# Showing papers in "Applied Mathematics and Mechanics-english Edition in 2013"

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TL;DR: In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to examine free convection of nanofluids, and the results from the performed numerical analysis show good agreement with those obtained from other numerical methods.

Abstract: The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to examine free convection of nanofluids. The space between the cold outer square and heated inner circular cylinders is filled with water including various kinds of nanoparticles: TiO2, Ag, Cu, and Al2O3. The Brinkman and Maxwell-Garnetts models are used to simulate the viscosity and the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids, respectively. Results from the performed numerical analysis show good agreement with those obtained from other numerical methods. A variety of the Rayleigh number, the nanoparticle volume fraction, and the aspect ratio are examined. According to the results, choosing copper as the nanoparticle leads to obtaining the highest enhancement for this problem. The results also indicate that the maximum value of enhancement occurs at λ = 2.5 when Ra = 106 while at λ = 1.5 for other Rayleigh numbers.

123 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the three-dimensional stretched flow of the Jeffrey fluid with thermal radiation was analyzed and the local Nusselt number was compared with the existing limiting solutions, showing good agreement with each other.

Abstract: This article addresses the three-dimensional stretched flow of the Jeffrey fluid with thermal radiation. The thermal conductivity of the fluid varies linearly with respect to temperature. Computations are performed for the velocity and temperature fields. Graphs for the velocity and temperature are plotted to examine the behaviors with different parameters. Numerical values of the local Nusselt number are presented and discussed. The present results are compared with the existing limiting solutions, showing good agreement with each other.

74 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of the viscoelastic and rotation parameters on the skin friction coefficients and the velocity profiles are thoroughly examined, and it is shown that skin friction coefficient and velocity in the x-direction increase as the viscous parameter and the rotation parameter increase.

Abstract: The boundary layer flow over a stretching surface in a rotating viscoelastic fluid is considered. By applying a similarity transformation, the governing partial differential equations are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations before being solved numerically by the Keller-box method. The effects of the viscoelastic and rotation parameters on the skin friction coefficients and the velocity profiles are thoroughly examined. The analysis reveals that the skin friction coefficients and the velocity in the x-direction increase as the viscoelastic parameter and the rotation parameter increase. Moreover, the velocity in the y-direction decreases as the viscoelastic parameter and the rotation parameter increase.

60 citations

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TL;DR: An improved precise integration method (IPIM) for solving the differential Riccati equation (DRE) is presented and the criterion for choosing two parameters of the PIM is given.

Abstract: An improved precise integration method (IPIM) for solving the differential Riccati equation (DRE) is presented. The solution to the DRE is connected with the exponential of a Hamiltonian matrix, and the precise integration method (PIM) for solving the DRE is connected with the scaling and squaring method for computing the exponential of a matrix. The error analysis of the scaling and squaring method for the exponential of a matrix is applied to the PIM of the DRE. Based on the error analysis, the criterion for choosing two parameters of the PIM is given. Three kinds of IPIMs for solving the DRE are proposed. The numerical examples show that the IPIM is stable and gives the machine accuracy solutions.

59 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the melting heat transfer in the boundary layer flow of a couple stress fluid over a stretching surface is investigated, and developed differential equations are solved for homotopic solutions.

Abstract: Melting heat transfer in the boundary layer flow of a couple stress fluid over a stretching surface is investigated. The developed differential equations are solved for homotopic solutions. It is observed that the velocity and the boundary layer thickness are decreasing functions of the couple stress fluid parameter. However, the temperature and surface heat transfer increase when the values of the couple stress fluid parameter increase. The velocity and temperature fields increase with an increase in the melting process of the stretching sheet.

52 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the dispersion equation of phase velocity is derived for Love wave propagation in a non-homogeneous substrate over an initially stressed heterogeneous half-space and the velocities of Love waves are calculated numerically as a function of kH and presented in a number of graphs, where k is the wave number, and H is the thickness of the layer.

Abstract: The paper studies the propagation of Love waves in a non-homogeneous substratum over an initially stressed heterogeneous half-space. The dispersion equation of phase velocity is derived. The velocities of Love waves are calculated numerically as a function of kH and presented in a number of graphs, where k is the wave number, and H is the thickness of the layer. The case of Gibson’s half-space is also considered. It is observed that the speed of Love waves is finite in the vicinity of the surface of the half-space and vanishes as the depth increases for a particular wave number. It is also observed that an increase in compressive initial stresses causes decreases of Love waves velocity for the same frequency, and the tensile initial stress of small magnitude in the half-space causes increase of the velocity.

50 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a stretching surface with convective boundary conditions was studied. The authors presented the problem formulation using the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy.

Abstract: The present study addresses the three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a stretching surface with convective boundary conditions The problem formulation is presented using the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy The solutions to the dimensionless problems are computed The convergence of series solutions by the homotopy analysis method (HAM) is discussed graphically and numerically The graphs are plotted for various parameters of the temperature profile The series solutions are verified by providing a comparison in a limiting case The numerical values of the local Nusselt number are analyzed

49 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the convection heat and mass transfer of nanofluids over a vertical plate embedded in a saturated Darcy porous medium subjected to surface heat and nanoparticle fluxes.

Abstract: The aim of the present paper is to analyze the natural convection heat and mass transfer of nanofluids over a vertical plate embedded in a saturated Darcy porous medium subjected to surface heat and nanoparticle fluxes. To carry out the numerical solution, two steps are performed. The governing partial differential equations are firstly simplified into a set of highly coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations by appropriate similarity variables, and then numerically solved by the finite difference method. The obtained similarity solution depends on four non-dimensional parameters, i.e., the Brownian motion parameter (N
b), the Buoyancy ratio (N
r), the thermophoresis parameter (N
t), and the Lewis number (Le). The variations of the reduced Nusselt number and the reduced Sherwood number with N
b and N
t for various values of Le and N
r are discussed in detail. Simulation results depict that the increase in N
b, N
t, or N
r decreases the reduced Nusselt number. An increase in the Lewis number increases both of the reduced Nusselt number and the Sherwood number. The results also reveal that the nanoparticle concentration boundary layer thickness is much thinner than those of the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layers.

46 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a three dimensional progressive damage model for composite laminates to be used for low-velocity impact is presented, which can be applied to analyze the dynamic performance of composite structure and its failure behavior.

Abstract: In order to effectively describe the progressively intralaminar and interlaminar damage for composite laminates, a three dimensional progressive damage model for composite laminates to be used for low-velocity impact is presented. Being applied to three-dimensional (3D) solid elements and cohesive elements, the nonlinear damage model can be used to analyze the dynamic performance of composite structure and its failure behavior. For the intralaminar damage, as a function of the energy release rate, the damage model in an exponential function can describe progressive development of the damage. For the interlaminar damage, the damage evolution is described by the framework of the continuum mechanics through cohesive elements. Coding the user subroutine VUMAT of the finite element software ABAQUS/Explicit, the model is applied to an example, i.e., carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates under low-velocity impact. It is shown that the prediction of damage and deformation agrees well with the experimental results.

39 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) method was used to investigate the dynamic behavior of the artificial frozen soil under the nearly uniaxial strain and unioxial stress conditions.

Abstract: The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) method is used to investigate the dynamic behavior of the artificial frozen soil under the nearly uniaxial strain and uniaxial stress conditions. The tests are conducted at the temperatures of −3°C, −8°C, −13°C, −17°C, −23°C, and −28°C and with the strain rates from 900 s−1 to 1 500 s−1. The nearly uniaxial stress-strain curves exhibit an elastic-plastic behavior, whereas the uniaxial stress-strain curves show a brittle behavior. The compressive strength of the frozen soil exhibits the positive strain rate and negative temperature sensitivity, and the final strain of the frozen soil shows the positive strain rate sensitivity. The strength of the frozen soil under the nearly uniaxial strain is greater than that under the uniaxial stress. After the negative confinement tests, the specimens are compressed, and the visible cracks are not observed. However, the specimens are catastrophically damaged after the uniaxial SHPB tests. A phenomenological model with the thermal sensitivity is established to describe the dynamic behavior of the confined frozen soil.

33 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an unsteady natural convective couple stress fluid flow over a semi-infinite vertical cylinder is analyzed for the homogeneous first-order chemical reaction effect.

Abstract: The unsteady natural convective couple stress fluid flow over a semi-infinite vertical cylinder is analyzed for the homogeneous first-order chemical reaction effect. The couple stress fluid flow model introduces the length dependent effect based on the material constant and dynamic viscosity. Also, it introduces the biharmonic operator in the Navier-Stokes equations, which is absent in the case of Newtonian fluids. The solution to the time-dependent non-linear and coupled governing equations is carried out with an unconditionally stable Crank-Nicolson type of numerical schemes. Numerical results for the transient flow variables, the average wall shear stress, the Nusselt number, and the Sherwood number are shown graphically for both generative and destructive reactions. The time to reach the temporal maximum increases as the reaction constant K increases. The average values of the wall shear stress and the heat transfer rate decrease as K increases, while increase with the increase in the Sherwood number.

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TL;DR: In this article, a generalized differential quadrature (GDQM) method is employed to consider the free vibration and critical speed of moderately thick rotating laminated composite conical shells with different boundary conditions developed from the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT).

Abstract: The generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) is employed to consider the free vibration and critical speed of moderately thick rotating laminated composite conical shells with different boundary conditions developed from the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). The equations of motion are obtained applying Hamilton’s concept, which contain the influence of the centrifugal force, the Coriolis acceleration, and the preliminary hoop stress. In addition, the axial load is applied to the conical shell as a ratio of the global critical buckling load. The governing partial differential equations are given in the expressions of five components of displacement related to the points lying on the reference surface of the shell. Afterward, the governing differential equations are converted into a group of algebraic equations by using the GDQM. The outcomes are achieved considering the effects of stacking sequences, thickness of the shell, rotating velocities, half-vertex cone angle, and boundary conditions. Furthermore, the outcomes indicate that the rate of the convergence of frequencies is swift, and the numerical technique is superior stable. Three comparisons between the selected outcomes and those of other research are accomplished, and excellent agreement is achieved.

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of the aspect ratio on unsteady solutions through the curved duct flow are studied numerically by a spectral-based computational procedure with a temperature gradient between the vertical sidewalls for the Grashof number 100 ⩽ Gr ⎽ 2 000.

Abstract: The effects of the aspect ratio on unsteady solutions through the curved duct flow are studied numerically by a spectral based computational procedure with a temperature gradient between the vertical sidewalls for the Grashof number 100 ⩽ Gr ⩽ 2 000. The outer wall of the duct is heated while the inner wall is cooled and the top and bottom walls are adiabatic. In this paper, unsteady solutions are calculated by the time history analysis of the Nusselt number for the Dean numbers Dn = 100 and Dn = 500 and the aspect ratios 1 ⩽ γ ⩽ 3. Water is taken as a working fluid (Pr = 7.0). It is found that at Dn = 100, there appears a steady-state solution for small or large Gr. For moderate Gr, however, the steady-state solution turns into the periodic solution if γ is increased. For Dn = 500, on the other hand, it is analyzed that the steady-state solution turns into the chaotic solution for small and large Gr for any γ lying in the range. For moderate Gr at Dn = 500, however, the steady-state flow turns into the chaotic flow through the periodic oscillating flow if the aspect ratio is increased.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an efficient approach based on the rational Chebyshev collocation method is performed to find the solution to the proposed boundary value problem, which solves the problem on the semi-infinite domain without truncating it to a finite domain.

Abstract: The magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Falkner-Skan flow of the Maxwell fluid is studied. Suitable transform reduces the partial differential equation into a nonlinear three order boundary value problem over a semi-infinite interval. An efficient approach based on the rational Chebyshev collocation method is performed to find the solution to the proposed boundary value problem. The rational Chebyshev collocation method is equipped with the orthogonal rational Chebyshev function which solves the problem on the semi-infinite domain without truncating it to a finite domain. The obtained results are presented through the illustrative graphs and tables which demonstrate the affectivity, stability, and convergence of the rational Chebyshev collocation method. To check the accuracy of the obtained results, a numerical method is applied for solving the problem. The variations of various embedded parameters into the problem are examined.

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TL;DR: Based on the nonlocal continuum theory, the nonlinear vibration of an embedded single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) subjected to a harmonic load is investigated in this article.

Abstract: Based on the nonlocal continuum theory, the nonlinear vibration of an embedded single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) subjected to a harmonic load is investigated. In the present study, the SWCNT is assumed to be a curved beam, which is unlike previous similar work. Firstly, the governing equations of motion are derived by the Hamilton principle, meanwhile, the Galerkin approach is carried out to convert the nonlinear integral-differential equation into a second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Then, the precise integration method based on the local linearzation is appropriately designed for solving the above dynamic equations. Besides, the numerical example is presented, the effects of the nonlocal parameters, the elastic medium constants, the waviness ratios, and the material lengths on the dynamic response are analyzed. The results show that the above mentioned effects have influences on the dynamic behavior of the SWCNT.

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TL;DR: In this article, the effect of heat and mass transfer on the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convective flow with Hall current, heat source, and viscous dissipation was investigated.

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of heat and mass transfer on the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convective flow with Hall current, heat source, and viscous dissipation. The problem is governed by the system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations whose exact solution is difficult to obtain. Therefore, the problem is solved by using the Galerkin finite element method. The effects of the various parameters like Hall current, Eckert number, heat source parameter, Prandtl number, and Schmidt number on the velocity components, the temperature, and the concentration are also examined through graphs.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a non-isothermal, transient, two-phase, and fluid-solid coupling mathematical model is proposed to simulate the complex stability performance of a wellbore drilled in HBS.

Abstract: As the oil or gas exploration and development activities in deep and ultradeep waters become more and more, encountering gas hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) is almost inevitable. The variation in temperature and pressure can destabilize gas hydrate in nearby formation around the borehole, which may reduce the strength of the formation and result in wellbore instability. A non-isothermal, transient, two-phase, and fluid-solid coupling mathematical model is proposed to simulate the complex stability performance of a wellbore drilled in HBS. In the model, the phase transition of hydrate dissociation, the heat exchange between drilling fluid and formation, the change of mechanical and petrophysical properties, the gas-water two-phase seepage, and its interaction with rock deformation are considered. A finite element simulator is developed, and the impact of drilling mud on wellbore instability in HBS is simulated. Results indicate that the reduction in pressure and the increase in temperature of the drilling fluid can accelerate hydrate decomposition and lead to mechanical properties getting worse tremendously. The cohesion decreases by 25% when the hydrate totally dissociates in HBS. This easily causes the wellbore instability accordingly. In the first two hours after the formation is drilled, the regions of hydrate dissociation and wellbore instability extend quickly. Then, with the soaking time of drilling fluid increasing, the regions enlarge little. Choosing the low temperature drilling fluid and increasing the drilling mud pressure appropriately can benefit the wellbore stability of HBS. The established model turns out to be an efficient tool in numerical studies of the hydrate dissociation behavior and wellbore stability of HBS.

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TL;DR: In this article, the free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied by the atomistic and continuum finite element models, where the bonds and atoms are modeled by the beam and point mass elements, respectively.

Abstract: By the atomistic and continuum finite element models, the free vibration behavior of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied. In the atomistic finite element model, the bonds and atoms are modeled by the beam and point mass elements, respectively. The molecular mechanics is linked to structural mechanics to determine the elastic properties of the mentioned beam elements. In the continuum finite element approach, by neglecting the discrete nature of the atomic structure of the nanotubes, they are modeled with shell elements. By both models, the natural frequencies of SWCNTs are computed, and the effects of the geometrical parameters, the atomic structure, and the boundary conditions are investigated. The accuracy of the utilized methods is verified in comparison with molecular dynamic simulations. The molecular structural model leads to more reliable results, especially for lower aspect ratios. The present analysis provides valuable information about application of continuum models in the investigation of the mechanical behaviors of nanotubes.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the effects of some physical parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting micropolar fluid in a channel with stretching walls.

Abstract: A study is presented for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow and heat transfer characteristics of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting micropolar fluid in a channel with stretching walls. The micropolar model introduced by Eringen is used to describe the working fluid. The transformed self similar ordinary differential equations together with the associated boundary conditions are solved numerically by an algorithm based on quasi-linearization and multilevel discretization. The effects of some physical parameters on the flow and heat transfer are discussed and presented through tables and graphs. The present investigations may be beneficial in the flow and thermal control of polymeric processing.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a model of two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity without energy dissipation for an elastic half-space with constant elastic parameters is constructed, where the Laplace transform and state-space techniques are used to obtain the general solution for any set of boundary conditions.

Abstract: In this work, a model of two-temperature generalized thermoelasticity without energy dissipation for an elastic half-space with constant elastic parameters is constructed. The Laplace transform and state-space techniques are used to obtain the general solution for any set of boundary conditions. The general solutions are applied to a specific problem of a half-space subjected to a moving heat source with a constant velocity. The inverse Laplace transforms are computed numerically, and the comparisons are shown in figures to estimate the effects of the heat source velocity and the two-temperature parameter.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the bending problem of a thin rectangular plate with in-plane variable stiffness is studied, and the basic equation is formulated for the two-opposite-edge simply supported rectangular plate under the distributed loads.

Abstract: The bending problem of a thin rectangular plate with in-plane variable stiffness is studied. The basic equation is formulated for the two-opposite-edge simply supported rectangular plate under the distributed loads. The formulation is based on the assumption that the flexural rigidity of the plate varies in the plane following a power form, and Poisson's ratio is constant. A fourth-order partial differential equation with variable coefficients is derived by assuming a Levy-type form for the transverse displacement. The governing equation can be transformed into a Whittaker equation, and an analytical solution is obtained for a thin rectangular plate subjected to the distributed loads. The validity of the present solution is shown by comparing the present results with those of the classical solution. The influence of in-plane variable stiffness on the deflection and bending moment is studied by numerical examples. The analytical solution presented here is useful in the design of rectangular plates with in-plane variable stiffness.

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of the Brownian motion parameter N b, the thermophoresis parameter N t, and the Lewis number Le on the temperature and nanoparticle concentration distributions are discussed.

Abstract: The laminar fully developed nanofluid flow and heat transfer in a horizonal channel are investigated. Highly accurate solutions for the temperature and nanoparticle concentration distributions are obtained. The effects of the Brownian motion parameter N
b, the thermophoresis parameter N
t, and the Lewis number Le on the temperature and nanoparticle concentration distributions are discussed. The current analysis shows that the nanoparticles can improve the heat transfer characteristics significantly for this flow problem.

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TL;DR: In this article, a nonlinear energy sink (NES) was used to suppress the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of an airfoil coupled with a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) coupled with an NES with the harmonic balance method.

Abstract: This paper presents a novel mechanical attachment, i.e., nonlinear energy sink (NES), for suppressing the limit cycle oscillation (LCO) of an airfoil. The dynamic responses of a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) airfoil coupled with an NES are studied with the harmonic balance method. Different structure parameters of the NES, i.e., mass ratio between the NES and airfoil, NES offset, NES damping, and nonlinear stiffness in the NES, are chosen for studying the effect of the LCO suppression on an aeroelastic system with a supercritical Hopf bifurcation or subcritical Hopf bifurcation, respectively. The results show that the structural parameters of the NES have different influence on the supercritical Hopf bifurcation system and the subcritical Hopf bifurcation system.

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TL;DR: In this article, a three-layer fluid flow model with nanofluids is formulated and the governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of the problem are non-dimensionalized by using appropriate fundamental quantities.

Abstract: Technologically, multi-layer fluid models are important in understanding fluid-fluid or fluid-nanoparticle interactions and their effects on flow and heat transfer characteristics. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, little attention has been paid to the study of three-layer fluid models with nanofluids. Therefore, a three-layer fluid flow model with nanofluids is formulated in this paper. The governing coupled nonlinear differential equations of the problem are non-dimensionalized by using appropriate fundamental quantities. The resulting multi-point boundary value problem is solved numerically by quasi-linearization and Richardson’s extrapolation with modified boundary conditions. The effects of the model parameters on the flow and heat transfer are obtained and analyzed. The results show that an increase in the nanoparticle concentration in the base fluid can modify the fluid-velocity at the interface of the two fluids and reduce the shear not only at the surface of the clear fluid but also at the interface between them. That is, nanofluids play a vital role in modifying the flow phenomena. Therefore, one can use nanofluids to obtain the desired qualities for the multi-fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.

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TL;DR: In this article, a modified version of the Lane-Emden equation of the second kind modelling a thermal explosion in an infinite cylinder and a sphere was studied and it was shown that the solution to the relevant boundary value problem is bounded and that the solutions are monotone decreasing.

Abstract: We study a modified version of the Lane-Emden equation of the second kind modelling a thermal explosion in an infinite cylinder and a sphere. We first show that the solution to the relevant boundary value problem is bounded and that the solutions are monotone decreasing. The upper bound, the value of the solution at zero, can be approximated analytically in terms of the physical parameters. We obtain solutions to the boundary value problem, using both the Taylor series (which work well for weak nonlinearity) and the δ-expansion method (valid for strong nonlinearity). From here, we are able to deduce the qualitative behavior of the solution profiles with a change in any one of the physical parameters.

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TL;DR: In this article, a fast precise integration method is developed for the time integral of the hyperbolic heat conduction problem, where the wave nature of heat transfer is used to analyze the structure of the matrix exponential.

Abstract: A fast precise integration method is developed for the time integral of the hyperbolic heat conduction problem. The wave nature of heat transfer is used to analyze the structure of the matrix exponential, leading to the fact that the matrix exponential is sparse. The presented method employs the sparsity of the matrix exponential to improve the original precise integration method. The merits are that the proposed method is suitable for large hyperbolic heat equations and inherits the accuracy of the original version and the good computational efficiency, which are verified by two numerical examples.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the combined effect of conduction-convection-radiation on natural convection flow of an optically thick Newtonian fluid with gray radiant properties, confined in a porous media square cavity with Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer drag is studied numerically.

Abstract: The combined effect of conduction-convection-radiation on natural convection flow of an optically thick Newtonian fluid with gray radiant properties, confined in a porous media square cavity with Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer drag is studied numerically. For a gray fluid, Rosseland diffusion approximation is considered. It is assumed that (i) the temperature of the left vertical wall varies linearly with height, (ii) the right vertical and top walls are at a lower temperature, and (iii) the bottom wall is uniformly-heated. The governing equations are solved using the alternate direct implicit method together with the successive over relaxation technique. The investigation of the effect of governing parameters, namely, the Forschheimer resistance (Γ), the temperature difference (Δ), and the Plank number (Rd), on the flow pattern and heat transfer characteristics is carried out. It can be seen that the reduction of flow and heat transfer occur as the Forschheimer resistance is increased. On the other hand, both the flow strength and heat transfer increase as the temperature ratio Δ is increased.

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TL;DR: In this article, the Schmidt method was adopted to investigate the fracture problem of multiple parallel symmetric and permeable finite length mode-III cracks in a functionally graded piezoelectric/piezomagnetic material plane.

Abstract: The Schmidt method is adopted to investigate the fracture problem of multiple parallel symmetric and permeable finite length mode-III cracks in a functionally graded piezoelectric/piezomagnetic material plane. This problem is formulated into dual integral equations, in which the unknown variables are the displacement jumps across the crack surfaces. In order to obtain the dual integral equations, the displacement jumps across the crack surfaces are directly expanded as a series of Jacobi polynomials. The results show that the stress, the electric displacement, and the magnetic flux intensity factors of cracks depend on the crack length, the functionally graded parameter, and the distance among the multiple parallel cracks. The crack shielding effect is also obviously presented in a functionally graded piezoelectric/piezomagnetic material plane with multiple parallel symmetric mode-III cracks.

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TL;DR: In this article, a new numerical manifold (NMM) method is derived on the basis of quartic uniform B-spline interpolation, which is applied for the numerical example of thin plate bending.

Abstract: A new numerical manifold (NMM) method is derived on the basis of quartic uniform B-spline interpolation. The analysis shows that the new interpolation function possesses higher-order continuity and polynomial consistency compared with the conventional NMM. The stiffness matrix of the new element is well-conditioned. The proposed method is applied for the numerical example of thin plate bending. Based on the principle of minimum potential energy, the manifold matrices and equilibrium equation are deduced. Numerical results reveal that the NMM has high interpolation accuracy and rapid convergence for the global cover function and its higher-order partial derivatives.

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İnönü University

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to analyze the thermal properties of annular rectangular profile fin with variable thermal properties, where the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient were assumed to vary with a linear and power-law function of temperature, respectively.

Abstract: The thermal analysis of the annular rectangular profile fins with variable thermal properties is investigated by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient are assumed to vary with a linear and power-law function of temperature, respectively. The effects of the thermal-geometric fin parameter and the thermal conductivity parameter variations on the temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated for different heat transfer modes. Results from the HAM are compared with numerical results of the finite difference method (FDM). It can be seen that the variation of dimensionless parameters has a significant effect on the temperature distribution and fin efficiency.