Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry
About: Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Fermentation & Ascorbic acid. It has an ISSN identifier of 1906-3040. Over the lifetime, 240 publication(s) have been published receiving 2382 citation(s).
Abstract: Polyphenols have gained much interest recently due to its antioxidant capacity and possible benefits to human health such as anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherogenic, anti-ulcer, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, immune modulating, anti-microbial, vasodilatory and analgesic effects. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a rich source of polyphenols and reported having high antioxidant activity than teas and red wines. Cocoa and its derived products (cocoa powder, cocoa liquor and chocolates) contain varied polyphenol contents and possess different levels of antioxidant potentials. The polyphenols in cocoa beans contribute to about 12-18% of the dry weight of the whole bean. Main classes of polyphenolic compounds identified are such as simple phenols, benzoquinones, phenolic acids, acetophenones, phenylacetic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, phenylpropenes, coumarines, chromones, naphtoquinones, xanthones, stilbenes, anthraquinones, flavonoids, lignans and lignins. Three main groups of cocoa polyphenols can be distinguished namely the catechins (37%), anthocyanins (4%) and proanthocyanidins (58%). The main catechin is (-)-epicatechin with up to 35% of polyphenol content. Effects of processing could influence the polyphenols of cocoa and its products. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of some of the latest developments and studies reported for cocoa polyphenols and its contribution of this area for the betterment of human health.
Abstract: Abstract Four species of edible wild mushrooms and one cultivated mushroom were selected to investigate how extraction solvent (methanol, ethanol, acetone, water and hexane) affected the yield of phenolic substances, which were comprised of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF) and condensed tannins (CT). Results showed that water extracts exhibited the highest TP, followed by TF and CT of all edible wild and cultivated mushrooms. TP was chosen as an indicator in response to extraction time (60, 150, 240, 330 and 420 min) and temperature (25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 ̊C) with water as extraction solvent.
Abstract: Chemical composition and functional properties of proteins extracted from adzuki, navy and red kidney beans were investigated. Protein contents were 17.33, 18.15 and 19.91% for red kidney, navy and adzuki beans, respectively. Red kidney bean exhibited the highest carbohydrates content, while the highest fat, ash and crude fibre content was found in navy bean. The highest trypsin inhibitory activity was found in adzuki bean. Globulin polypeptides (molecular weight ranges 45-55 kDa) were the major polypeptides in both whole protein and protein isolate. Protein isolate from all seeds contained at least one major glycopeptide, while more than two major glycopeptides were observed in the whole proteins. The minimum protein solubility of isolated proteins from all seeds was at around pH of 4-5. High foamability and foam stability were obtained in red kidney and navy beans when compared with those of adzuki bean. The highest oil absorption was found in adzuki bean, while no significant differences for water absorption between adzuki and red kidney beans was observed (p>0.05). Red kidney bean showed lower emulsifying activity as well as stability when compared with the other two beans.
Abstract: Paperboard is commonly used for distribution and sales packaging of bakery products. Typical bakery products have unique flavour characteristics that could be impaired by volatile antimicrobial compounds contained in the packaging material resulting in unacceptable product quality. This study investigated the antimicrobial effects of vanillin solutions for coating paperboard intended for packaging bakery products. Three coating solutions were evaluated: vanillin/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25% (w/w)), vanillin/ethyl alcohol (10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25% (w/w)) and vanillin/chitosan (10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.3125 % (w/w)). The inhibitory effects of all coating solutions were investigated against three types of common pathogens and food spoilage bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus using the agar well diffusion method. Significant inhibitory effects for all bacteria were observed for all coating solutions. For vanillin/DMSO and vanillin/alcohol, the inhibition was more effective over Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus respectively with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 2.5%. Furthermore, the MIC for vanillin/chitosan coating solution was 5% (w/w) for both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However, the MIC of vanillin/chitosan for Bacillus cereus was only 0.625% (w/w). For vanillin/chitosan, MICs for certain bacteria might depend on the inhibitory effectiveness and amount of vanillin and chitosan in the coating solution.
TL;DR: Foliar disease resistant induction of Trichoderma spp.
Abstract: The efficiency of Trichoderma spp. in inducing acquired systemic disease resistance in tomato was conducted. Systemic induce resistant reaction was evaluated on chitinolytic and β-1,3glucanolytic activities produced by tomato plant (Sida cultivar) including disease severity of bacterial and gray leaf spot. Fifteen isolates of Trichoderma spp., T1, T9, T10, T13, T14, T17, T18, T19, T20, T24, T25, T30, T35, 90 and 103 were inoculated in soil of tomato potted plants. Tomato leaves were collected on 0, 5, 8, 11 and 14 days of interval after inoculation. Crude enzymes were extracted from leaf samples and determined for chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities. High chitinase activity was detected from Trichoderma isolates in descending order, T1, T9, T13, T18 and T18. For β-1,3-glucanase activities, The isolates T9, T13, T14 and T17 induced to tomato plant in this enzyme activity ranking from high to low, compared to uninoculated plants. Foliar disease resistant induction of Trichoderma spp. was tested under screened house condition. The Trichoderma isolate T9 (T. harzianum), T13 (T. asperellum), T17 (T. asperellum) and T18 (T. asperellum) were evaluated by cultivation in sterilized sorghum grains and inoculated in tomato pot plants. The test plants were inoculated with As. J. Food Ag-Ind. 2009, Special Issue, S99-S104 100 bacterial suspension of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (XCV). The result showed that T. harzianum (T9) induced resistance with the best reduction spot numbers (69.32 %.). Other isolates T13, T17 and T18 showed reduction in bacterial spot numbers of 34.66%, 37.41% and 44.77%, respectively. On Stemphylium gray leaf spot, these 4 isolates of Trichoderma spp. reduced number of spots in parenthesis as followed, T18 (19.23%), T9 (7.52%), T13 (3.8%) and T17 (3.69%). Trichoderma spp. are shown to have potential in inducing resistant of bacterial spot and gray leaf spot of tomato which varies among the range of isolates evaluated.
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