Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
About: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology is an academic journal published by Springer. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Fermentation & Medicine. It has an ISSN identifier of 0175-7598. Over the lifetime, 17463 publications have been published receiving 756879 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield are reviewed.
Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of energy crops, residues, and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation and as a vehicle fuel. For biogas production, various process types are applied which can be classified in wet and dry fermentation systems. Most often applied are wet digester systems using vertical stirred tank digester with different stirrer types dependent on the origin of the feedstock. Biogas is mainly utilized in engine-based combined heat and power plants, whereas microgas turbines and fuel cells are expensive alternatives which need further development work for reducing the costs and increasing their reliability. Gas upgrading and utilization as renewable vehicle fuel or injection into the natural gas grid is of increasing interest because the gas can be used in a more efficient way. The digestate from anaerobic fermentation is a valuable fertilizer due to the increased availability of nitrogen and the better short-term fertilization effect. Anaerobic treatment minimizes the survival of pathogens which is important for using the digested residue as fertilizer. This paper reviews the current state and perspectives of biogas production, including the biochemical parameters and feedstocks which influence the efficiency and reliability of the microbial conversion and gas yield.
TL;DR: This review describes the workings of known metal-resistance systems in microorganisms and the transport of the 17 most important (heavy metal) elements is compared.
Abstract: We are just beginning to understand the metabolism of heavy metals and to use their metabolic functions in biotechnology, although heavy metals comprise the major part of the elements in the periodic table. Because they can form complex compounds, some heavy metal ions are essential trace elements, but, essential or not, most heavy metals are toxic at higher concentrations. This review describes the workings of known metal-resistance systems in microorganisms. After an account of the basic principles of homoeostasis for all heavy-metal ions, the transport of the 17 most important (heavy metal) elements is compared.
TL;DR: The present review analyzes the pecularities of polysaccharides derived from fruiting bodies and cultured mycelium in selected examples of medicinal mushrooms and concludes that high molecular weight glucans appear to be more effective than those of low molecular weight.
Abstract: The number of mushrooms on Earth is estimated at 140,000, yet maybe only 10% (approximately 14,000 named species) are known. Mushrooms comprise a vast and yet largely untapped source of powerful new pharmaceutical products. In particular, and most importantly for modern medicine, they represent an unlimited source of polysaccharides with antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Many, if not all, Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, culture broth. Data on mushroom polysaccharides have been collected from 651 species and 7 infraspecific taxa from 182 genera of higher Hetero- and Homobasidiomycetes. These polysaccharides are of different chemical composition, with most belonging to the group of β-glucans; these have β-(1→3) linkages in the main chain of the glucan and additional β-(1→6) branch points that are needed for their antitumor action. High molecular weight glucans appear to be more effective than those of low molecular weight. Chemical modification is often carried out to improve the antitumor activity of polysaccharides and their clinical qualities (mostly water solubility). The main procedures used for chemical improvement are: Smith degradation (oxydo-reducto-hydrolysis), formolysis, and carboxymethylation. Most of the clinical evidence for antitumor activity comes from the commercial polysaccharides lentinan, PSK (krestin), and schizophyllan, but polysaccharides of some other promising medicinal mushroom species also show good results. Their activity is especially beneficial in clinics when used in conjunction with chemotherapy. Mushroom polysaccharides prevent oncogenesis, show direct antitumor activity against various allogeneic and syngeneic tumors, and prevent tumor metastasis. Polysaccharides from mushrooms do not attack cancer cells directly, but produce their antitumor effects by activating different immune responses in the host. The antitumor action of polysaccharides requires an intact T-cell component; their activity is mediated through a thymus-dependent immune mechanism. Practical application is dependent not only on biological properties, but also on biotechnological availability. The present review analyzes the pecularities of polysaccharides derived from fruiting bodies and cultured mycelium (the two main methods of biotechnological production today) in selected examples of medicinal mushrooms.
TL;DR: It is suggested that the SBR could be used for the enrichment and quantitative study of a large number of slowly growing microorganisms that are currently out of reach for microbiological research.
Abstract: Currently available microbiological techniques are not designed to deal with very slowly growing microorganisms. The enrichment and study of such organisms demands a novel experimental approach. In the present investigation, the sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was applied and optimized for the enrichment and quantitative study of a very slowly growing microbial community which oxidizes ammonium anaerobically. The SBR was shown to be a powerful experimental set-up with the following strong points: (1) efficient biomass retention, (2) a homogeneous distribution of substrates, products and biomass aggregates over the reactor, (3) reliable operation for more than 1 year, and (4) stable conditions under substrate-limiting conditions. Together, these points made possible for the first time the determination of several important physiological parameters such as the biomass yield (0.066 ± 0.01 C-mol/mol ammonium), the maximum specific ammonium consumption rate (45 ± 5 nmol/mg protein/min) and the maximum specific growth rate (0.0027 · h−1, doubling time 11 days). In addition, the persisting stable and strongly selective conditions of the SBR led to a high degree of enrichment (74% of the desired microorganism). This study has demonstrated that the SBR is a powerful tool compared to other techniques used in the past. We suggest that the SBR could be used for the enrichment and quantitative study of a large number of slowly growing microorganisms that are currently out of reach for microbiological research.
TL;DR: The biotechnology of microalgae has gained considerable importance in recent decades and this group of organisms represents one of the most promising sources for new products and applications.
Abstract: The biotechnology of microalgae has gained considerable importance in recent decades. Applications range from simple biomass production for food and feed to valuable products for ecological applications. For most of these applications, the market is still developing and the biotechnological use of microalgae will extend into new areas. Considering the enormous biodiversity of microalgae and recent developments in genetic engineering, this group of organisms represents one of the most promising sources for new products and applications. With the development of sophisticated culture and screening techniques, microalgal biotechnology can already meet the high demands of both the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Related Journals (5)