi cal institutions of the Establishment. Stimulated by the ideas of men like Paul Goodman, Robert Nisbet, C. Wright Mills, Erich Fromm, and Edgar Z. Friedenberg, students rebelled against the Establishment philosophy of "corporate liberal ism," best exemplified, in their view, by the idea of the uni versity delineated in Clark Kerr's The Uses of the University. The students counterposed their own concept of "participatory democracy," as embodied in Tom Hayden's Port Huron State ment of 1962, against corporate liberalism in the university. The revolt at the University of California at Berkeley in 1964, the widespread, and often successful, student prote...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an effort was made to distinguish violent from nonviolent offenders sent to prison in order to provide a more appropriate treatment setting for each offender in order better to differentiate violent from non-violent offenders.
Abstract: Improper attention is given to the diagnosis and classification of offenders sent to prison. An effort should be made to distinguish violent from nonviolent persons sen tenced to prison in order better to provide a more appropriate treatment setting for each. Past and current management of correctional institutions is based primarily on the image, behavior, and potential risk of the violent offender, much to the detriment of the nonviolent inmates who numerically pre dominate in prison.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The emerging model for dealing with offenders will feature many shades of community-based placement for both juveniles and adults as discussed by the authors, which will require major diversification and strengthening of probation and parole.
Abstract: Prisons, reformatories, and training schools have been part of Western culture for about two centuries. In the main, they now reflect an inefficient, ineffective, and obsolete social instrument—the total institution. The emerging model for dealing with offenders will feature many shades of com munity-based placement for both juveniles and adults. Total institutions segregated from the community may be necessary for a small percentage of dangerous people, housing a much smaller proportion of the total offender population than that which is now kept under constant lock and key. In excess of 70 per cent of all offenders can be placed immediately in community-based correctional activities. Another 15 per cent may need short-term, community-oriented confinement. Pro grams for the remaining 15 per cent requiring longer-term restraint should, nevertheless, be aimed at normal community life. Movement in this direction will require major diversi fication and strengthening of probation and parole and inte gration o...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the war on poverty was to be co-ordinated at the Washington level by the Office of Economic Opportunity and in each community by a community-action agency (CAA).
Abstract: As originally planned, the war on poverty was to be co-ordinated at the Washington level by the Office of Economic Opportunity and in each community by a community-action agency (CAA). But neither institution succeeded in that purpose: Sargent Shriver chose to make OEO an operating rather than a co-ordinating agency; in the communities, the CAA's lacked the power to enforce co-ordination among community institutions and, in any case, like OEO, became absorbed in operating programs—and sometimes in organizing protest. To fill the vacuum, the federal government created a new co-ordinating structure for urban programs—Model Cities—that has proved successful to a promising degree. The federal government needs to conceive a single system for co-ordination of intergovernmental programs, extending from the Executive Office of the President to the neighborhood. In the cities, it should be built upon the Model Cities mechanism; in nonurban areas, upon multicounty organizations created by the states. The entire sys...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The reviewer was not, as stated, a correspondent of The New York Times, nor the editor of the Medical Review of Reviews, nor did he know how the Lee agency was run as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: when live or printed sources are available for the truth. Inexcusable major and minor errors -about this reviewer occur, though a preface comment gives the impression that the author has checked his manuscript with living and printed sources. For example, this reviewer was not, as stated, a correspondent of The New York Times, nor the editor of the Medical Review of Reviews, nor did he know how the Lee agency was run-and does not know

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Third World is a powerful myth and a practical anachronism as mentioned in this paper, and the Third World has left many legacies which provide opportunities for continuing ties today and help or hinder new definitions, declaratory and operational, of purposes, policies, and procedures.
Abstract: Europe and the Third World are both richly evocative, rather than exact, terms, as immediately becomes apparent if we trace—however lightly—some of their varying connotations from their origins to today. The idea of Europe is ancient, ambiguous, and multivariable. The Third World is a powerful myth and a practical anachronism. European colonialism and decolonization—especially that of Britain and France—have left many legacies which provide opportunities for continuing ties today and help or hinder new definitions, declaratory and operational, of purposes, policies, and procedures. The future of Europe and the future of the Third World are two profoundly open and complex sets of possibilities which will, in some manner, undoubtedly interact. Any substantial political rearrangements in Europe will, it is most likely, be inaugaurated and practiced without any substantial influence from the Third World. If greater European unity is accomplished, then Europe could become a great benefactor to some, or most, o...


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The trend in Western civilization for the past 150 years has been steadily in the direction of more and more commitment to rehabilitation and resocialization of offenders as discussed by the authors, but implementation of these ideas has been extremely slow and hampered by lack of financial support and the excessive frag mentation of the public agencies responsible.
Abstract: Man has never been able to develop a completely rational and satisfactory set of alternatives for dealing with convicted violators of the criminal law The more primitive forms of criminal sanctions were based primarily on ideas of revenge and retribution Execution, physical torture, and public degradation were the most common methods in use until near the close of the eighteenth century Imprisonment as the principal method did not come into general use until the beginning of the nineteenth century Concepts of retributive punishment have persisted, but superimposed upon them were other purposes, such as deterrence, public protection, and rehabilitation The trend in Western civilization for the past 150 years has been steadily in the direction of more and more commitment to rehabilitation and resocialization of offenders Implementation of these ideas has been extremely slow and hampered by lack of financial support and the excessive frag mentation of the public agencies responsible The movement is no