Asian-australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
About: Asian-australasian Journal of Animal Sciences is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Feed conversion ratio & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 1011-2367. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 6424 publications have been published receiving 81219 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Various processing variables are discussed which influence the textural properties of yogurts, such as total solids content, heat treatment, and incubation temperatures, which may allow manufacturers to improve the quality of yogurt.
Abstract: Yogurt gels are a type of soft solid, and these networks are relatively dynamic systems that are prone to structural rearrangements. The physical properties of yogurt gels can be qualitatively explained using a model for casein interactions that emphasizes a balance between attractive (e.g., hydrophobic attractions, casein cross-links contributed by calcium phosphate nanoclusters and covalent disulfide cross-links between caseins and denatured whey proteins) and repulsive (e.g., electrostatic or charge repulsions, mostly negative at the start of fermentation) forces. Various methods are discussed to investigate the physical and structural attributes of yogurts. Various processing variables are discussed which influence the textural properties of yogurts, such as total solids content, heat treatment, and incubation temperatures. A better understanding of factors contributing to the physical and structural attributes may allow manufacturers to improve the quality of yogurt.
TL;DR: Overall, dietary supplemention of CLA increased milk fat content of CLA, altered milk fatty acid composition and markedly reduced the content and yield of milk fat.
Abstract: Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have positive health effects in experimental animal models. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CLA supplementation on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows. A commercial source of CLA was infused abomasally to by-pass rumen fermentation. The supplement contained 61.2% CLA; the major CLA isomers were cis/tran 8, 10. cis/trans 9, 11, cis/trans 10, 12 and cis/trans 11, 13. Four Holstein cows were used in a 4x4 Latin square design. Treatment was 5-d infusion of 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/d of CLA supplement. Infusion increased CLA content of milk fat from 6.8 mg/g fat (zero dose) to 63.6 mg/g fat (highest dose). All of the major CLA isomers in the supplement were transferred to milk fat in a dose dependent manner. CLA infusion had no effect on milk protein and little effect on milk yield (p<0.001). However, CLA infusion dramatically reduced milk fat (p<0.001). On average, the content and yield of milk fat were reduced by 52 and 55%, respectively. The role of specific CLA isomers and mechanism(s) for the reduction in milk fat have not been established, although the pattern of milk fatty acids demonstrated effects were most pronounced on de novo fatty acid synthesis and the desaturation process. Overall, a dietary supplement of CLA increased CLA content of milk fat, altered milk fatty acid composition and markedly reduced the content and yield of milk fat.
TL;DR: Subclinical mastitis is always related to low milk production, changes to milk consistency (density), reduced possibility of adequate milk processing, low protein and high risk for milk hygiene since it may even contain pathogenic organisms.
Abstract: Mastitis is characterized by physical, chemical and bacteriological changes in the milk and pathological changes in the glandular tissue of the udder and affects the quality and quantity of milk. The bacterial contamination of milk from the affected cows render it unfit for human consumption and provides a mechanism of spread of diseases like tuberculosis, sore-throat, Q-fever, brucellosis, leptospirosis etc. and has zoonotic importance. Somatic cell count (SCC) is a useful predictor of intramammary infection (IMI) that includes leucocytes (75%) i.e. neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, erythrocytes and epithelial cells (25%). Leucocytes increase in response to bacterial infection, tissue injury and stress. Somatic cells are protective for the animal body and fight infectious organisms. An elevated SCC in milk has a negative influence on the quality of raw milk. Subclinical mastitis is always related to low milk production, changes to milk consistency (density), reduced possibility of adequate milk processing, low protein and high risk for milk hygiene since it may even contain pathogenic organisms. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. (
TL;DR: The composition and chemical structures of carbohydrates present in soybeans are presented and their nutritive and anti-nutritive effects on digestion and absorption of nutrients in pigs and poultry are discussed.
Abstract: Soybean contains a high concentration of carbohydrates that consist mainly of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides. The NSP can be divided into insoluble NSP (mainly cellulose) and soluble NSP (composed mainly of pectic polymers, which are partially soluble in water). Monogastric animals do not have the enzymes to hydrolyze these carbohydrates, and thus their digestion occurs by means of bacterial fermentation. The fermentation of soybean carbohydrates produces short chain fatty acids that can be used as an energy source by animals. The utilization efficiency of the carbohydrates is related to the chemical structure, the level of inclusion in the diet, species and age of the animal. In poultry, soluble NSP can increase digesta viscosity, reduce the digestibility of nutrients and depress growth performance. In growing pigs, these effects, in particular the effect on gut viscosity, are often not so obvious. However, in weaning piglets, it is reported that soy oligosaccharides and soluble NSP can cause detrimental effects on intestinal health. In monogastrics, consideration must be given to the anti-nutritive effect of the NSP on nutrient digestion and absorption on one hand, as well as the potential benefits or detriments of intestinal fermentation products to the host. This mirrors the needs for i) increasing efficiency of utilization of fibrous materials in monogastrics, and ii) the maintenance and improvement of animal health in antibiotic-free production systems, on the other hand. For example, ethanol/water extraction removes the low molecular weight carbohydrate fractions, such as the oligosaccharides and part of the soluble pectins, leaving behind the insoluble fraction of the NSP, which is devoid of anti-nutritive activities. The resultant product is a high quality soy protein concentrate. This paper presents the composition and chemical structures of carbohydrates present in soybeans and discusses their nutritive and anti-nutritive effects on digestion and absorption of nutrients in pigs and poultry.
TL;DR: This work has shown that natural products as manipulators of rumen fermentation are more effective than conventional probiotics in determining the outcome of fermentation.
Abstract: Wallace, R. J., McEwan, N. R., McIntosh, F. M., Teferedegne, B., Newbold, C. J. (2002). Natural products as manipulators of rumen fermentation. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 15 (10), 1458-1468.