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Showing papers in "Archives of General Psychiatry in 1966"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the 1966 paperback edition of a publication which first appeared in 1963 has by now been widely reviewed as a worthy contribution to the sociological study of deviant behavior as discussed by the authors, and the authors developed a sequential model of deviance relying on the concept of career, a concept originally developed in studies of occupations.
Abstract: This 1966 paperback edition of a publication which first appeared in 1963 has by now been widely reviewed as a worthy contribution to the sociological study of deviant behavior. Its current appearance as a paperback is a testimonial both to the quality of the work and to the prominence of deviant behavior in this generation. In general the author places deviance in perspective, identifies types of deviant behavior, considers the role of rule makers and enforcers, and some of the problems in studying deviance. In addition, he develops a sequential model of deviance relying on the concept of career, a concept originally developed in studies of occupations. In his study of a particular kind of deviance, the use of marihuana, the author posits and tests systematically an hypothesis about the genesis of marihuana use for pleasure. The hypothesis traces the sequence of changes in individual attitude

2,650 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fourth volume of Winnicott's to be published in the United States as mentioned in this paper is one of the richest and most significant volumes in its contribution to applied psychoanalysis and especially child psychiatry, with a synthesis of abundant clinical experiences, profound personal creativity and thought, and a blending of past and present psychoanalytic theory and practice.
Abstract: This is the fourth volume of Winnicott's to be published in the United States. This remarkable work has sent this reviewer back to the other three, since it is one of the richest and most significant volumes in its contribution to applied psychoanalysis and especially child psychiatry. These essays, written between 1957 and 1963, are a synthesis of abundant clinical experiences, profound personal creativity and thought, and a blending of past and present psychoanalytic theory and practice. This combination makes for a most exhilarating and gratifying encounter. As a onetime pediatrician, he moves with surety through the complex trails of development, illuminating a range of phenomena in a classic literary style. In these days of accent on social and community psychiatry, psychoanalytic parameters, dilution of training for psychotherapy, brief therapies for variously colored collar workers, distorted approaches to poverty programs and delinquency, it is heartening and refreshing to read in

773 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce the reader to the focal topic of normality by providing a well-organized review of the beginnings of child psychology, as rooted in the reconstruction from adult analysis, child analysis, and direct observation.
Abstract: As the author notes in the preface, several of the sections of this book have been previously published. The emphasis on normality and the study of pathology based on interferences in normal development have been stressed in the communications of other clinicians. Yet, even though the reader will be familar with a great deal of the content, the volume is worthy of reading in its entirety. Miss Freud introduces the reader to the focal topic of normality by providing a well-organized review of the beginnings of child psychology, as rooted in the reconstruction from adult analysis, child analysis, and direct observation. Of particular interest to the student of psychoanalysis is the chapter dealing with the relations between adult and child analysis. The matter of transference is highlighted. In examining normal development, the author presents several examples of developmental lines. The line of dependency to emotional self-reliance and

702 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is the present intention to integrate and discuss current knowledge regarding various altered states of consciousness in an effort to determine (a) the conditions necessary for their emergence, (b) the factors which influence their outward manifestations, (c) their relatedness and/or common denominators, and (d) the adaptive or maladaptive functions which these states may serve for man.
Abstract: BENEATH man's thin veneer of consciousness lies a relatively uncharted realm of mental activity, the nature and function of which have been neither systematically explored nor adequately conceptualized. Despite numerous clinical and research reports on daydreaming, sleep and dream states, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, hysterical states of dissociation and depersonalization, pharmacologically induced mental aberrations, and so on, there has been little attempt made to organize this scattered information into a consistent theoretical system. It is my present intention to integrate and discuss current knowledge regarding various altered states of consciousness in an effort to determine (a) the conditions necessary for their emergence, (b) the factors which influence their outward manifestations, (c) their relatedness and/or common denominators, and (d) the adaptive or maladaptive functions which these states may serve for man. For the purpose of discussion, I shall regard "altered state(s) of consciousness" [hereafter referred

543 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The trait patterns which histori cally have been said to characterize each of the three personality types will be reexamined by means of factor analysis, and a self-rating form will be offered as a measure of these personality types.
Abstract: THIS STUDY is an attempt to explore the empirical basis of three personality types frequently discussed in the psychiatric litera ture—oral, obsessive, and hysterical. More specifically, the trait patterns which histori cally have been said to characterize each of the three personality types will be reex amined by means of factor analysis, and a self-rating form will be offered as a measure of these personality types. * In order to understand the significance, the limitations, and the theoretical framework of this research, we shall first describe the content out of which it emerged, including a preliminary experiment which partially failed. Our interest in personality arose from our observations of the relationship between personality and symptom formation in de pressed women. 19 We noted, for instance, that depressed women with hysterical per sonalities differed from depressed women with obsessional personalities in their pre hospital adjustment, in their patterns o depressive symptomatology, in

185 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basic family constellation in six cases of incest involves the father and daughter of a nuclear family and the theoretical frame of reference combines individual with family dynamics, and the perspective on incest derives from several sources.
Abstract: Introduction WE HAVE HAD the opportunity to study the basic family constellation in six cases of incest. This paper has grown from our clinical observations and a series of staff discussions of these cases. Members of the disciplines of psychiatry, social work, and psychology participated in the study. Our theoretical frame of reference combines individual with family dynamics, and our perspective on incest derives from several sources. We were gratified to discover the compatibility of these varied frames of reference in contributing to our understanding of the clinical data. Incest has been defined by Levi-Strauss 1 and Slater 2 as "overt sexual intercourse occurring between members of a group who are not permitted by their society to marry." Since each of our six cases involved the father and daughter of a nuclear family, our findings and conclusions must necessarily be restricted to this special class of incest. Past contributions

182 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it has been found that there are periods of rapid, conjugate eye movement (REM Periods) occurring at about 90-minute intervals throughout the course of normal sleep in adult human subjects.
Abstract: FOLLOWING the work of Aserinsky1and Aserinsky and Kleitman,2it has been well established that there are periods of rapid, conjugate eye movement (REM Periods) occurring at about 90-minute intervals throughout the course of normal sleep in adult human subjects (Ss), and it has been found that most dream reports are obtained after awakenings from these Periods.3It is also well established that these periods are associated with a low-voltage random electroencephalogram (EEG) record which has been called stage 1 of sleep by Dement and Kleitman.4In fact the Physiological changes which are associated with REM periods encompass a large cluster of characteristics: increase in respiratory rate and irregularity1,5-8; an increase in pulse rate and irregularity7,8; a decrease in the number of spontaneous galvanic skin responses6,9-10; a greater incidence of isolated wrist activity11,12; an increase in the

182 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: On the basis of neuropharmacological, neurophysiological, and psychological evidence, Kornetsky and Mirsky 7 concluded that in the schizophrenic patient there may be a malfunction in the midbrain or brain stem reticular formation.
Abstract: IT HAS BEEN repeatedly observed that schizophrenics do more poorly than normals on a variety of psychological performance tests. This performance impairment has often been considered to be a secondary manifestation of the illness rather than the result of some primary alteration in the central nervous system. However, a number of investigators have suggested that there may be some primary dysfunction in the arousal system and the subcortical areas that subserve arousal in the schizophrenic. 1,5,14,15 On the basis of neuropharmacological, neurophysiological, and psychological evidence, Kornetsky and Mirsky 7 concluded that in the schizophrenic patient there may be a malfunction in the midbrain or brain stem reticular formation. An altered arousal system could account for much of the impairment in performance seen in the schizophrenic and more specifically the impaired attention as seen in the patients inability to maintain a "set" in the reaction

173 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors' findings are consistent with those of the few other controlled studies that appear in the literature, namely that the psychomotor epilepsies are not associated with an central nervous system disorder.
Abstract: IN THE course of previous investigations designed to identify more specifically the nature of mental aberrations peculiar to patients with psychomotor epilepsy, we were not a little surprised to find that our psychological and psychiatric evaluations failed to differentiate psychomotor from nonpsychomotor seizure patients who were otherwise matched for age, sex, seizure frequency, general intelligence, and economic background. 1 In a second study undertaken with different techniques, patients, and collaborators, only one measure significantly differentiated a group of psychomotor epilepsy patients from subjects with "centrencephalic" grand and petit mal seizures. This test, a continuous performance task, indicated that the "centrencephalic" group performed less well than did the psychomotor patients. 2 Although our findings are consistent with those of the few other controlled studies that appear in the literature, 3-5 our conclusions, namely that the psychomotor epilepsies are not associated with an

166 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The disease which thus evokes these new and wonderful talents and operations of the mind may be compared to an earthquake which, by convulsing the upper strata of the authors' globe, throws upon its surface precious and splendid fossils.
Abstract: The disease which thus evokes these new and wonderful talents and operations of the mind may be compared to an earthquake which, by convulsing the upper strata of our globe, throws upon its surface precious and splendid fossils, the existence of which was unknown to the proprietors of the soil in which they were buried. 1 THIS PAPER is concerned with subjective experience in the early phases of some psychotic reactions and has been prepared with two problems in mind. First, in the experimental production of altered states of awareness in man, the most common source of information is the self-report; yet when data obtained in this way are compared to clinical conditions it becomes clear that we have very little comparable information from patients. As a result, when studies in experimental psychopathology are related to clinical states, comparisons may be confusing and can give rise

166 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The realm of human and animal psychology is poorly understood to the extent the authors are unable to relate sleep to the rest of the functions of the organism.
Abstract: REASONS why sleep occurs and is necessary are not understood. Various models are more notable by their obvious inadequacy than by their reconciliation of a wide variety of observations. Both apparent common sense and the considered judgment of authorities "hardly doubt the metabolic basis of the nervous exhaustion . . . which requires for its elimination the recovery processes of sleep."1Yet this explanation has no solid base of observation to support it. One could postulate a general principle of epistemology: that if a given realm contains an important element which cannot be consistently related to the remainder of the realm, then the realm is poorly understood. Applying this principle to the realm of human and animal psychology, we could say the realm is poorly understood to the extent we are unable to relate sleep to the rest of the functions of the organism. To the extent

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The relation of sleepwalking to the sleep-dream cycle directly is observed directly, by utilizing the rapid eye movement (REM) method of dream detection * and obtaining electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings throughout the night by means of special cables or a biotelemetry unit which allowed for subject mobility.
Abstract: A great perturbation in nature, to receive at once the benefit of sleep and do the effects of watching. In this slumbery agitation, besides her walking and her other actual performances, what, at any time, have you heard her say? — W. Shakespeare THE BEHAVIOR of somnambulists has led to a general belief that sleepwalking is the acting out of a dream. 1-3 In a previous study 4 we observed the relation of sleepwalking to the sleep-dream cycle directly, by utilizing the rapid eye movement (REM) method of dream detection * and obtaining electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings throughout the night by means of special cables or a biotelemetry unit which allowed for subject mobility. Nine subjects (seven male and two female) ages 9 to 23 years were studied for a total of 47 subject nights in our laboratory. Six of the subjects were children and three adults, age 16 years being

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Data from a 12-year follow-up of 100 New York addicts will be focused to illustrate those characteristics that may differentiate addiction from other psychiatric syndromes.
Abstract: IN THE PAST few years there have been four important books on urban narcotic addiction; these books have been comprehensive in scope and have offered a broad overview of the field. 1-4 As a group the books effectively review most of the known data about addiction; but in doing so they point up how little is known about the natural history of addicted individuals. In this paper, data from a 12-year follow-up of 100 New York addicts will be focused to illustrate those characteristics that may differentiate addiction from other psychiatric syndromes. The use of longitudinally gathered data permits the addict to be conceptualized simultaneously as a delinquent and as a psychologically disturbed individual. No attempt will be made to review all existing knowledge, but rather only selected facets of postwar urban heroin addiction will be discussed. The psychodynamics of addicts will be discussed only where the data suggest

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For instance, personality measures have been correlated with endurance (time) in isolation and various types of isolation responses, but it has been impossible to determine whether these personality variables are specifically related to reactions to perceptual isolation, or to the broader situation of social isolation and confinement as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: ALTHOUGH MANY studies 1 of the stress effects of perceptual isolation have been reported, only a few of these 2-4 have used control groups which would enable one to separate the effects of perceptual isolation from those due to confinement and social isolation. Despite the large variance obtained between subjects in such studies, only Leiderman 5 has attempted to use the subject as his own control. Likewise, personality measures have been correlated with endurance (time) in isolation and various types of isolation responses, 1 but it has been impossible to determine whether these personality variables are specifically related to reactions to perceptual isolation, or to the broader situation of social isolation and confinement. Furthermore, few of the reported personality relationships have been replicated. Among the response variables that have been employed, only three studies to date have attempted to assess endocrine function in relation

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An intensive study of all patients who dropped out of nine therapy groups in a university hospital outpatient clinic to define personality characteristics predictive of failure in group therapy and to employ these data to find a better procedure for assignment to group therapy.
Abstract: A SIGNIFICANT problem of outpatient group therapy is the typically high early attrition rate. Patients who prematurely terminate group therapy derive little, if any, benefit from their therapeutic experience and frequently hinder group progress. This article is based on an intensive study of all patients who dropped out of nine therapy groups in a university hospital outpatient clinic. Through this study we hoped to derive information pertinent both to the group selection procedure and to group therapeutic techniques. Specifically, we hoped to define personality characteristics predictive of failure in group therapy and to employ these data to find a better procedure for assignment to group therapy. Further, by studying the process of each group and the behavior of the therapist, we hoped to distinguish between therapy techniques which appear to foster premature termination and those which encourage remaining in the group. Review of Previous Studies Many reports based on clinical

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Interest in the evolution of behavior leads one naturally to the study of nonhuman primates, and surprisingly, little systematic information had been gathered with regard to man's close phylogenetic neighbors.
Abstract: While there has always been some scientific interest in nonhuman primate behavior as it occurs under natural conditions, the recent proliferation of research in this area certainly is remarkable. Without doubt, one salient factor which has initiated this trend has been the work of the European ethologists. Ethologists have stressed the importance of field as compared to laboratory studies of animal behavior, since they feel that only the former approach can illuminate the adaptive significance of diverse behaviors. It is this interest in adaptation, and concern with the role of evolution in the behavior of organisms which appears to be the core around which much of the current research is organized. Interest in the evolution of behavior leads one naturally to the study of nonhuman primates, and surprisingly, little systematic information had been gathered with regard to man's close phylogenetic neighbors. Within the

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the literature reveals that suicide attempts are frequently preceded by separation or threatened separation from important persons as discussed by the authors, and the vulnerability to separation in adult life is thought to be related to childhood separations.
Abstract: SUICIDE attempts are often associated with the actual or threatened loss of a loved person. Several investigators have studied the frequency of separation, that is, the disruption of a close interpersonal relationship, in the period preceding suicide or a suicide attempt. Dorpat and Ripley 1 found that 27% of a group who completed suicide had suffered the loss of a family member by death, separation, or divorce within one year prior to the suicide. In a study of suicide attempts, Moss and Hamilton 2 found that the death of someone close to the patient was an important precipitating factor in over 60% of the cases. A review of the literature reveals that suicide attempts are frequently preceded by separation or threatened separation from important persons. 3-7 The vulnerability to separation in adult life is thought to be related to childhood separations. A number of retrospective studies have shown

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Etiologic factors underlying serious psychiatric disturbance in children and adolescents have come to be based upon the view that an understanding of the processes resulting in the illness requires knowledge of the characteristics of the affected host equally with that of the environmental influences that are acting upon him.
Abstract: INCREASINGLY, efforts to define etiologic factors underlying serious psychiatric disturbance in children and adolescents have come to be based upon the view that an understanding of the processes resulting in the illness requires knowledge of the characteristics of the affected host equally with that of the environmental influences that are acting upon him. In general medicine this type of interaction is most frequently considered in relation to infectious disease and involves a delineation of the immunologic competence of the host together with the identification of the agent to which he has been exposed. In psychiatry our attention is similarly directed to the organism as a processor of his environment, as well as a responder to it. Moreover, since the nervous system is the organ of such processing, the role which primary dysfunction in this system may play in the etiology of serious mental illness has come to be a

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Among 275 servicemen who had undergone 112 hours of sleep deprivation, Tyler 6 saw a few instances of behavior resembling symptoms of acute schizophrenia, and Luby et al 7 reported a subject who developed a florid psychotic picture during the course of 220 hours of wakefulness which was completely reversed following 14 hours ofSleep.
Abstract: THE FIRST sleep deprivation study on man was carried out in 1896 by Patrick and Gilbert, 1 who kept three young adults awake for 90 hours. Visual hallucinations occurred in one subject. In the ensuing years, a number of studies have been done and a frequent finding has been the development of some kind of psychotic symptomatology. Perceptual illusions, transient hallucinatory episodes, and depersonalization are among the most commonly observed symptoms. 2-5 With longer durations of sleep deprivation, more severe disturbances have been reported. Among 275 servicemen who had undergone 112 hours of sleep deprivation, Tyler 6 saw a few instances of behavior resembling symptoms of acute schizophrenia. Luby et al 7 reported a subject who developed a florid psychotic picture during the course of 220 hours of wakefulness which was completely reversed following 14 hours of sleep. The effects of sleep deprivation ordinarily disappear when

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This is the report of a research inquiry into one of the important determinants of cohesiveness in therapy groups.
Abstract: OF THE many variables influencing the course of group therapy, one of the most salient is the cohesiveness of the group. This is the report of a research inquiry into one of the important determinants of cohesiveness in therapy groups. Cohesiveness in Small Groups Whatever their structure or function, all small groups may be described in terms of their cohesiveness, which has been defined as "the attraction of membership in a group for its members" 1 or "the resultant forces acting on members' stay in a group." 2 (p 74) In broadest terms cohesiveness refers to the solidarity or esprit de corps of a group. Because it so heavily influences group outcome, cohesiveness has been the subject of a vast amount of social psychological research. Such research has shown, for example, that highly cohesive groups are more productive. 2 (chap 8),3 The members of highly cohesive

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There are two different kinds of sleep, which, under ordinary circumstances, cyclically alternate throughout the night, and emergent stage 1 EEG is a low-voltage, fast, random pattern accompanied by intermittent bursts of rapid eye movements (REM).
Abstract: IN THE PAST ten years the work of Aserinsky, Kleitman, and Dement1-3has shown that by the EEG/EOG (electrooculogram) there are two different kinds of sleep, which, under ordinary circumstances, cyclically alternate throughout the night. One of these is emergent stage 1 EEG (a low-voltage, fast, random pattern) accompanied by intermittent bursts of rapid eye movements (REM). The second kind of sleep has no rapid eye movements (NREM) and is characterized electroencephalographically by 12-14 cps spindles without α-waves (stage 2) or with 3-6 cps α-waves (stages 3 and 4). In an ordinary night's sleep subjects begin with 1½ hours of NREM sleep which then gives way to about 10-15 minutes of REM sleep. A total of 3-7 cycles of alternating NREM and REM sleep compose a night's sleep, with REM sleep taking up progressively more of each cycle. In terms of mental activity

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examining the interaction through the eyes of the psychiatric consultant, in this case ten second- and third-year psychiatric residents, aims at achieving a firmer understanding of the influence that various subjective and objective factors exert upon the decision-making process in the general hospital emergency room.
Abstract: CHANGES IN physician and community attitudes over the past decade have been accompanied by a steady increase in the use of the general hospital emergency room for a wider range of problems. 1,2 These changes have stimulated research interest in the emergency service—an intrest shared by the psychiatrist. Studies concerning psychiatric care in the general hospital emergency room have delineated relevant sociocultural, personal, and diagnostic characteristics of the population. 3,6 As a result, a growing awareness of the complexity of the interaction between patient, family, and the psychiatric consultant has emerged. The end-point of the encounter, the disposition, reflects the influence of these multidetermined forces. By examining the interaction through the eyes of the psychiatric consultant, in this case ten second- and third-year psychiatric residents, the present study aims at achieving a firmer understanding of the influence that various subjective and objective factors exert upon the decision-making process in the

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Richard Lopez was born into a Spanish-speaking Mexican-American family and grew up in an impoverished neighborhood near Los Angeles and tried to enlist in the army but was rejected because the army doctor told him, "You might flip your lid," and he was rejected.
Abstract: Richard Lopez was born into a Spanish-speaking Mexican-American family and grew up in an impoverished neighborhood near Los Angeles. He graduated from high school in 1958 when he was 18, and tried to enlist in the army. An examining physician questioned him closely after he had answered "yes" to a question asking if he were exceptionally nervous. According to Richard, the army doctor told him in a loud voice in front of many other young men, "You might flip your lid," and he was rejected. Richard became very angry at the doctor but did and said nothing. Two months later he recounted the incident to a resident psychiatrist in a psychiatric clinic. He explained that he had been very nervous for a long time and that his hands and knees shook when he was with a girl or when someone near him would chew food

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The purpose of this paper is to examine the research design, if any, of the reports; the results; and the conclusions drawn from the results and believe that such an appraisal can be useful in planning future studies that will avoid the repetition of errors and direct efforts more fruitfully to elucidating unsolved problems.
Abstract: THERAPEUTIC abortion has become a subject of increasing concern for the psychiatrist in the United States. While the rate of therapeutic abortion has decreased over the last 30 years, there has been a marked increase in the relative proportion of psychiatric indications for therapeutic abortion. 1 Since therapeutic abortion raises problems that directly involve religious, political, social, and philosophical values, it is not surprising that the literature takes on the quality of a debate. The purpose of this paper is to examine: (1) the research design, if any, of the reports; (2) the results; and (3) the conclusions drawn from the results. It is our belief that such an appraisal can be useful in planning future studies that will avoid the repetition of errors and direct efforts more fruitfully to elucidating unsolved problems. The primary interest of this review is therapeutic abortion but

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors attempt to correlate mental illness with sociological and social-psychological concepts, and focus on the failure of Negroes to share in the American Dream, and their basic hypothesis is that the discrepancy between aspiration and achievement can be pathogenic.
Abstract: This is a difficult book to review for multiple reasons. The authors attempt to correlate mental illness with sociological and social-psychological concepts. The massive data they assembled and analyzed were geared to test specific hypotheses, and secondarily, attempt to identify some of the dependent intervening variables. The result is a study of impressive scope and detail which has importance to psychiatrists, psychologists, social planners at all levels of government, civil rights leaders, businessmen, and educators, to name only a few. The authors focus on the failure of Negroes to share in the American Dream. Their basic hypothesis is that the discrepancy between aspiration and achievement can be pathogenic. The subjects are part of a large group of Americans exposed to stimuli which inculcate the urge toward upward mobility, while the society remains closed to their attempts to achieve such goals. Because of their unique position in American society, the Negro

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For any sensory stimulus which occurs during sleep, there exists the following sequence of events: reception of stimulus by the appropriate sensory organ with Pathways to the reticular formation and the cerebral cortex, discriminative analysis of the stimulus for importance and content by the cerebralortex, and corticofugal impulses back to thereticular formation, which in turn may or may not evoke arousal.
Abstract: THAT THE human brain during sleep can perform tasks learned during the waking hours is indicated by the ability of man to discriminate various types of sounds during sleep. This ability of the sleeper to pay attention to the sounds about him, and select one sound from another requires discriminatory mechanisms of as great a magnitude as when the same individual is in the awake state. Thus, for any sensory stimulus which occurs during sleep, there exists the following sequence of events: reception of stimulus by the appropriate sensory organ with Pathways to the reticular formation and the cerebral cortex, discriminative analysis of the stimulus for importance and content by the cerebral cortex, and corticofugal impulses back to the reticular formation, which in turn may or may not evoke arousal. The arousal signs may be behavioral, autonomic, or electroencephalographic. Previous investigation by the authors using EEG techniques, showed that a

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce a general psychological audience to the psychological implications of information-processing concepts and computer simulation and what theories and theorists in this area are about, and present a very interesting subject of computer simulation of such human functions as cognition and thought.
Abstract: This book covers the very interesting subject of computer simulation of such human functions as cognition and thought. Its stated purpose is ". . . to introduce a general psychological audience to the psychological implications of information-processing concepts and computer simulation and to what theories and theorists in this area are about." At this it succeeds reasonably well, setting forth some background on the theoretical framework involved, and going on to somewhat more concrete discussion of specific information processing models such as the General Problem Solver (GPS) and Argus. There is an appendix on Information Processing Language-V (IPL-V). For the potential reader, it might be important to give some idea of whether this is a book for casual reading as an entertaining introduction to the field, or a book for serious study. Unfortunately —and I believe this is its major failing—it is neither. It requires a good deal of concentrated effort to follow,

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the earliest known treatise dealing with the complaint, the Kahun papyrus dating from about 1900 BC, it is attributed to starvation or displacement of the uterus as mentioned in this paper. But this theory is repeated by Hippocrates, Plato, Celsus, Arataeus, and Soranus.
Abstract: The name hysteria is derived from the Greek word hystera which means uterus. In the earliest known treatise dealing with the complaint—Kahun papyrus dating from about 1900 BC—it is attributed to starvation or displacement of the uterus. This theory is repeated by Hippocrates, Plato, Celsus, Arataeus, and Soranus. Galen of Pergamon (AD 129-99) denied the ability of the uterus to move about but agreed that the common factor in most cases was some uterine affection. But he recognized hysteria also in men which he attributed to sexual abstinence, hence to retention of sperm. Hysterical passion, he said, is just a name but varied and innumerable are the forms which it encompasses. This sexual theory held on through Augustine and throughout the Dark Ages until the 13th century, when it began to be replaced by the theory of demoniacal possession leading to treatment by exorcism and finally to torture

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is difficult to see how a subject can be greatly concerned about the consequences of his decision in a situation where he is asked, for example, to decide whether there are more black or more white balls in a container.
Abstract: THERE HAS been increasing concern within lay and scientific circles about how people proceed in making decisions. 2 A survey of the experimental literature 8 reveals that the majority of investigations have been carried out under somewhat artificial experimental conditions where the investment of the subject in the decision making process is questionable. Typically, subjects have been asked to participate in experiments which resemble game situations with monetary rewards provided for good performance. 5 However, it is difficult to see how a subject can be greatly concerned about the consequences of his decision in a situation where he is asked, for example, to decide whether there are more black or more white balls in a container. Studies in which the subject is engaging in a decision-making process which is not foreign to him and in which the rewards are personally and internally provided would therefore seem

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of input-output relationships for patient and nonpatient groups using flashes of light as discrete units of information found some defect in the ability to process information in a wide variety of psychiatric diseases which might be correlated with differences in the stimulus bound electrical activity of the brain.
Abstract: IT WAS postulated on the basis of recent investigations, 1-4 that there may be some defect in the ability to process information in a wide variety of psychiatric diseases which might be correlated with differences in the stimulus bound electrical activity of the brain. Exploratory studies in our laboratory justified further investigation in this area. 5 Input-output relationships were investigated for patient and nonpatient groups using flashes of light as discrete units of information. Methods Subjects .—The Nonpatient Control Group: This group consisted of 41 members of the professional and clerical staffs of St. Elizabeths Hospital and of the National Institutes of Health. All had normal electroencephalograms (EEG). Ages ranged from 20 to 60 years. The Patient Group: This group consisted of 71 patients from St. Elizabeths Hospital. New admissions to the William A. White Service were tested as a routine part of their admission evaluation. No