Annual Review of Physical Chemistry
About: Annual Review of Physical Chemistry is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Spectroscopy & Excited state. It has an ISSN identifier of 0066-426X. Over the lifetime, 1320 publication(s) have been published receiving 197717 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: This review describes recent fundamental spectroscopic studies that reveal key relationships governing the LSPR spectral location and its sensitivity to the local environment, including nanoparticle shape and size and introduces a new form of L SPR spectroscopy, involving the coupling between nanoparticle plasmon resonances and adsorbate molecular resonances.
Abstract: Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy of metallic nanoparticles is a powerful technique for chemical and biological sensing experiments. Moreover, the LSPR is responsible for the electromagnetic-field enhancement that leads to surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and other surface-enhanced spectroscopic processes. This review describes recent fundamental spectroscopic studies that reveal key relationships governing the LSPR spectral location and its sensitivity to the local environment, including nanoparticle shape and size. We also describe studies on the distance dependence of the enhanced electromagnetic field and the relationship between the plasmon resonance and the Raman excitation energy. Lastly, we introduce a new form of LSPR spectroscopy, involving the coupling between nanoparticle plasmon resonances and adsorbate molecular resonances. The results from these fundamental studies guide the design of new sensing experiments, illustrated through applications in which researchers use both LSPR wavelength-shift sensing and SERS to detect molecules of chemical and biological relevance.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of electron transfer reactions is presented, focusing on the absence of bond rupture in the reaction step, which is a unique feature of purely electron-transfer reactions.
Abstract: One of the active areas in reaction kinetics during the post-war years has been that of electron-transfer reactions. These reactions constitute one type of oxidation-reduction process and include both chemical and electrochemical systems. Many rate constants have now been measured (1-8) and they have stimulated a variety of theoretical studies (9-37). The field has been characterized by a strong interplay of theory and experiment, which now includes the testing of theoretically predicted quantitative correlations (34). Because of a certain unique feature of the purely electron-transfer reactions--the absence of bond rupture in the reaction step--these correlations are unusual. They do not have the arbitrary parameters that occur in theoretical studies of most other reactions in chemical kinetics. This review will be limited to purely electron transfer reactions.
TL;DR: Block copolymers are macromolecules composed of sequences, or blocks, of chemically distinct repeat units that make possible the sequential addition of monomers to various carbanion-ter minated ("living") linear polymer chains.
Abstract: Block copolymers are macromolecules composed of sequences, or blocks, of chemically distinct repeat units. The development of this field originated with the discovery of termination-free anionic polymerization, which made possible the sequential addition of monomers to various carbanion-ter minated ("living") linear polymer chains. Polymerization of just two dis tinct monomer types (e.g. styrene and isoprene) leads to a class of materials referred to as AB block copolymers. Within this class, a variety of molec ular architectures is possible. For example, the simplest combination, obtained by the two-step anionic polymerization of A and B monomers, is an (A-B) dioblock copolymer. A three-step reaction provides for the preparation of (ABA) or (BAB) triblock copolymer. Alternatively, "living" diblock copolymers can be reacted with an n-functional coupling agent to produce (A-B)n star-block copolymers, where n = 2 constitutes a triblock copolymer. Several representative (A-B)n block copolymer architectures
TL;DR: In this review, the experimental work that characterizes spatially heterogeneous dynamics in supercooled liquids is described and the following questions are addressed: How large are the heterogeneities?
Abstract: Although it has long been recognized that dynamics in supercooled liquids might be spatially heterogeneous, only in the past few years has clear evidence emerged to support this view. As a liquid is cooled far below its melting point, dynamics in some regions of the sample can be orders of magnitude faster than dynamics in other regions only a few nanometers away. In this review, the experimental work that characterizes this heterogeneity is described. In particular, the following questions are addressed: How large are the heterogeneities? How long do they last? How much do dynamics vary between the fastest and slowest regions? Why do these heterogeneities arise? The answers to these questions influence practical applications of glass-forming materials, including polymers, metallic glasses, and pharmaceuticals.
TL;DR: The energy landscape theory of protein folding suggests that the most realistic model of a protein is a minimally frustrated heteropolymer with a rugged funnel-like landscape biased toward the native structure.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract The energy landscape theory of protein folding is a statistical description of a protein's potential surface. It assumes that folding occurs through organizing an ensemble of structures rather than through only a few uniquely defined structural intermediates. It suggests that the most realistic model of a protein is a minimally frustrated heteropolymer with a rugged funnel-like landscape biased toward the native structure. This statistical description has been developed using tools from the statistical mechanics of disordered systems, polymers, and phase transitions of finite systems. We review here its analytical background and contrast the phenomena in homopolymers, random heteropolymers, and protein-like heteropolymers that are kinetically and thermodynamically capable of folding. The connection between these statistical concepts and the results of minimalist models used in computer simulations is discussed. The review concludes with a brief discussion of how the theory helps in the interpre...
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