Showing papers in "Autophagy in 2016"
Daniel J. Klionsky1, Kotb Abdelmohsen2, Akihisa Abe3, Joynal Abedin4 +2519 more•Institutions (695)
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract: In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that autophagy contributes to ferroptosis by degradation of ferritin in fibroblasts and cancer cells by knocking out or knockdown of Atg5 and Atg7, which provides novel insight into the interplay between Autophagy and regulated cell death.
Abstract: Macroautophagy/autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved degradation pathway that maintains homeostasis. Ferroptosis, a novel form of regulated cell death, is characterized by a production of reactive oxygen species from accumulated iron and lipid peroxidation. However, the relationship between autophagy and ferroptosis at the genetic level remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that autophagy contributes to ferroptosis by degradation of ferritin in fibroblasts and cancer cells. Knockout or knockdown of Atg5 (autophagy-related 5) and Atg7 limited erastin-induced ferroptosis with decreased intracellular ferrous iron levels, and lipid peroxidation. Remarkably, NCOA4 (nuclear receptor coactivator 4) was a selective cargo receptor for the selective autophagic turnover of ferritin (namely ferritinophagy) in ferroptosis. Consistently, genetic inhibition of NCOA4 inhibited ferritin degradation and suppressed ferroptosis. In contrast, overexpression of NCOA4 increased ferritin degradation and promoted ferr...
TL;DR: The crosstalk between autophagy and inflammation is focused on as an emerging field with major implications for understanding the host defense on the one hand, and for the pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated diseases on the other hand.
Abstract: Autophagy and inflammation are 2 fundamental biological processes involved in both physiological and pathological conditions. Through its crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, autophagy is involved in modulation of cell metabolism, cell survival, and host defense. Defective autophagy is associated with pathological conditions such as cancer, autoimmune disease, neurodegenerative disease, and senescence. Inflammation represents a crucial line of defense against microorganisms and other pathogens, and there is increasing evidence that autophagy has important effects on the induction and modulation of the inflammatory reaction; understanding the balance between these 2 processes may point to important possibilities for therapeutic targeting. This review focuses on the crosstalk between autophagy and inflammation as an emerging field with major implications for understanding the host defense on the one hand, and for the pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated diseases on the other hand.
TL;DR: Respirometry reveals that the constituents of these newly established mitochondrial networks are better primed for OXPHOS and are more tightly coupled than those in myoblasts, which highlights the integral role of autophagy and mitophagy in myogenic differentiation.
Abstract: Myogenesis is a crucial process governing skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. Differentiation of primitive myoblasts into mature myotubes requires a metabolic switch to support the increased energetic demand of contractile muscle. Skeletal myoblasts specifically shift from a highly glycolytic state to relying predominantly on oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) upon differentiation. We have found that this phenomenon requires dramatic remodeling of the mitochondrial network involving both mitochondrial clearance and biogenesis. During early myogenic differentiation, autophagy is robustly upregulated and this coincides with DNM1L/DRP1 (dynamin 1-like)-mediated fragmentation and subsequent removal of mitochondria via SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1)-mediated mitophagy. Mitochondria are then repopulated via PPARGC1A/PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha)-mediated biogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1 [autosomal dominant]) is then briskly upregulated, resulting in the reformation of mitochondrial networks. The final product is a myotube replete with new mitochondria. Respirometry reveals that the constituents of these newly established mitochondrial networks are better primed for OXPHOS and are more tightly coupled than those in myoblasts. Additionally, we have found that suppressing autophagy with various inhibitors during differentiation interferes with myogenic differentiation. Together these data highlight the integral role of autophagy and mitophagy in myogenic differentiation.
TL;DR: It is shown that NFE2L2 modulates autophagy gene expression and suggests a new strategy to combat proteinopathies.
Abstract: Autophagy is a highly coordinated process that is controlled at several levels including transcriptional regulation. Here, we identify the transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) as a regulator of autophagy gene expression and its relevance in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD) that reproduces impaired APP (amyloid β precursor protein) and human (Hs)MAPT/TAU processing, clearance and aggregation. We screened the chromatin immunoprecipitation database ENCODE for 2 proteins, MAFK and BACH1, that bind the NFE2L2-regulated enhancer antioxidant response element (ARE). Using a script generated from the JASPAR's consensus ARE sequence, we identified 27 putative AREs in 16 autophagy-related genes. Twelve of these sequences were validated as NFE2L2 regulated AREs in 9 autophagy genes by additional ChIP assays and quantitative RT-PCR on human and mouse cells after NFE2L2 activation with sulforaphane. Mouse embryo fibroblasts of nfe2l2-knockout mice exhibited reduced expres...
TL;DR: The data suggest that FUNDC1 regulates both mitochondrial fission or fusion and mitophagy and mediates the “coupling” across the double membrane for mitochondrial dynamics and quality control.
Abstract: Mitochondrial fragmentation due to imbalanced fission and fusion of mitochondria is a prerequisite for mitophagy, however, the exact “coupling” of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy remains unclear. We have previously identified that FUNDC1 recruits MAP1LC3B/LC3B (LC3) through its LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif to initiate mitophagy in mammalian cells. Here, we show that FUNDC1 interacts with both DNM1L/DRP1 and OPA1 to coordinate mitochondrial fission or fusion and mitophagy. OPA1 interacted with FUNDC1 via its Lys70 (K70) residue, and mutation of K70 to Ala (A), but not to Arg (R), abolished the interaction and promoted mitochondrial fission and mitophagy. Mitochondrial stress such as selenite or FCCP treatment caused the disassembly of the FUNDC1-OPA1 complex while enhancing DNM1L recruitment to the mitochondria. Furthermore, we observed that dephosphorylation of FUNDC1 under stress conditions promotes the dissociation of FUNDC1 from OPA1 and association with DNM1L. Our data suggest that ...
TL;DR: A key molecular event is defined for the starvation-induced activation of the ATG14-containing PtdIns3K complex by ULK1, and hierarchical relations between the ULK 1 activation and other autophagy proteins involved in phagophore formation are demonstrated.
Abstract: ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1), the key mediator of MTORC1 signaling to autophagy, regulates early stages of autophagosome formation in response to starvation or MTORC1 inhibition. How ULK1 regulates the autophagy induction process remains elusive. Here, we identify that ATG13, a binding partner of ULK1, mediates interaction of ULK1 with the ATG14-containing PIK3C3/VPS34 complex, the key machinery for initiation of autophagosome formation. The interaction enables ULK1 to phosphorylate ATG14 in a manner dependent upon autophagy inducing conditions, such as nutrient starvation or MTORC1 inhibition. The ATG14 phosphorylation mimics nutrient deprivation through stimulating the kinase activity of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex and facilitates phagophore and autophagosome formation. By monitoring the ATG14 phosphorylation, we determined that the ULK1 activity requires BECN1/Beclin 1 but not the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-conjugation machinery and the PIK3C3 kinase activity. Monitoring the phosphorylation also allowed us to identify that ATG9A is required to suppress the ULK1 activity under nutrient-enriched conditions. Furthermore, we determined that ATG14 phosphorylation depends on ULK1 and dietary conditions in vivo. These results define a key molecular event for the starvation-induced activation of the ATG14-containing PtdIns3K complex by ULK1, and demonstrate hierarchical relations between the ULK1 activation and other autophagy proteins involved in phagophore formation.
TL;DR: It is proposed that sustained induction of autophagy in the face of progressively declining lysosomal clearance of substrates explains the uncommonly robust autophagic pathology and neuritic dystrophy implicated in AD pathogenesis.
Abstract: Defective autophagy contributes to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis although evidence is conflicting on whether multiple stages are impaired. Here, for the first time, we have comprehensively evaluated the entire autophagic process specifically in CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus from early and late-stage AD subjects and nondemented controls. CA1 neurons aspirated by laser capture microdissection were analyzed using a custom-designed microarray comprising 578 neuropathology- and neuroscience-associated genes. Striking upregulation of autophagy-related genes, exceeding that of other gene ontology groups, reflected increases in autophagosome formation and lysosomal biogenesis beginning at early AD stages. Upregulated autophagosome formation was further indicated by elevated gene and protein expression levels for autophagosome components and increased LC3-positive puncta. Increased lysosomal biogenesis was evidenced by activation of MiTF/TFE family transcriptional regulators, particularly TFE3 (transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3) and by elevated expression of their target genes and encoded proteins. Notably, TFEB (transcription factor EB) activation was associated more strongly with glia than neurons. These findings establish that autophagic sequestration is both competent and upregulated in AD. Autophagosome-lysosome fusion is not evidently altered. Despite this early disease response, however, autophagy flux is progressively impeded due to deficient substrate clearance, as reflected by autolysosomal accumulation of LC3-II and SQSTM1/p62 and expansion of autolysosomal size and total area. We propose that sustained induction of autophagy in the face of progressively declining lysosomal clearance of substrates explains the uncommonly robust autophagic pathology and neuritic dystrophy implicated in AD pathogenesis.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that increased mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in regulation of HCC cell survival, which provides a strong evidence for this process as drug target in HCC treatment.
Abstract: Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically remodeled by fusion and fission in cells, and dysregulation of this process is closely implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial dynamics influence cancer cell survival is considerably less clear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we systematically investigated the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics and its functional role in the regulation of autophagy and HCC cell survival. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic application were explored in depth. Mitochondrial fission was frequently upregulated in HCC tissues mainly due to an elevated expression ratio of DNM1L to MFN1, which significantly contributed to poor prognosis of HCC patients. Increased mitochondrial fission by forced expression of DNM1L or knockdown of MFN1 promoted the survival of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo mainly by facilitating autophagy and inhibiting mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. We further demonstrated that the survival-promoting role of increased mitochondrial fission was mediated via elevated ROS production and subsequent activation of AKT, which facilitated MDM2-mediated TP53 degradation, and NFKBIA- and IKK-mediated transcriptional activity of NFKB in HCC cells. Also, a crosstalk between TP53 and NFKB pathways was involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fission-mediated cell survival. Moreover, treatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 significantly suppressed tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft nude mice model. Our findings demonstrate that increased mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in regulation of HCC cell survival, which provides a strong evidence for this process as drug target in HCC treatment.
TL;DR: It is determined that TFEB and TFE3 collaborate with each other in activated macrophages and microglia to promote efficient autophagy induction, increased lysosomal biogenesis, and transcriptional upregulation of numerous proinflammatory cytokines.
Abstract: The activation of transcription factors is critical to ensure an effective defense against pathogens In this study we identify a critical and complementary role of the transcription factors TFEB and TFE3 in innate immune response By using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology, and in vivo models, we determined that TFEB and TFE3 collaborate with each other in activated macrophages and microglia to promote efficient autophagy induction, increased lysosomal biogenesis, and transcriptional upregulation of numerous proinflammatory cytokines Furthermore, secretion of key mediators of the inflammatory response (CSF2, IL1B, IL2, and IL27), macrophage differentiation (CSF1), and macrophage infiltration and migration to sites of inflammation (CCL2) was significantly reduced in TFEB and TFE3 deficient cells These new insights provide us with a deeper understanding of the transcriptional regulation of the innate immune response
TL;DR: This review highlights recent advances in the field on the role of ER stress and autophagy in AD, prion diseases, PD, ALS and HAND with the involvement of key signaling pathways in these processes and implications for future development of therapeutic strategies.
Abstract: The common underlying feature of most neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD), prion diseases, Parkinson disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves accumulation of misfolded proteins leading to initiation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and stimulation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Additionally, ER stress more recently has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Autophagy plays an essential role in the clearance of aggregated toxic proteins and degradation of the damaged organelles. There is evidence that autophagy ameliorates ER stress by eliminating accumulated misfolded proteins. Both abnormal UPR and impaired autophagy have been implicated as a causative mechanism in the development of various neurodegenerative diseases. This review highlights recent advances in the field on the role of ER stress and autophagy in AD, prion diseases, PD, ALS and HAND with the involvement of key signaling pathways in these processes and implications for future development of therapeutic strategies.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that SESN2 (sestrin 2), known as stress-inducible protein, suppresses prolonged NLRP3 inflammasome activation by clearance of damaged mitochondria through inducing mitophagy in macrophages, defining a unique regulatory mechanism of mitophagic activation for immunological homeostasis that protects the host from sepsis.
Abstract: Proper regulation of mitophagy for mitochondrial homeostasis is important in various inflammatory diseases. However, the precise mechanisms by which mitophagy is activated to regulate inflammatory ...
TL;DR: Significant roles of autophagy in regulation of inflammation and mucus hyperproduction induced by PM containing environmentally persistent free radicals in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and in mouse airways are demonstrated.
Abstract: Environmental ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is capable of inducing airway injury, while the detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here, we demonstrate pivotal roles of autophagy in regulation of inflammation and mucus hyperproduction induced by PM containing environmentally persistent free radicals in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and in mouse airways. PM was endocytosed by HBE cells and simultaneously triggered autophagosomes, which then engulfed the invading particles to form amphisomes and subsequent autolysosomes. Genetic blockage of autophagy markedly reduced PM-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, e.g. IL8 and IL6, and MUC5AC in HBE cells. Mice with impaired autophagy due to knockdown of autophagy-related gene Becn1 or Lc3b displayed significantly reduced airway inflammation and mucus hyperproduction in response to PM exposure in vivo. Interference of the autophagic flux by lysosomal inhibition resulted in accumulated autophagosomes/amphisomes, and intriguingly, this process significantly aggravated the IL8 production through NFKB1, and markedly attenuated MUC5AC expression via activator protein 1. These data indicate that autophagy is required for PM-induced airway epithelial injury, and that inhibition of autophagy exerts therapeutic benefits for PM-induced airway inflammation and mucus hyperproduction, although they are differentially orchestrated by the autophagic flux.
TL;DR: It is suggested that persistent activation of autophagy in kidney proximal tubules promotes renal interstitial fibrosis during UUO.
Abstract: Renal fibrosis is the final, common pathway of end-stage renal disease. Whether and how autophagy contributes to renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here we first detected persistent autophagy in kidney proximal tubules in the renal fibrosis model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in mice. UUO-associated fibrosis was suppressed by pharmacological inhibitors of autophagy and also by kidney proximal tubule-specific knockout of autophagy-related 7 (PT-Atg7 KO). Consistently, proliferation and activation of fibroblasts, as indicated by the expression of ACTA2/α-smooth muscle actin and VIM (vimentin), was inhibited in PT-Atg7 KO mice, so was the accumulation of extracellular matrix components including FN1 (fibronectin 1) and collagen fibrils. Tubular atrophy, apoptosis, nephron loss, and interstitial macrophage infiltration were all inhibited in these mice. Moreover, these mice showed a specific suppression of the expression of a profibrotic factor FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor 2). In vitro, TGFB1 (transforming growth factor β 1) induced autophagy, apoptosis, and FN1 accumulation in primary proximal tubular cells. Inhibition of autophagy suppressed FN1 accumulation and apoptosis, while enhancement of autophagy increased TGFB1-induced-cell death. These results suggest that persistent activation of autophagy in kidney proximal tubules promotes renal interstitial fibrosis during UUO. The profibrotic function of autophagy is related to the regulation on tubular cell death, interstitial inflammation, and the production of profibrotic factors.
TL;DR: Findings reveal that selective neuronal deletion of Atg7 is strongly protective against neuronal death and overall brain injury occurring after HI and suggest that inhibition of HI-enhanced autophagy should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human newborns developing severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
Abstract: Perinatal asphyxia induces neuronal cell death and brain injury, and is often associated with irreversible neurological deficits in children. There is an urgent need to elucidate the neuronal death mechanisms occurring after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We here investigated the selective neuronal deletion of the Atg7 (autophagy related 7) gene on neuronal cell death and brain injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Neuronal deletion of Atg7 prevented HI-induced autophagy, resulted in 42% decrease of tissue loss compared to wild-type mice after the insult, and reduced cell death in multiple brain regions, including apoptosis, as shown by decreased caspase-dependent and -independent cell death. Moreover, we investigated the lentiform nucleus of human newborns who died after severe perinatal asphyxia and found increased neuronal autophagy after severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy compared to control uninjured brains, as indicated by the numbers of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3)-, LAMP1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1)-, and CTSD (cathepsin D)-positive cells. These findings reveal that selective neuronal deletion of Atg7 is strongly protective against neuronal death and overall brain injury occurring after HI and suggest that inhibition of HI-enhanced autophagy should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human newborns developing severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.
TL;DR: It is reported that phosphorylation of PLin2 is dependent on AMPK and occurs after the interaction of PLIN2 with the CMA chaperone HSPA8/Hsc70, highlighting a role for posttranslational modifications in priming proteins to be amenable for degradation by CMA.
Abstract: Lipids stored in lipid droplets are hydrolyzed via either cytosolic lipases or a selective form of macroautophagy known as lipophagy. We recently demonstrated that chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is required for the initiation of lipolysis by either of these independent lipolytic pathways. CMA selectively degrades the lipid droplet proteins perilipins (PLIN) 2 and 3 from the lipid droplet surface, thus, facilitating the recruitment of cytosolic lipases and autophagy effector proteins to the lipid droplets. PLIN2 phosphorylation was observed upon induction of lipolysis, but the phosphorylating kinase and the relation of this phosphorylation with CMA of PLIN2 remained unknown. Here, we report that phosphorylation of PLIN2 is dependent on AMPK and occurs after the interaction of PLIN2 with the CMA chaperone HSPA8/Hsc70. Our results highlight a role for posttranslational modifications in priming proteins to be amenable for degradation by CMA.
TL;DR: It is shown that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates autophagy by phosphorylating BECN1 at Thr388, uncovering a novel mechanism of Autophagy regulation.
Abstract: Macroautophagy/autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that recycles cytoplasmic material during low energy conditions. BECN1/Beclin1 (Beclin 1, autophagy related) is an essential protein for function of the class 3 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complexes that play a key role in autophagy nucleation and elongation. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates autophagy by phosphorylating BECN1 at Thr388. Phosphorylation of BECN1 is required for autophagy upon glucose withdrawal. BECN1(T388A), a phosphorylation defective mutant, suppresses autophagy through decreasing the interaction between PIK3C3 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3) and ATG14 (autophagy-related 14). The BECN1(T388A) mutant has a higher affinity for BCL2 than its wild-type counterpart; the mutant is more prone to dimer formation. Conversely, a BECN1 phosphorylation mimic mutant, T388D, has stronger binding to PIK3C3 and ATG14, and promotes higher autophagy activity than the wild-type control. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of autophagy regulation.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) acidic nanoparticles (aNP) restore impaired lysosomal function in a series of toxin and genetic cellular models of PD, i.e. ATP13A2-mutant or depleted cells or glucocerebrosidase (GBA)-mutant cells, as well as in a genetic model of lysOSomal-related myopathy.
Abstract: Lysosomal impairment causes lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) and is involved in pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, notably Parkinson disease (PD). Strategies enhancing or restoring lysosomal-mediated degradation thus appear as tantalizing disease-modifying therapeutics. Here we demonstrate that poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) acidic nanoparticles (aNP) restore impaired lysosomal function in a series of toxin and genetic cellular models of PD, i.e. ATP13A2-mutant or depleted cells or glucocerebrosidase (GBA)-mutant cells, as well as in a genetic model of lysosomal-related myopathy. We show that PLGA-aNP are transported to the lysosome within 24 h, lower lysosomal pH and rescue chloroquine (CQ)-induced toxicity. Re-acidification of defective lysosomes following PLGA-aNP treatment restores lysosomal function in different pathological contexts. Finally, our results show that PLGA-aNP may be detected after intracerebral injection in neurons and attenuate PD-related neurodegeneration in v...
TL;DR: It is hypothesized that MAM raft-like microdomains could be pivotal in the initial organelle scrambling activity that finally leads to the formation of autophagosome.
Abstract: Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) are subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that interact with mitochondria. This membrane scrambling between ER and mitochondria appears to play a critical role in the earliest steps of autophagy. Recently, lipid microdomains, i.e. lipid rafts, have been identified as further actors of the autophagic process. In the present work, a series of biochemical and molecular analyses has been carried out in human fibroblasts with the specific aim of characterizing lipid rafts in MAMs and to decipher their possible implication in the autophagosome formation. In fact, the presence of lipid microdomains in MAMs has been detected and, in these structures, a molecular interaction of the ganglioside GD3, a paradigmatic "brick" of lipid rafts, with core-initiator proteins of autophagy, such as AMBRA1 and WIPI1, was revealed. This association seems thus to take place in the early phases of autophagic process in which MAMs have been hypothesized to play a key role. The functional activity of GD3 was suggested by the experiments carried out by knocking down ST8SIA1 gene expression, i.e., the synthase that leads to the ganglioside formation. This experimental condition results in fact in the impairment of the ER-mitochondria crosstalk and the subsequent hindering of autophagosome nucleation. We thus hypothesize that MAM raft-like microdomains could be pivotal in the initial organelle scrambling activity that finally leads to the formation of autophagosome.
TL;DR: This recent study revealed distinctive roles of selective Autophagy and general autophagy in the regulation of senescence, at least in part resolving apparently contradictory reports regarding the relationship between these 2 important homeostatic stress responses.
Abstract: Autophagy and cellular senescence are stress responses essential for homeostasis. While recent studies indicate a genetic relationship between autophagy and senescence, whether autophagy acts positively or negatively on senescence is still subject to debate. Although autophagy was originally recognized as a nonspecific lysosomal degradation pathway (general autophagy), increasing evidence supports a selective form of autophagy that mediates the degradation of specific targets (selective autophagy). Our recent study revealed distinctive roles of selective autophagy and general autophagy in the regulation of senescence, at least in part resolving apparently contradictory reports regarding the relationship between these 2 important homeostatic stress responses.
TL;DR: Nuclear localization of SQSTM1 and its association with DDF increase with aging and are prevented by life-span-extending dietary restriction, suggesting that an imbalance in the mechanism identified here may contribute to aging and age-related diseases.
Abstract: SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) selectively targets polyubiquitinated proteins for degradation via macroautophagy and the proteasome. Additionally, SQSTM1 shuttles between the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, although its role in the nucleus is relatively unknown. Here, we report that SQSTM1 dynamically associates with DNA damage foci (DDF) and regulates DNA repair. Upon induction of DNA damage SQSTM1 interacts with FLNA (filamin A), which has previously been shown to recruit DNA repair protein RAD51 (RAD51 recombinase) to double-strand breaks and facilitate homologous recombination (HR). SQSTM1 promotes proteasomal degradation of FLNA and RAD51 within the nucleus, resulting in reduced levels of nuclear RAD51 and slower DNA repair. SQSTM1 regulates the ratio between HR and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) by promoting the latter at the expense of the former. This SQSTM1-dependent mechanism mediates the effect of macroautophagy on DNA repair. Moreover, nuclear localization of SQSTM1 and its association with DDF increase with aging and are prevented by life-span-extending dietary restriction, suggesting that an imbalance in the mechanism identified here may contribute to aging and age-related diseases.
TL;DR: Results demonstrate that activation of MTOR in the epithelium promotes LPS-induced ALI, likely through downregulation of autophagy and the subsequent activation of NFKB, and may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing ALI induced by certain bacteria.
Abstract: MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]) plays a crucial role in many major cellular processes including metabolism, proliferation and macroautophagy/autophagy induction, and is also implicated in a growing number of proliferative and metabolic diseases. Both MTOR and autophagy have been suggested to be involved in lung disorders, however, little is known about the role of MTOR and autophagy in pulmonary epithelium in the context of acute lung injury (ALI). In the present study, we observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation induced MTOR phosphorylation and decreased the expression of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β)-II, a hallmark of autophagy, in mouse lung epithelium and in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The activation of MTOR in HBE cells was mediated by TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4) signaling. Genetic knockdown of MTOR or overexpression of autophagy-related proteins significantly attenuated, whereas inhibition of autophagy ...
TL;DR: Curcumin derivative C1 is identified as a novel MTOR-independent activator of TFEB, which enhances autophagy and lysosome biogenesis in vitro and in vivo and is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
Abstract: Autophagy dysfunction is a common feature in neurodegenerative disorders characterized by accumulation of toxic protein aggregates. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, can ameliorate neurotoxicity and rescue neurodegeneration in animal models. Currently known TFEB activators are mainly inhibitors of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase]), which, as a master regulator of cell growth and metabolism, is involved in a wide range of biological functions. Thus, the identification of TFEB modulators acting without inhibiting the MTOR pathway would be preferred and probably less deleterious to cells. In this study, a synthesized curcumin derivative termed C1 is identified as a novel MTOR-independent activator of TFEB. Compound C1 specifically binds to TFEB at the N terminus and promotes TFEB nuclear translocation without inhibiting MTOR activity. By activating TFEB, C1 enhances autophagy and lysosome biogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, compound C1 is an orally effective activator of TFEB and is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
TL;DR: Atg5-mediated autophagy in proximal epithelial cells is a critical host-defense mechanism that prevents renal fibrosis by blocking G2/M arrest, suggesting the regulation of cell cycle progression by ATG5 is Autophagy dependent.
Abstract: Macroautophagy/autophagy protects against cellular stress. Renal sublethal injury-triggered tubular epithelial cell cycle arrest at G2/M is associated with interstitial fibrosis. However, the role of autophagy in renal fibrosis is elusive. Here, we hypothesized that autophagy activity in tubular epithelial cells is pivotal for inhibition of cell cycle G2/M arrest and subsequent fibrogenic response. In both renal epithelial cells stimulated by angiotensin II (AGT II) and the murine kidney after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO), we observed that occurrence of autophagy preceded increased production of COL1 (collagen, type I). Pharmacological enhancement of autophagy by rapamycin suppressed COL1 accumulation and renal fibrosis. In contrast, genetic ablation of autophagy by proximal tubular epithelial cell-specific deletion of Atg5, with reduction of the LC3-II protein level and degradation of SQSTM1/p62, showed marked cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, robust COL1 deposition, and severe interstitial fibrosis in a UUO model, as compared with wild-type mice. In vitro, AGT II exposure triggered autophagy preferentially in the G1/S phase, and increased COL1 expression in the G2/M phase in renal epithelial cells. Stimulation of Atg5-deficient primary proximal tubular cells with AGT II also resulted in elevated G2/M arrest and COL1 production. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy increased AGT II-mediated G2/M arrest. Enhanced expression of ATG5, but not the autophagy-deficient ATG5 mutant K130R, rescued the G2/M arrest, suggesting the regulation of cell cycle progression by ATG5 is autophagy dependent. In conclusion, Atg5-mediated autophagy in proximal epithelial cells is a critical host-defense mechanism that prevents renal fibrosis by blocking G2/M arrest.
TL;DR: It is shown that although representing a conservative substitution and predicted to be benign, the ALS-associated L341V mutation of SQSTM1 is defective in recognition of LC3B, a key protein-protein interaction in autophagy which could expose a vulnerability over the lifetime of a neuron, which ultimately tips the balance from cell survival toward cell death.
Abstract: Growing evidence implicates impairment of autophagy as a candidate pathogenic mechanism in the spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders which includes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (ALS-FTLD). SQSTM1, which encodes the autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62, is genetically associated with ALS-FTLD, although to date autophagy-relevant functional defects in disease-associated variants have not been described. A key protein-protein interaction in autophagy is the recognition of a lipid-anchored form of LC3 (LC3-II) within the phagophore membrane by SQSTM1, mediated through its LC3-interacting region (LIR), and notably some ALS-FTLD mutations map to this region. Here we show that although representing a conservative substitution and predicted to be benign, the ALS-associated L341V mutation of SQSTM1 is defective in recognition of LC3B. We place our observations on a firm quantitative footing by showing the L341V-mutant LIR is associated with a ∼3-fold reduction in LC3B binding affinity and using protein NMR we rationalize the structural basis for the effect. This functional deficit is realized in motor neuron-like cells, with the L341V mutant EGFP-mCherry-SQSTM1 less readily incorporated into acidic autophagic vesicles than the wild type. Our data supports a model in which the L341V mutation limits the critical step of SQSTM1 recruitment to the phagophore. The oligomeric nature of SQSTM1, which presents multiple LIRs to template growth of the phagophore, potentially gives rise to avidity effects which amplify the relatively modest impact of any single mutation on LC3B binding. Over the lifetime of a neuron, impaired autophagy could expose a vulnerability, which ultimately tips the balance from cell survival toward cell death.
TL;DR: It is indicated that autophagy is essential for airway mucus secretion in a type 2, IL13-dependent immune disease process and thereby provide a novel therapeutic strategy for attenuating airway obstruction in hypersecretory inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis lung disease.
Abstract: Cytokine modulation of autophagy is increasingly recognized in disease pathogenesis, and current concepts suggest that type 1 cytokines activate autophagy, whereas type 2 cytokines are inhibitory. However, this paradigm derives primarily from studies of immune cells and is poorly characterized in tissue cells, including sentinel epithelial cells that regulate the immune response. In particular, the type 2 cytokine IL13 (interleukin 13) drives the formation of airway goblet cells that secrete excess mucus as a characteristic feature of airway disease, but whether this process is influenced by autophagy was undefined. Here we use a mouse model of airway disease in which IL33 (interleukin 33) stimulation leads to IL13-dependent formation of airway goblet cells as tracked by levels of mucin MUC5AC (mucin 5AC, oligomeric mucus/gel forming), and we show that these cells manifest a block in mucus secretion in autophagy gene Atg16l1-deficient mice compared to wild-type control mice. Similarly, primary-culture human tracheal epithelial cells treated with IL13 to stimulate mucus formation also exhibit a block in MUC5AC secretion in cells depleted of autophagy gene ATG5 (autophagy-related 5) or ATG14 (autophagy-related 14) compared to nondepleted control cells. Our findings indicate that autophagy is essential for airway mucus secretion in a type 2, IL13-dependent immune disease process and thereby provide a novel therapeutic strategy for attenuating airway obstruction in hypersecretory inflammatory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cystic fibrosis lung disease. Taken together, these observations suggest that the regulation of autophagy by Th2 cytokines is cell-context dependent.
TL;DR: It is reported that PSMD10/gankyrin promotes autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in response to starvation or stress through 2 complementary routes, and this results present a novel mechanism involving modulation of ATG7 by PS MD10 in sustainingAutophagy, promoting HCC cell survival against starvation or chemotherapy.
Abstract: Although autophagy is most critical for survival of cancer cells, especially in fast-growing tumors, the mechanism remains to be fully characterized Herein we report that PSMD10/gankyrin promotes autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in response to starvation or stress through 2 complementary routes PSMD10 was physically associated with ATG7 in the cytoplasm, and this association was enhanced by initial nutrient deprivation Subsequently, PSMD10 translocated into the nucleus and bound cooperatively with nuclear HSF1 (heat shock transcription factor 1) onto the ATG7 promoter, upregulated ATG7 expression in the advanced stage of starvation Intriguingly, the type of PSMD10-mediated autophagy was independent of the proteasome system, although PSMD10 has been believed to be an indispensable chaperone for assembly of the 26S proteasome A significant correlation between PSMD10 expression and ATG7 levels was detected in human HCC biopsies, and the combination of these 2 parameters is a powerful
TL;DR: It is shown that THC (but not nutrient deprivation) increases the dihydroceramide:ceramide ratio in the endoplasmic reticulum of glioma cells, and this alteration is directed to autophagosomes and autolysosomes to promote lysosomal membrane permeabilization, cathepsin release and the subsequent activation of apoptotic cell death.
Abstract: Autophagy is considered primarily a cell survival process, although it can also lead to cell death. However, the factors that dictate the shift between these 2 opposite outcomes remain largely unknown. In this work, we used Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main active component of marijuana, a compound that triggers autophagy-mediated cancer cell death) and nutrient deprivation (an autophagic stimulus that triggers cytoprotective autophagy) to investigate the precise molecular mechanisms responsible for the activation of cytotoxic autophagy in cancer cells. By using a wide array of experimental approaches we show that THC (but not nutrient deprivation) increases the dihydroceramide:ceramide ratio in the endoplasmic reticulum of glioma cells, and this alteration is directed to autophagosomes and autolysosomes to promote lysosomal membrane permeabilization, cathepsin release and the subsequent activation of apoptotic cell death. These findings pave the way to clarify the regulatory mechanisms that determine the selective activation of autophagy-mediated cancer cell death.
TL;DR: The iLIR database is developed, listing all the putative canonical LIRCPs identified in silico in the proteomes of 8 model organisms using the iL IR server, and a curated text-mining analysis of the literature permitted us to identify novel putative LICRPs in mammals that have not been associated with autophagy.
Abstract: Atg8-family proteins are the best-studied proteins of the core autophagic machinery. They are essential for the elongation and closure of the phagophore into a proper autophagosome. Moreover, Atg8-family proteins are associated with the phagophore from the initiation of the autophagic process to, or just prior to, the fusion between autophagosomes with lysosomes. In addition to their implication in autophagosome biogenesis, they are crucial for selective autophagy through their ability to interact with selective autophagy receptor proteins necessary for the specific targeting of substrates for autophagic degradation. In the past few years it has been revealed that Atg8-interacting proteins include not only receptors but also components of the core autophagic machinery, proteins associated with vesicles and their transport, and specific proteins that are selectively degraded by autophagy. Atg8-interacting proteins contain a short linear LC3-interacting region/LC3 recognition sequence/Atg8-interacting motif (LIR/LRS/AIM) motif which is responsible for their interaction with Atg8-family proteins. These proteins are referred to as LIR-containing proteins (LIRCPs). So far, many experimental efforts have been carried out to identify new LIRCPs, leading to the characterization of some of them in the past 10 years. Given the need for the identification of LIRCPs in various organisms, we developed the iLIR database ( https://ilir.warwick.ac.uk ) as a freely available web resource, listing all the putative canonical LIRCPs identified in silico in the proteomes of 8 model organisms using the iLIR server, combined with a Gene Ontology (GO) term analysis. Additionally, a curated text-mining analysis of the literature permitted us to identify novel putative LICRPs in mammals that have not previously been associated with autophagy.
TL;DR: Combined analysis of LC3B puncta and HMGB1 expression allowed for improved stratification of patients with respect to the characteristics of their immune infiltrate as well as overall and metastasis-free survival.
Abstract: Several cell-intrinsic alterations have poor prognostic features in human breast cancer, as exemplified by the absence of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 β)-positive puncta in the cytoplasm (which indicates reduced autophagic flux) or the loss of nuclear HMGB1 expression by malignant cells. It is well established that breast cancer is under strong immunosurveillance, as reflected by the fact that scarce infiltration of the malignant lesion by CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes or comparatively dense infiltration by immunosuppressive cell types (such as FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells or CD68(+) tumor-associated macrophages), resulting in low CD8(+):FOXP3(+) or CD8(+):CD68(+) ratios, has a negative prognostic impact. Here, we reveal the surprising finding that cell-intrinsic features may influence the composition of the immune infiltrate in human breast cancer. Thus, the absence of LC3B puncta is correlated with intratumoral (but not peritumoral) infiltration by fewer CD8(+) cells and more FOXP3(+) or CD68(+) cells, resulting in a major drop in the CD8(+):FOXP3(+) or CD8(+):CD68(+) ratios. Moreover, absence of HMGB1 expression in nuclei correlated with a general drop in all immune effectors, in particular FOXP3(+) and CD68(+) cells, both within the tumor and close to it. Combined analysis of LC3B puncta and HMGB1 expression allowed for improved stratification of patients with respect to the characteristics of their immune infiltrate as well as overall and metastasis-free survival. It can be speculated that blocked autophagy in, or HMGB1 loss from, cancer cells may favor tumor progression due to their negative impact on anticancer immunosurveillance.