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Showing papers in "Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology in 1984"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposition that the public will be likely to accept a reduction in the use of imprisonment as a penalty for property offenders if these offenders are required to make restitution was tested by as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The proposition that the public will be likely to accept a reduction in the use of imprisonment as a penalty for property offenders if these offenders are required to make restitution was tested through the use of simultaneously conducted surveys of two random samples of 1200 persons each drawn from the New Zealand electoral rolls. Both the control and experimental (restitution) groups were presented with six crime incidents describing serious property crimes, were asked to indicate if imprisonment or some other penalty was selected, were permitted to indicate one or more penalties from descriptive statements representing fine, probation, community service sentence, and non-residential periodic detention; the restitution group was permitted to include restitution as a non-custodial penalty. Response rates of 76% for the control group and 80% for the restitution group were achieved from postal questionnaires. For all six crime incidents higher proportions of the control than restitution group recommended i...

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The early development of policing in Scotland is discussed in this article, focusing on the forces giving rise to the conditions under which the institution of police could emerge, and how the penetration of capitalist relations into Scotland made policing an attractive urban and rural possibility.
Abstract: This article, which is in two parts, addresses a much neglected topic — the early development of policing in Scotland. In Part I, the remarkably early growth of Scottish policing was mapped out, and the way in which some distinctive features of the term's earliest usage carried over into the nineteenth century police form was examined. Analytical emphasis in the first part of the article was upon the forces giving rise to the conditions under which the institution of police could emerge, how the penetration of capitalist relations into Scotland made policing an attractive urban and rural possibility. An attempt was also made to break through the explanatory nihilism of some recent historians who perceive so much local diversity and uneveness in the history of policing and criminal justice during the nineteenth century that they are driven effectively to abandon all overarching structural explanation. Instead of surrendering to the temptations of descriptive empiricism implicit in such elevation of diversi...

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors suggest that fear of crime has two components: group membership and social support, which affect general levels of anxiety and hence fear (of crime and of other things).
Abstract: Fear of crime is discussed in relation to various concomitants. This article suggests that fear of crime has two components. One is related to group membership and social support. These affect general levels of anxiety and hence fear (of crime and of other things). The second relates to likelihood of victimization. Thus the fear of crime of, for example, elderly persons may be greater than that of younger persons, despite lower victimization. At the same time two elderly samples may report a level of fear directly related to different victimization experience.This model is discussed with the use of some Australian data on fear of crime in relation to victimization and general psychological distress of Australian women. It is suggested that small differences in fear of crime between married and never married women despite higher victimization rates of the former, are a result of higher levels of distress among the latter, which largely “cancel out” the effect of victimization.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Through the rapid modern growth of private security as a form of internal policing, and the preference of many large organizations for handling problems "internally" which might previously have previously have been handled by external authorities, this paper pointed out the need for "internal" policing.
Abstract: Through the rapid modern growth of private security as a form of “internal” policing, and the preference of many large organizations for handling problems “internally” which might previously have b...

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the extent of prison officers' role in maintaining custodial control may be an important variable affecting their attitudes towards disciplinary authority, inmates, and non-custodial staff.
Abstract: Research reported in a previous paper (Williams, 1983) suggests that the extent of prison officers' role in maintaining custodial control may be an important variable affecting their attitudes towards disciplinary authority, inmates, and non-custodial staff. This implies that officers working in institutions with different levels of custodial confinement may also vary in their attitudes towards these dimensions. An analysis of responses from officers in prison institutions suggests that attitudes between institutional types do vary significantly. The analysis identified differences between the maximum security prison and non-maximum security prisons, while “treatment institutions” did not appear to be significantly different. However, officers in the female institution appear to hold quite distinctive role orientations and attitudes.

12 citations





Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Barrington et al. as discussed by the authors examined and reformulated policies related to the care and control of those people who are convicted in the criminal courts, and proposed three different Probation Orders, a Supervision Order, a Treatment Order, and a Community Care Order, to give effect to these changes.
Abstract: On 4 February 1981 the New Zealand Minister of Justice approved the establishment of the Penal Policy Review Committee' (PPRC) because of the recognition of a growing disquiet over the amount of crime occurring in the community and the apparent ineffectiveness of the present remedies. The report of the PPRC represents a major attempt to examine and reformulate policies related to the care and control of those people who are convicted in the criminal courts. The extent to which the report will influence such policies has yet to be determined but the Minister of Justice clearly indicated that it was necessary for widespread public debate to take place so that the final legislation will have broad public support. Although the report was released on 2 February 1982 the public debate appears to have been confined to an article in the New Zealand Listener (Ray, 1982) a series of smaller articles in the New Zealand Law Journal (Barrington, 1982; Hicks, 1982; Stace, 1982; Young, 1982) and a number of newspaper articles (eg, Hodder, 1982). The articles to date have examined the principles involved in the proposed changes and have expressed opinions about their effectiveness. Public opinion does not appear to have been assessed in any way and no realistic indication of the favourability with which New Zealanders at large will respond is, therefore, currently available. For this reason, the present authors took an opportunity to obtain a measure of some relevant attitudes of a group of young, able and probably relatively liberal New Zealanders towards some of the concepts and issues featured in the proposals, which might be expected to provide a realistic prediction of behaviour. The major recommendations of the committee include the reduction of the number of persons in prison, a consequently greater emphasis on community based sentences and a restructuring of the role of the Probation Service. Two aspects of this role change are scrutinized in the present paper: firstly, the move away from the traditional social work role of probation officers, and secondly, the use of volunteers to take over some part of their helping activities. It is envisaged in the report that three different Probation Orders, a Supervision Order, a Treatment Order, and a Community Care Order, may be handed down by the courts to give effect to these changes. The Supervision Order is designed to provide surveillance and control of the offender in the community by the probation officer. The Treatment Order is designed to force offenders into seeking help which is to be provided by such organizations as the residential drug rehabilitation centre, \"Odyssey House\". The Community Care Order is designed to use community groups and individual volunteers to help in the guidance of offenders.

3 citations