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Showing papers in "Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology in 1973"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Binet-Simon test has been used to assess the intelligence of offenders in the U.S. as discussed by the authors, finding that 50 per cent of Offenders had been diagnosed as feeble-minded in the period 1910-1914, whereas only 2% had been'so classified in the 1925-1928 period.
Abstract: IN THE second decade of this century it was thought on both sides of the Atlantic that a major cause of crime was the low intelligence of ottenders. In England in 1913, C; B. Goring wrote: \"The one vital mental constitutional factor in the etiology of crime is defective intelligence\"; and Goring thought the more often a man was convicted the less intelligent he was likely to be (Hibbert, 1963). In America in 1919 H. H. Goddard wrote: \"It is no longer to be denied that the greatest single cause of delinquency and crime is low-grade mentality, much of it within the limits of' feeble-mindedness\" (Schulman, 1951). It was the advent of the Binet-Simon tests which made comparative studies of intelligence possible. Goddard, who introduced them into America, reported in 1912 that 25 per cent of the offenders tested performed in the reeble-mtnded range, but within two years this ngure had increased to 50 per cent (Halleck, 1968). And according to Brown and Courtless (1967) some studies in the first two decades of the century claimed that up to 100 per cent of offenders were retarded. Criticism of the tendency to see criminality as caused by, or highly correlated with, defective intelligence followed the standardisation of intelligence tests with army recruits in World War I and a growing awareness of the errors and inadequacies in test construction and administration. By 1924 Murchison was able to point to three major weaknesses of earlier studies, namely, an inadequate definition of retardation, over-estimation of the intellectual level of the population in general, and a lack of recognition of the importance of socio-cultural factors. Sutherland (1931) summarised the results of a survey in which all accessible reports relating to the intellectual level of the U.S. offenders were studied; the reports totalled 350 and covered assessments of approximately 150,000 delinquents and criminals in the period 1910 to 1928. He found that 50 per cent of Offenders had been diagnosed as feeble-minded in the period 1910-1914, whereas only 2{) per cent had been'so classified in the 1925-1928 period. The survey did not demonstrate that feeblemindedness was a major cause of delinquency. The variation in results was interpreted by Sutherland in terms of q.ifferences in methods and scoring employed by testers rather than as a change in the intellectual abilities of offenders. Studies by Burt (1925), Healy and Bronner (1926), Glueck and Glueck (1930, 1934, 1934a)\"McClure (1933), and Merrill (1947) reported respectively _8.1, 13.5, 20.6, 13.1, 34.1 (women), 27.4 (21.8 boys, 32.9 girls) and 23 per cent of the offenders studiedto be mentally defective.

9 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A recital of racial offending figures taken from 1971 figures Magistrates' Courts: Arrest Cases Convictions only (Table I). Prison and borstal figures are also shown (Table II) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: This section is followed by a recital of racial offending figures taken from 1971 figures Magistrates' Courts: Arrest Cases Convictions only (Table I). Prison and borstal figures are also shown (Table II). These tables of raw figures are followed by three tables in which the oft'ences are grouped in the traditional way person, property and miscellaneous, expressed in raw figures and as rates of offending for total non-Maori and for Maori. Rates for other Polynesian groups have not been calculated because the numbers are too small to be significant. ·Only in the offences of vagrancy and drunkenness does the group from outside New Zealand surpass the Maori in raw figures.

6 citations





Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bartholomew and Badger as mentioned in this paper argued that between groups research is necessary for meaningful conclusions to be drawn from therapy, and that the only way of evaluating therapy is in terms of an external criterion such as recidivism rate.
Abstract: SIR, It was most encouraging to read Bartholomew and Badger's article in this Journal (Mar. 1973; 6, 1, p. 47-54) as evaluation of results is too often neglected by clinicians. However, the authors seemed to be unaware of some recent trends in evaluating psychological data that make some of their comments largely superfluous. In particular, two assumptions were made that seem to deserve some comment. First, that it is necessary to conduct between groups research for meaningful conclusions to be drawn from therapy, and second, that the only way of evaluating therapy is in terms of an external criterion such as recidivism rate.

3 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a post-hoc operational analysis of officer control procedures was carried out and it was found that there were inconsistencies between officers with regard to what behaviours should be encouraged and encouraged.
Abstract: A POST-HOC OPERANT analysis of officer control procedures was undertaken. Findings indicated that there were inconsistencies between officers with regard to what behaviours should be encouraged and...


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors discusses the conditions which make prison strikes possible and invokes a general theory of strike action to account for the prevalence of prison strikes, focusing on a particular successful prison work stoppage in Massachusetts and analyzes both the extent to which it was organized and the nature of its leverage.
Abstract: This paper is concerned with the phenomenon of the prison work stoppage. It discusses the conditions which make prison strikes possible and invokes a general theory of strike action to account for the prevalence of prison strikes. In addition, it focusses on a particular, successful prison work stoppage in Massachusetts and analyzes both the extent to which it was organized and the nature of its leverage.




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it has been argued that once adolescents are labelled as delinquent, they are systematically rejected by the social order, and they should develop antagonism towards the criminal justice system, increased tolerance for proscribed activities, and shortsighted hedonism.
Abstract: It has been argued that once adolescents are labelled as delinquent, they are systematically rejected by the social order. Thus they should develop antagonism towards the criminal justice system, increased tolerance for proscribed activities, and short-sighted hedonism. These assertions were formulated as null hypotheses, and a comparison of the attitudes of delinquents and non-delinquents, through semantic differential technique, resulted in failure to accept the null hypotheses. Thus, the existence of the predicted attitudes were verified empirically, but it was pointed out that their origins must be confirmed through longitudinal research.