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Showing papers in "Annals of The American Academy of Political and Social Science in 2016"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite the wide application of the label “populist” in the 2016 election cycle, there has been little systematic evidence that this election is distinctive in its populist appeal.
Abstract: Despite the wide application of the label “populist” in the 2016 election cycle, there has been little systematic evidence that this election is distinctive in its populist appeal. Looking at histo...

373 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Megan Comfort1
TL;DR: Analysis of the experiences of family members of people with frequent, low-level criminal justice involvement indicates that loved ones’ brief jail stays and community supervision through probation and parole pose hardships for family members that are distinct from those hardships that arise during imprisonment.
Abstract: In the growing field of research on the consequences of criminal justice contact for family life, a heavy emphasis has been placed on how imprisonment influences the emotional, physical, and socioeconomic wellbeing of prisoners' loved ones. In this article, I elaborate on and analyze the experiences of family members of people with frequent, low-level criminal justice involvement. I draw on ethnographic data collected in partnership with a clinical social worker over the course of a three-year study of an intensive case management intervention for HIV-positive individuals. Findings indicate that loved ones' brief jail stays and community supervision through probation and parole pose hardships for family members that are distinct from those hardships that arise during imprisonment. These experiences are uniquely destabilizing, may confer specific risks to family members' wellbeing, and merit further study to inform programs, social services, and public policy.

98 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Sarah Lageson1
TL;DR: The authors explored how online versions of these records impact family relationships and found that many of those who are affected by the stigma of online records did not know that records existed until they "popped up" unexpectedly, and that this experience leads them to self-select out of family dutie.
Abstract: Online criminal histories document and publicize even minor brushes with the law and represent people who may not even be guilty of any crime. This has dramatically changed the relationship that millions of Americans have with the criminal justice system and may affect their social and private lives. Drawing on interviews and fieldwork with people attempting to expunge and legally seal their criminal records, I explore how online versions of these records impact family relationships. Many who appear on mug shot and criminal history websites are arrestees who are never formally charged or convicted of a crime. The indiscriminate posting of all types of justice contact on websites may impact those who, for the most part, desist from crime and are core contributors to their family and community. I find that many of those who are affected by the stigma of online records did not know that records existed until they “popped up” unexpectedly, and that this experience leads them to self-select out of family dutie...

71 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined the factors associated with the rise and decline in state-level incarceration rates from 1980 through 2013, and found evidence for four key stories in explaining the prison decline: crime, budgets, politics, and inequality.
Abstract: After decades of steady expansion, state prison populations declined in recent years for the first time since 1972. Though the size of the decrease was small, it masks substantial state heterogeneity. This article investigates variation in state-level incarceration rates from 1980 through 2013, examining the factors associated with the rise and decline in prison populations. We find evidence for four key stories in explaining the prison decline: crime, budgets, politics, and inequality. Many of these relationships are consistent across decades, including the role of racial composition, violent crime, and Republican political dominance. In contrast, states’ fiscal capacity and economic inequality became more important after 2000. This research emphasizes the importance of examining changes over time in the correlates of incarceration growth and decline and represents the first effort to systematically understand the recent reversal in the trajectory of incarceration practices in the United States.

63 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wakefield et al. as mentioned in this paper examined the consequences of mass imprisonment for the family, with an emphasis on childhood well-being and racial inequality, and examined the social networks and conditions of confinement of inmates and social/family ties during reentry.
Abstract: Sara Wakefield is an assistant professor in the School of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. Her research interests focus on the consequences of mass imprisonment for the family, with an emphasis on childhood well-being and racial inequality. She is coauthor of Children of the prison Boom: Mass Incarceration and the Future of American Inequality (with Christopher Wildeman; Oxford University Press 2013). Related work examines the social networks and conditions of confinement of inmates and social/family ties during reentry.

62 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper studied trends in educational assortative mating throughout the twentieth century in the United States, using socioeconomic data on adults observed in several large cross section surveys collected between 1972 and 2010 and on their parents who married a generation earlier.
Abstract: Patterns of intermarriage between persons who have varying levels of educational attainment are indicators of socioeconomic closure and affect the family backgrounds of children. This article documents trends in educational assortative mating throughout the twentieth century in the United States, using socioeconomic data on adults observed in several large cross section surveys collected between 1972 and 2010 and on their parents who married a generation earlier. Spousal resemblance on educational attainment was very high in the early twentieth century, declined to an all-time low for young couples in the early 1950s, and has increased steadily since then. These trends broadly parallel the compression and expansion of socioeconomic inequality in the United States over the twentieth century. Additionally, educationally similar parents are more likely to have offspring who themselves marry within their own educational level. If homogamy in the parent generation leads to homogamy in the offspring generation,...

61 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For example, this article used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore the relationship between incarceration and the stability of cohabiting and marital relationships, finding that incarceration precipitates an immediate and persistent disruption in residential partnerships and is also a long-term impediment to the transition to marriage.
Abstract: This study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to explore the relationship between incarceration and the stability of cohabiting and marital relationships. Self-report dates of relatively short confinement in jail or prison (median one month) are linked with data on cohabitation and residential partnerships, by month, from ages 18 to 32. I estimate the effects of incarceration on transitions into and out of cohabitation and marriage while controlling for other salient life events (e.g., employment, parenthood). Findings indicate that incarceration precipitates an immediate and persistent disruption in residential partnerships and is also a long-term impediment to the transition to marriage (but not the transition to cohabitation). The long-term disruption in existing residential partnerships applies equally to females and males, as well as to whites, African Americans (males only), and Hispanics.

61 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper used data from the General Social Survey (GSSGSS) to provide evidence that the opportunities to get ahead growing more unequal, and they developed a two-factor model in which the foregoing effects of the inequality takeoff are set against the countervailing effects of an expansion of mass education.
Abstract: Are opportunities to get ahead growing more unequal? Using data from the General Social Survey (GSS), it is possible to provide evidence on this question, evidence that is suggestive but must be carefully interpreted because the samples are relatively small. The GSS data reveal an increase in class reproduction among young and middle-age adults that is driven by the growing advantage of the professional-managerial class relative to all other classes. This trend is largely consistent with our new “top-income hypothesis” that posits that rising income inequality registers its effects on social mobility almost exclusively in the divide between the professional-managerial class and all other classes. We develop a two-factor model in which the foregoing effects of the inequality takeoff are set against the countervailing effects of the expansion of mass education. As the model implies, the trend in intergenerational association takes on a convex shape in the younger age groups, with the change appearing to acc...

60 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors analyzed trends in criminal justice policy reform from 2000 to 2013 and newspaper stories and editorials on criminal justice reform since 2008 and found that these changes do not constitute a paradigm shift, but are indicative of a more subtle, complex, and contradictory modification of the way punishment is conceived, discussed and discussed.
Abstract: Recent drops in the U.S. rate of incarceration have triggered much discussion regarding the fate of mass incarceration. Some observers suggest that the political consensus in favor of getting tough on crime has been shattered and replaced by a new consensus that the prison population must be downsized. In this article, we explore the possibility that neither legislation nor public discourse around crime and punishment has shifted so dramatically, and that the cultural dynamics surrounding reform efforts may undermine the prospects of comprehensive sentencing reform. To assess these hypotheses, we analyze trends in criminal justice policy reform from 2000 to 2013 and newspaper stories and editorials on criminal justice reform since 2008. While we do find important examples of changing rhetoric and policy, we suggest that these changes do not constitute a “paradigm shift.” Rather, they are indicative of a more subtle, complex, and contradictory modification of the way punishment is conceived, discussed, and...

55 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that changes in presidential approval have at least three times the impact on voters' decision-making in state legislative elections compared with individual assessments of the state legislature, while state legislatures wield considerable policymaking power, legislators' electoral fates appear to be largely out of their control.
Abstract: The race for the White House is at the top of the ticket, but voters will also choose more than 5,000 state legislators in November 2016. While voters elect and hold the president responsible for one job and state legislators for another, the outcomes of their elections are remarkably related. In analyses of elite and voter behavior in state legislative elections, I show that legislators affiliated with the president’s party—especially during unpopular presidencies—are the most likely to be challenged, and compared with individual assessments of the state legislature, changes in presidential approval have at least three times the impact on voters’ decision-making in state legislative elections. Thus, while state legislatures wield considerable policymaking power, legislators’ electoral fates appear to be largely out of their control.

51 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that illegal migration emerged as a structural feature of the second era of capitalist globalization, which emerged in the late twentieth century and was characterized by international market integration, giving rise to the relatively new phenomenon of illegal migration.
Abstract: Also labeled undocumented, irregular, and unauthorized migration, illegal migration places immigrants in tenuous legal circumstances with limited rights and protections. We argue that illegal migration emerged as a structural feature of the second era of capitalist globalization, which emerged in the late twentieth century and was characterized by international market integration. Unlike the first era of capitalist globalization (1800 to 1929), the second era sees countries limiting and controlling international migration and creating a global economy in which all markets are globalized except for labor and human capital, giving rise to the relatively new phenomenon of illegal migration. Yet despite rampant inequalities in wealth and income between nations, only 3.1 percent of all people lived outside their country of birth in 2010. We expect this to change: threat evasion is replacing opportunity seeking as a motivation for international migration because of climate change and rising levels of civil viol...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The American electorate has grown increasingly divided along party lines in recent decades, by political attitudes, social values, basic demography, and even beliefs about reality as mentioned in this paper, and the American electorate is divided along partisan lines.
Abstract: The American electorate has grown increasingly divided along party lines in recent decades, by political attitudes, social values, basic demography, and even beliefs about reality. Deepening partis...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For example, this paper found that an increasing ethnic diversity in the electorate, alongside a racially polarized electorate, was favorable to Democrats in the 2016 election, and an ambivalent electorate divided by party and race set the stage for a presidential primary that played directly on these divisions and for a general election whose outcome initially appeared far from certain.
Abstract: As 2015 got underway, most Americans were poised for another Bush vs. Clinton presidential election, but by the middle of the year it was clear something unexpected was unfolding in the race for the White House. In this article, we illuminate the political landscape heading into the 2016 election, paying special attention to the public’s mood, their assessments of government, their attitudes about race and members of the other party, and the health of the nation’s economy. Fundamental predictors of election outcomes did not clearly favor either side, but an increasing ethnic diversity in the electorate, alongside a racially polarized electorate, was favorable to Democrats. Ultimately, an ambivalent electorate divided by party and race set the stage for a presidential primary that played directly on these divisions, and for a general election whose outcome initially appeared far from certain.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show that educational outcomes and criminality indeed correlate with duration and frequency of paternal incarceration, indicating that treating paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event blurs important heterogeneity in the consequences of paternal incarcerations.
Abstract: Existing studies of the consequences of paternal incarceration for children treat paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event (a child either experiences paternal incarceration or does not), although effects could accumulate with both the frequency and duration of paternal incarcerations. In this article I use register data on Danish children from birth cohort 1991, some of whom experienced paternal incarceration before age 15, to show how educational outcomes and criminality up to age 20 vary by frequency and total duration of paternal incarceration. The high quality of Danish register data also allows me to distinguish between paternal arrest and paternal incarceration and to show results for the total duration of paternal incarcerations conditioned on frequency of paternal incarceration. Results show that educational outcomes and criminality indeed correlate with duration and frequency of paternal incarceration, indicating that treating paternal incarceration as a dichotomous event blurs important heterogeneity in the consequences of paternal incarceration.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This administrative supplement provides only a low-end estimate of the extent of criminal justice involvement in the sample, but still increases the number of fathers identified with criminal histories by more than 20 percent.
Abstract: More than 2 million American children have a parent incarcerated, making the consequences of parental incarceration for families a critical concern. A growing literature documents significant challenges not only among incarcerated men, but also among their spouses, partners, and children. Much remains to be learned about these experiences, however; and the data available for doing so are limited. In this article, we demonstrate how the quality of available data on paternal incarceration can be improved by supplementing a leading population-based survey of families with administrative records on criminal history from a state criminal justice agency. This administrative supplement provides only a low-end estimate of the extent of criminal justice involvement in our sample, but still increases the number of fathers identified with criminal histories by more than 20 percent. Building on such a supplement—in our current survey or future ones—could improve the identification of justice-involved fathers on a bro...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article showed that there are few observable differences between families with fathers who were incarcerated in a local, state, or federal facility and the 53 percent of families who were not incarcerated in an unknown facility type.
Abstract: This article extends research on the association between paternal incarceration and family functioning by differentiating between families with fathers who have been incarcerated in local jails, state prisons, federal prisons, and unknown types of facilities. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCW) enable this finer grained analysis. We show that there are few observable differences between families with fathers incarcerated in a local, state, or federal facility and the 53 percent of families with fathers incarcerated in an unknown facility type. We test the association between facility type and family functioning using a series of fixed effects models, showing strong associations between facility type and only two of seven family outcomes. The evidence presented here suggests that family functioning does not markedly vary by type of facility, but this finding needs to be substantiated in future research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors analyzes the effect of being undocumented on sector of employment and wages earned in the United States and shows that illegal migrants are disproportionately channeled into the secondary labor market, where they experience a double disadvantage, earning systematically lower wages by virtue of working in the secondary sector and receiving an additional economic penalty because they are undocumented.
Abstract: From 1988 to 2008, the United States’ undocumented population grew from 2 million to 12 million persons. It has since stabilized at around 11 million, a majority of whom are Mexican. As of this writing, some 60 percent of all Mexican immigrants in the United States are in the country illegally. This article analyzes the effect of being undocumented on sector of employment and wages earned in the United States. We show that illegal migrants are disproportionately channeled into the secondary labor market, where they experience a double disadvantage, earning systematically lower wages by virtue of working in the secondary sector and receiving an additional economic penalty because they are undocumented. Mexican immigrants, in particular, experienced a substantial decline in real wages between 1970 and 2010 attributable to their rising share of undocumented migrants in U.S. labor markets during a time when undocumented hiring was criminalized.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluate the effects of that incarceration decline on local crime rates and find very little evidence that the large reduction in California incarceration had an effect on violent crime, and modest evidence of effects on property crime, auto theft in particular.
Abstract: Recent reforms in California caused a sharp and permanent reduction in the state’s incarceration rate. We evaluate the effects of that incarceration decline on local crime rates. Our analysis exploits the large variation across California counties in the effect of this reform on county-specific prison incarceration rates. We find very little evidence that the large reduction in California incarceration had an effect on violent crime, and modest evidence of effects on property crime, auto theft in particular. These effects are considerably smaller than existing estimates based on panel data for periods of time when the U.S. incarceration rate was considerably lower. We corroborate these cross-county results with a synthetic-cohort analysis of state crime rates in California. The statewide analysis confirms our findings from the county-level analysis. In line with with previous research, the results from this study support the hypothesis of a crime-prison effect that diminishes with increased reliance on in...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The incidence and prevalence of incarceration and CPS involvement in the United States is described and reasons that the same individuals and families may be at risk for involvement in both systems are outlined and intergenerational and intragenerational overlap is described.
Abstract: The prevalence of incarceration in the United States is increasingly well known. The prevalence of family involvement with child protective services (CPS) is less understood, though, and there is limited research examining links between incarceration and CPS involvement. Here, we describe the incidence and prevalence of incarceration and CPS involvement in the United States and outline reasons that the same individuals and families may be at risk for involvement in both systems. We then use unique longitudinal data from Wisconsin to describe intergenerational and intragenerational overlap in the two systems. Specifically, we calculate (1) the proportion of all CPS-involved children who have an incarcerated parent; (2) the proportion of incarcerated adults who have a CPS-involved child; (3) the proportion of incarcerated young men and women who were involved in the CPS system as adolescents; and (4) the proportion of CPS-involved adolescents who subsequently became incarcerated. We conclude with a discussi...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Both the Republican and Democratic parties are internally divided. But the nature of the cleavage is very different within the parties as mentioned in this paper, and each contains an ideological wing, which is interested in close adherence to the core coalition of the party.
Abstract: Both the Republican and Democratic parties are internally divided. Each contains a party regular wing, which is interested in winning office and in the compromises necessary to govern. And each contains an ideological wing, which is interested in close adherence to the core coalition of the party. But the nature of the cleavage is very different within the parties. Among Democrats, the cleavage is mild, with most members belonging to the party regular camp, to the chagrin of ideologues, who are for the most part Bernie Sanders supporters. The cleavage among Republicans, though, is so deep that the party could not find a way to bridge it in the so-called invisible primary for 2016, creating an opening for Donald Trump, who is from neither camp.

Journal ArticleDOI
Jessica Stern1
TL;DR: The authors discussed individual mobilization to extremist violence from the perspective of a researcher and analyst, exploring what we know about the psychological and social factors motivating young people to join extremist groups and how that knowledge relates to the recruitment of individuals into ISIS.
Abstract: This article discusses individual mobilization to extremist violence from the perspective of a researcher and analyst, exploring what we know about the psychological and social factors motivating young people to join extremist groups and how that knowledge relates to the recruitment of individuals into ISIS. The biggest threat to the West, at least for now, is not core ISIS (or any jihadi group operating in the Middle East and North Africa region), but Westerners who self-mobilize for attacks at home or who return, trained to fight, from the “jihad” abroad. Finally, the article suggests specific ways for governments to respond to this threat, noting the limits of what government can do, and arguing that they join forces with the private sector. Mobilization to extremism must be addressed with broad, multi-institutional social strategies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors outline the ways in which extremist organizations use the Internet to ensnare new recruits, analyzes the implications of cyber-recruitment on existing counterterrorism techniques, and suggests how the U.S. government can work with Internet service providers and other major cyber corporations.
Abstract: ISIS and other international terrorist organizations rely on the Internet to disseminate their extremist rhetoric and to recruit people to their cause, particularly through popular online social media applications. Any meaningful counterterrorism strategy must, therefore, account for the ways in which terrorist organizations use the Internet to prey on young, manipulable minds who are drawn to radical ideas and propaganda and to the desire to serve a cause larger than themselves. This article outlines the ways in which extremist organizations use the Internet to ensnare new recruits, analyzes the implications of cyber-recruitment on existing counterterrorism techniques, and suggests ways in which the U.S. government can work with Internet service providers and other major cyber corporations to better address this growing threat.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The BRAVE model has gained international recognition for its approach to countering violent extremists and its emphasis on research-driven strategies as mentioned in this paper, and the World Organization for Resource Development and Education (WORDE) has adopted the BRAVE approach to counter violent extremism.
Abstract: Building Resilience Against Violent Extremism (BRAVE), the World Organization for Resource Development and Education (WORDE)’s community-based approach to countering violent extremism (CVE), has gained international recognition for its approach to CVE and its emphasis on research-driven strategies. This article provides an overview of the BRAVE model and suggests practical steps for how to structure an effective, research-based CVE program, based on the BRAVE experience.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comparative analysis of how Mexican and non-Mexican Latino immigrants fare in the U.S. labor market is presented in this paper, showing that despite higher levels of human capital and a higher class background among non- Mexicans, neither they nor Mexican migrants have fared very well in the United States.
Abstract: A majority of Mexican and Central Americans living in the United States today are undocumented or living in a marginal, temporary legal status. This article is a comparative analysis of how Mexican and non-Mexican Latino immigrants fare in the U.S. labor market. We show that despite higher levels of human capital and a higher class background among non-Mexican migrants, neither they nor Mexican migrants have fared very well in the United States. Over the past four decades, the real value of their wages has fallen across the board, and both Mexican and non-Mexican migrant workers experience wage penalties because they are in liminal legal categories. With Latinos now composing 17 percent of the U.S. population and 25 percent of births, the precariousness of their labor market position should be a great concern among those attending to the nation’s future.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The California Criminal Justice Realignment, its predecessor, Senate Bill 18, and its successor, Proposition 47, as examples of humonetarian policy, characterized by a rhetoric of costs and savings; bipartisan support; inmate transference practices; and a focus on nonviolent, low-risk offenders, whose incarceration expenses exceed the risk they pose.
Abstract: The California Criminal Justice Realignment is often seen as a sui generis penal experiment in response to a court mandate. However, when examined in a broader context, it can be understood as part of a recession-era institutional effort to reduce prison costs, fueled by a discourse of austerity and financial prudence, which I refer to as “humonetarian.” This article examines Realignment, its predecessor, Senate Bill 18, and its successor, Proposition 47, as examples of humonetarian policy, characterized by a rhetoric of costs and savings; bipartisan support; inmate transference practices; and a focus on nonviolent, low-risk offenders, whose incarceration expenses exceed the risk they pose. The analysis yields two insights: one, the financial context of reform; and the other, the unique, neopopulist California “flavor” of this financial context, which stands in the way of even more effective reform. I end with thoughts about the promise and perils of humonetarianism in the California context.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that new research on reform should be animated by a sociopolitical perspective on punishment that developed out of social science research explaining the rise of mass incarceration, and pose research questions, hypotheses, and potential methodologies related to the causes of the new moment of reform; the variation in reform efforts; and the process, content, and political effects of reform.
Abstract: In the past 10 years, state legislatures from across the political spectrum have passed or considered reforms aimed at reducing prison populations. The breadth of reform challenges social science scholarship that views mass incarceration as “locked-in” by political, social, and economic forces and, as such, presents an important area of scholarly inquiry. In this article, I argue that new research on reform should be animated by a sociopolitical perspective on punishment that developed out of social science research explaining the rise of mass incarceration. In particular, I pose research questions, hypotheses, and potential methodologies related to (1) the causes of the new moment of reform; (2) the variation in reform efforts; and (3) the process, content, and political effects of reform. I conclude by briefly summarizing what we know about the underlying rationales and strategies of this new moment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For example, the removal of residents from highly segregated, predominantly minority communities due to jail and prison stints has compounded the life adversities of community members and significantly altered the way of life for those most vulnerable to structural inequities and society's ills as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: R rates of incarceration, coupled with the cycling of individuals in and out of prisons, have led to an array of unintended consequences for inmates, family systems, and communities (National Research council 2014). A key and distinguishing feature of these consequences is their impact on society’s most vulnerable communities; in particular, racial and ethnic minority communities plagued by economic deprivation, residential mobility, family disruption, and high crime rates (Pratt and cullen 2005; Sampson and Loeffler 2010; Wakefield and uggen 2010; Western 2006). Put simply, the removal of residents from highly segregated, predominantly minority communities due to jail and prison stints has compounded the life adversities of community members and significantly altered the way of life for those most vulnerable to structural inequities and society’s ills (Foster and Hagan 2007; Rose and clear 1998). For this subpopulation, family fragmentation, direct and indirect exposure to violence, and criminal justice intervention are not only expected but have become a way of life (Maruna 2011; Massey 2007).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluate bygone elections alongside contemporary ones to assess whether 2016 might be the beginning of something new in American electoral politics and suggest that race and populism are guideposts for potential change in 2016.
Abstract: The politics and party system of the late Civil War era are strikingly similar to what we have in the present day. Elections were consistently close; race, culture, immigration, and populism were salient issues; and states almost always voted for the same party in election after election. The states that supported Democrats then, however, mostly support Republicans now, and vice versa. In 1896, though, a new party system began to emerge. In this article, we evaluate bygone elections alongside contemporary ones to assess whether 2016 might be the beginning of something new in American electoral politics. Are national politics likely to follow the familiar pattern of the last four presidential races, or are Americans going to be presented altogether different choices? Our analysis suggests that race and populism are guideposts for potential change in 2016: if the concerns of race continue to define political conflict, the electoral map should change little, but if economic populism eclipses race as it did i...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provides an overview of post-9/11 efforts related to countering violent extremism (CVE), or the prevention, intervention, and rehabilitation efforts to provide a noncoercive, nonkinetic pathway toward preventing recruitment and radicalization to extreme violence.
Abstract: As the struggle against violent extremism continues 15 years after 9/11, practitioners of counterterrorism note that law enforcement and military approaches alone cannot break the cycle of violence, and new threats emerge as existing threats are defeated. This article provides an overview of post-9/11 efforts related to countering violent extremism (CVE), or the prevention, intervention, and rehabilitative efforts to provide a noncoercive, nonkinetic pathway toward preventing recruitment and radicalization to extreme violence. Specifically, this article explores the spread of the ISIS ideology and the Obama administration’s CVE efforts, and provides an overview of subsequent articles in this series that expand on particular CVE approaches.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A sampling of current scholarly work on party politics, campaigns, voting behavior, and electoral accountability can be found in a recent issue of The ANNALS article as discussed by the authors, "The Responsible Electorate".
Abstract: W America in the midst of a historic election year, this issue of The ANNALS offers a sampling of current scholarly work on party politics, campaigns, voting behavior, and electoral accountability. Half a century ago, in a posthumously published book titled The Responsible Electorate, the eminent political scientist V. O. Key, Jr. insisted on the “fundamental significance” of how the American public and its political leaders understand electoral politics. “Most findings of the analysts of voting,” Key (1966, 5) wrote, “never travel beyond the circle of the technicians; the popularizers, though, give wide currency to the most bizarre—and most dubious—theories of electoral behavior.” Bizarre and dubious theories, Key worried (1966, 6), would skew “the types of appeals politicians employ as they seek popular support” and “the kinds of actions that governments take as they look forward to the next election”: