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Showing papers in "Baghdad Science Journal in 2023"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a ranking function for z-numbers called Momentum Ranking Function (MRF) has been proposed for game-theoretic problems where the payoff matrix elements are znumbers.
Abstract: After Zadeh introduced the concept of z-number scientists in various fields have shown keen interest in applying this concept in various applications. In applications of z-numbers, to compare two z-numbers, a ranking procedure is essential. While a few ranking functions have been already proposed in the literature there is a need to evolve some more good ranking functions. In this paper, a novel ranking function for z-numbers is proposed- "the Momentum Ranking Function"(MRF). Also, game theoretic problems where the payoff matrix elements are z-numbers are considered and the application of the momentum ranking function in such problems is demonstrated.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors analyzed the ecological risk assessment of potential mercury (including bioaccumulation and translocation) using indicators of species distribution, clustering, zonation and interpolation of mercury accumulation.
Abstract: Ecological risk assessment of mercury contaminant has a means to analyze the ecological risk aspect of ecosystem using the potential impact of mercury pollution in soil, water and organism. The ecological risk assessment in a coastal area can be shown by mangrove zonation, clustering and interpolation of mercury accumulation. This research aims to analyze ecological risk assessment of potential mercury (including bioaccumulation and translocation) using indicators of species distribution, clustering, zonation and interpolation of mercury accumulation. The results showed that the Segara Anakan had a high risk of mercury pollution, using indicators like as the potential of mercury contaminant in water body was 0137±0.0137 ppm, substrate and sediment were 0.0134±0.0212 ppm. To reduce the impact of mercury pollution could be conducted by mangrove planting, following the ability of mercury accumulation in stem and bark between 0.011 and 0.064 ppm, in mangrove roots between 0.0260 and 0.0690 ppm and in mangrove leaves between 0.0020 and 0.0120 ppm,. The second indicator of mangrove ability to reduce the impact of mercury contaminant used the indicator of bioaccumulation factors, which had a range between 0.0210 and 0.4751, and the translocation factors were between 0.0459 and 1.0547. The results also showed that: Avicennia marina, Sonneratia alba, Rhizophora apiculate, Rhizophora mucronata and Nypa frutican had a good ability to accumulate and reduce the impact of mercury contamination.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a convolutional neural network (CNN) model for feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM) for classification of axial lung CT-scans were proposed.
Abstract: In the current worldwide health crisis produced by coronavirus disease (COVID-19), researchers and medical specialists began looking for new ways to tackle the epidemic. According to recent studies, Machine Learning (ML) has been effectively deployed in the health sector. Medical imaging sources (radiography and computed tomography) have aided in the development of artificial intelligence(AI) strategies to tackle the coronavirus outbreak. As a result, a classical machine learning approach for coronavirus detection from Computerized Tomography (CT) images was developed. In this study, the convolutional neural network (CNN) model for feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM) for the classification of axial lung CT-scans into two groups (COVID-19 and NonCOVID-19) had been proposed. A dataset used is 960 slices of CT scan collected from Iraqi patients /Ibn Al-Nafis teaching hospital. The performance metrics are used in this study (accuracy, recall, precision, and F1 scores). The results indicate that the proposed approach generated a high-quality model for the collected dataset, with an overall accuracy of 98.95% and an overall recall of 97 %.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the quotient energy of identity graphs and zero-divisor graphs of commutative rings using group theory, graph theory, and applications is examined. And the identity graphs derived from the group and a few classes of zero-DIVISOR graphs of R are examined.
Abstract: Consider the (p,q) simple connected graph . The sum absolute values of the spectrum of quotient matrix of a graph make up the graph's quotient energy. The objective of this study is to examine the quotient energy of identity graphs and zero-divisor graphs of commutative rings using group theory, graph theory, and applications. In this study, the identity graphs derived from the group and a few classes of zero-divisor graphs of the commutative ring R are examined.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , an enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor using a sided polished structure for the detection of toxic ions Arsenic in water was designed and implemented.
Abstract: In this work, an enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber (PCF) based on Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor using a sided polished structure for the detection of toxic ions Arsenic in water was designed and implemented. The SPR curve can be obtained by polishing the side of the PCF after coating the Au film on the side of the polished area, the SPR curve can be obtained. The proposed sensor has a clear SPR effect, according to the findings of the experiments. The estimated signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), sensitivity (S), resolution (R), and Figures of merit (FOM) are approaching; the SNR is 0.0125, S is 11.11 μm/RIU, the resolution is 1.8x〖10〗^(-4), and the FOM is 13.88 for Single-mode Fiber- Photonic Crystal Fiber- single mode Fiber (SMF-PCF-SMF). While the effective performance parameters for Multi-Mode Fiber- Photonic Crystal Fiber- Multi-Mode Fiber (MMF-PCF-MMF) such as the sensitivity is approaching 9.5 μm/RIU, SNR is 0.0173, FOM is10.86 and the resolution is 4x〖10〗^(-4) is achieved. The concentrations were calculated practically and theoretically for each of the sensors, and it was found that the practical concentrations that were obtained are close or equal to the concentrations that were theoretically obtained through the dilution law, where the concentrations were obtained 0.096, 0.15, 0.26, 0.38, 0.49 practically and 0.1, 0.2 and 0 3, 0.4 and 0.5 theoretically For SMF-PCF-SMS, concentrations of 0.089, 0.16, 0.23, 0.34, and 0.45 were practically obtained, and 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 theoretically for MMF-PCF-MMF. The suggested sensor has a strong mechanical structure, low cost, and easy fabrication, allowing it to provide a greater measurement range and action area to the measured samples without lengthening the sensor.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , an explicit finite difference scheme for time fractional sub diffusion bio heat transfer equation by using caputo fabrizio fractional derivative was developed and also discussed conditional stability and convergence of developed scheme.
Abstract: In this paper, author’s study sub diffusion bio heat transfer model and developed explicit finite difference scheme for time fractional sub diffusion bio heat transfer equation by using caputo fabrizio fractional derivative. Also discussed conditional stability and convergence of developed scheme. Furthermore numerical solution of time fractional sub diffusion bio heat transfer equation is obtained and it is represented graphically by Python.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The discussion in this article gives several theorems and lemmas on the Sums of Squares of ǫ-consecutive Carol Numbers by using the definition of carol numbers and mathematical induction method.
Abstract: The discussion in this paper gives several theorems and lemmas on the Sums of Squares of consecutive Carol Numbers. These theorems are proved by using the definition of carol numbers and mathematical induction method. Here the matrix form and the recursive form of sum of squares of consecutive Carol numbers is also given. The properties of the Carol numbers are also derived.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , left derivations and generalized left derivation in near-rings have been defined, and the commutativity of the 3-prime near-ring which involves some algebraic identities on generalized left derives has been studied.
Abstract: In this paper, new concepts which are called: left derivations and generalized left derivations in nearrings have been defined. Furthermore, the commutativity of the 3-prime near-ring which involves some algebraic identities on generalized left derivation has been studied.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a 1D CNN has been proposed as an alternative for the classification of ASD detection and evaluated on publicly available three different ASD datasets (children, adults, and adolescents) with higher accuracy of 99.45%, 98.66%, and 90% for Autistic Spectrum Disorder Screening in Data for Adults, Children, and Adolescents respectively.
Abstract: Autism Spectrum Disorder, also known as ASD, is a neurodevelopmental disease that impairs speech, social interaction, and behavior. Machine learning is a field of artificial intelligence that focuses on creating algorithms that can learn patterns and make ASD classification based on input data. The results of using machine learning algorithms to categorize ASD have been inconsistent. More research is needed to improve the accuracy of the classification of ASD. To address this, deep learning such as 1D CNN has been proposed as an alternative for the classification of ASD detection. The proposed techniques are evaluated on publicly available three different ASD datasets (children, Adults, and adolescents). Results strongly suggest that 1D CNNs have shown improved accuracy in the classification of ASD compared to traditional machine learning algorithms, on all these datasets with higher accuracy of 99.45%, 98.66%, and 90% for Autistic Spectrum Disorder Screening in Data for Adults, Children, and Adolescents respectively as they are better suited for the analysis of time series data commonly used in the diagnosis of this disorder

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a new validated sensitive RP-HPLC coupled with a mass detector method was developed for the determination of dapagliflozin, its alpha isomer, and starting material in the presence of major degradation products and an internal standard.
Abstract: Dapagliflozin is a novel sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitor. This work aims to develop a new validated sensitive RP-HPLC coupled with a mass detector method for the determination of dapagliflozin, its alpha isomer, and starting material in the presence of dapagliflozin major degradation products and an internal standard (empagliflozin). The separation was achieved on BDS Hypersil column (length of 250mm, internal diameter of 4.6 mm and 5-μm particle size) at a temperature of 35℃. Water and acetonitrile were used as mobile phase A and B by gradient mode at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. A wavelength of 224nm was selected to perform detection using a photo diode array detector. The method met the requirement of the International Conference on Harmonisation for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) for validation. The molecular weight of impurities and degradation products was estimated using positive ESI-MS. Fifteen impurities were detected during the analysis of dapagliflozin APIs and the brand Farxiga ® and some generic products. Three of fifteen detected impurities (H, J and K) exceeded the impurities acceptable limits 0.1%. Those impurities were isolated using new preparative chromatography then characterized using elemental analysis, FTIR and NMR.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a Co-polymer (Styrene / Allyl-2.3.4.6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) was synthesized from glucose in four steps using addition polymerization according to the radical mechanism using Benzoyl Peroxide (BP) as initiator.
Abstract: In this research, a Co-polymer (Styrene / Allyl-2.3.4.6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) was synthesized from glucose in four steps using Addition Polymerization according to the radical mechanism using Benzoyl Peroxide (BP) as initiator. Initially, Allyl-2.3.4.6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside monomer was prepared in three steps and the reaction was followed by (HPLC, FT-IR, TLC), in the fourth step the monomer was polymerized with Styrene and the structure was determined by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. The reaction conditions (temperature, reaction time, material ratios) were also studied to obtain the highest yield, the relative, specific and reduced viscosity of the prepared polymer was determined, from which the viscosity average molecular weight was calculated, which amounted to about (63,000 g/mol). Thermal properties of the polymer were studied by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and determining the Oxidation Induction Time (OIT).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the exact value of the corona domination number for some specific types of graphs are given and some results on the Corona domination numbers for some classes of graphs were obtained.
Abstract: In this work, the study of corona domination in graphs is carried over which was initially proposed by G. Mahadevan et al. Let be a simple graph. A dominating set S of a graph is said to be a corona-dominating set if every vertex in is either a pendant vertex or a support vertex. The minimum cardinality among all corona-dominating sets is called the corona-domination number and is denoted by (i.e) . In this work, the exact value of the corona domination number for some specific types of graphs are given. Also, some results on the corona domination number for some classes of graphs are obtained and the method used in this paper is a well-known number theory concept with some modification this method can also be applied to obtain the results on other domination parameters.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors evaluated the serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-17 and IL-22 in Helicobacter pylori infection and their association with the degree of gastritis histopathology.
Abstract: Gastritis can be defined as histological inflammation of the gastric mucosa. It can be classified according to the time course of the disease as acute or chronic, histological findings, anatomic location, and pathological mechanisms. The objective of this study was to evaluation of serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, IL-17 and IL-22 in Helicobacter pylori infection and their association with the degree of gastritis histopathology in a sample of Iraqi patients. The case-control prospective study consists of 60 patients who attended the Gastrointestinal Tract Center at Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital during the period from December 2019 to April 2020. In addition, the control group included 60 apparently healthy individuals. Biopsies from the gastric antrum and/or body mucosa were used to assess the severity of chronic inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia. Serum samples were obtained to determine H. pylori infection, circulating interleukin (IL)-8, IL-17, and IL-22. Results showed that the Patients’ ages with gastritis ranged from 18-75 years. The body mass index revealed that 33.33% of the patients were obese and 35% of them were overweight. Most of the patients with active chronic gastritis and superficial chronic gastritis had positive titers for anti-H. pylori IgG antibody (167.89 ± 3.18 IU/ml) and (150.74± 1.45 IU/ml) respectively, which was significantly different from the control group (4.36 ± 0.29 IU/ml) (P=0.0001). Histopathological analysis showed that all subjects experienced chronic inflammation, while neutrophil infiltration was found 36.66% and there was significant association between serum levels of IL-8, IL-17, and IL-22 with a degree of chronic inflammation and neutrophils infiltration. In conclusion, the most common cause of gastritis was H. pylori with histopathological lesions, showing neutrophils infiltration and chronic gastric mucosal inflammation associated with increased levels of IL-8, IL-17, and IL-22 in serum.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the concentration of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb (in mg/kg) in the rice samples before and after soaking was 0.655, 0.410, 0, 170, 0., 0.5, 40.2%, 27.9%, 61.6% and 31.3% respectively.
Abstract: Heavy metal (HM) pollution has long been a significant source of environmental deterioration and a problem for the safety of food. Iraqis prefer rice over any other food, and since heavy metals have a direct impact on health, their traces in rice have drawn particular attention. Before cooking rice, it is usual in Iraq to wash and soak it. Some 55 varieties of imported and local rice were sampled from Erbil city markets in 2022 with the aim of determining the concentration of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb before and after soaking. Standard procedure of acid digestions was applied on the raw and soaked samples. The solutions were analyzed using ICPE-9820 Shimadzu. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb (in mg/kg) in the rice samples before soaking was 0.655, 0.170, 0.160, 0.387, 0.489, respectively and after soaking 0.421, 0.109, 0.115, 0.124 and 0.336, respectively. The concentration of As and Pb was found to be beyond the optimum level of 0.2 mg/kg codex standards for rice; whereas Cd and Cr were within the proposed level of codex standards. Moreover, local rice showed higher concentration of (Cd and Cr), whereas (AS and Pb) concentration in imported rice was higher. Further, results validated that rice soaking can decrease levels of As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb (32.5%, 40.2%, 27.9%, 61.6% and 31.3%, respectively). These findings suggest that soaking as a kitchen practice has efficiency to evaporate metals and has a great influence on the reduction of toxic heavy metals and thus reduces exposure to toxic metals in rice

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the results showed that women with osteopenia have significantly low levels of testosterone as compared to control, the correlation analysis using postmenopausal women as a model showed a significant reversed correlation between testosterone and T score.
Abstract: There is substantial data supporting the importance of both endogenous and exogenous estrogen in maintaining reproductive health and preventing chronic disease, androgens in women's health are rarely discussed. This is one of the first researches to investigate correlates of blood testosterone concentrations in women with osteopenia, in anticipation of the growing interest in the role of androgens in women's health. A 65 volunteer women were enrolled in the current study, they were divided into two groups, 35 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were in the first group, and the second group contained 30 postmenopausal women without osteopenia as a control. Blood samples were collected from all participants and analyzed for testosterone level, also demographic data were collected. The results showed that women with osteopenia have significantly low levels of testosterone as compared to control, the correlation analysis using postmenopausal women with osteopenia as a model showed a significant reversed correlation between testosterone and T score. Cluster analysis results illustrated that T-Score, testosterone and, duration of the postmenopausal were organized in one cluster, which means the three variables were associated with each other in most of the studied cases. The second cluster included t-score, testosterone and, BMI. Whereas the age factor contributed to the third cluster. Testosterone levels were significantly associated with osteopenia, which could indicate the development of osteoporosis in post-menopause women. Testosterone results were organized in one cluster with T-score and, duration of the postmenopausal. So the three variables were associated with each other in most studied cases.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a diazotization reaction between quinolin-2-ol and (2-chloro-1-(4-(N-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)-2l4-diazyn-1-ium was carried out resulting in ligand-HL, this in turn reacted with the next metal ions (Ni2+, Pt4+, Pd2+, and Mn2+) forming stable complexes with unique geometries such as (tetrahedral for both Ni2+ and Mn 2+, octahedral for Pt4+ and square planer for Pd 2+ ).
Abstract: Diazotization reaction between quinolin-2-ol and (2-chloro-1-(4-(N-(5-methylisoxazol-3-yl)sulfamoyl)phenyl)-2l4-diazyn-1-ium was carried out resulting in ligand-HL, this in turn reacted with the next metal ions (Ni2+, Pt4+, Pd2+, and Mn2+) forming stable complexes with unique geometries such as (tetrahedral for both Ni2+ and Mn2+, octahedral for Pt4+ and square planer for Pd2+ ). The creation of such complexes was detected by employing spectroscopic means involving ultraviolet-visible which proved the obtained geometries, fourier transfer proved the formation of azo group and the coordination with metal ion through it. Pyrolysis (TGA & DSC) studies proved the coordination of water residues with metal ions inside the coordination sphere as well as chlorine atoms. Moreover, element micro-analysis and AAS that gave corresponding outcome with theoretically counting outcome. (1H &13C-NMR) and magnetic quantifications can also indicate the formation of ligand-HL and occurrence of coordination. Antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated against (DPPH) radical and were compared to the standard natural antioxidant, ascorbic acid. The findings showed that these compounds exhibit excellent radical scavenging activities

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results showed that all irrigation water samples were overpassed the FDA limit for E. coli, while only six and three rice samples out of 13 rice samples at 32 and 36 whiteness respectively over-passed FDA limit as mentioned in this paper .
Abstract: Fifty-Four paddy samples, 45 soil samples, and nine irrigation water samples of some paddy fields at Alfurat Alawsat Area, Iraq were collected to investigate the microbial quality including total count bacteria (TCB), molds and yeast, total coliform (TC), and E. coli bacteria. Paddy samples were processed at the laboratory level to produce rice at 32 and 36 whiteness, and the microbial quality of the produced rice was conducted too. The results showed that all irrigation water samples were overpassed the FDA limit for E. coli. All paddy samples were exceeded the good limit of TCB, but no sample exceeded the acceptable limit. Most paddy samples were exceeded the FDA limit for molds and yeast, and few paddy samples exceeded the total coliform limit. The milling process reduced microbial levels for some samples, while the effect was undetectable for other samples. Ten rice samples at 32 whiteness and eight rice samples at 36 whiteness out of 13 paddy samples overpassed FDA and Iraqi Quality Standardization (IQS) for molds and yeast. All produced rice at both whiteness levels was exceeded the total coliform of IQS, while only six and three samples out of 13 rice samples at 32 and 36 whiteness respectively overpassed the FDA limit. In conclusion, paddy samples taken from Alfurat Alawsat fields were overpassed some microbial levels from fields without the effect of storage or milling processing. Irrigation water was probably the main source of fields’ contamination, therefore, the paddy fields need to be monitored and controlled in terms of their microbial contamination.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the effects of adding nanostructures to PVC chains on optical stability testing procedures were examined through indices (ICO, IPO, and IOH), weight loss measurements, UV and viscosity.
Abstract: NiO nanoparticle synthesis by chemical method and characterized by XRD with crystal size 11.72 nm and grain size 13 nm from FESEM image also NiO micro used ,two NiO as an additive to evaluate the possibility of producing photodegradable polymers, the practical application of solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyvinyl chloride (PVC- NiO composite films) was investigated. PVC has a negative impact on the environment since its polymer degrades slowly, yet it has a wide range of industrial applications and the amount used shows no evidence of diminishing use. Thus, a synthesis of modified PVC- NiO micro and nano has been studied with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 (hours) as irradiation time and a number of spectroscopic analyses such as FTIR and UV-VIS. Additionally, the effects of adding nanostructures to PVC chains on optical stability testing procedures were examined through indices (ICO, IPO, and IOH), weight loss measurements, UV and viscosity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a deterministic primality test for Mersenne primes is presented, which includes a comparative study between well-known primality tests in order to identify the best test.
Abstract: In this article, a new deterministic primality test for Mersenne primes is presented. It also includes a comparative study between well-known primality tests in order to identify the best test. Moreover, new modifications are suggested in order to eliminate pseudoprimes. The study covers random primes such as Mersenne primes and Proth primes. Finally, these tests are arranged from the best to the worst according to strength, speed, and effectiveness based on the results obtained through programs prepared and operated by Mathematica, and the results are presented through tables and graphs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a new type of ceramic membranes from Syrian zeolite that was not previously used in this field was used in the field of water treatment, which proved to be highly effective in treating all water sources.
Abstract: As a result of the exacerbation of the problem of water pollution, research was directed towards studying the treatment using ceramic membranes, which proved to be highly effective in treating all water sources. The research aims to study the possibility of preparing a new type of ceramic membranes from Syrian zeolite that was not previously used in this field. In this research, ceramic membranes were prepared from Syrian raw zeolite in several stages. Zeolite sample was characterized, grinded, mixed with boric acid, pressed to form desks, treated thermally according to experiment program, finally coated with silver nanoparticles. Specifications of prepared membranes were determined according to reference methods, effectiveness of prepared membranes were tested in well water handling, that water sample was filtrated through prepared membranes, and then it type MAC, so removal degree was 100%, While removal degree was 97% for bacterial strains on Agar with type PCA, 93% on Agar with type PDA which were conformed to Syrian standard /45 /2007. Specifications of prepared membranes were determined according to reference methods, effectiveness of prepared membranes were tested in well water handling, that water sample was filtrated through prepared membranes, then it was Characterized after treatment. Results showed that prepared zeolite membranes were high effectiveness through decrease chemical and microbial pollutants which were conformed to Syrian standard /45 /2007

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the impact strength and Young modulus of the functionally graded samples were enhanced by 43.69% and 52.74%, respectively, if loaded from the alumina-rich side.
Abstract: In this work, functionally graded materials were synthesized by centrifugal technique at different volume fractions 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% Vf with a rotation speed of 1200 rpm and a constant rotation time, T = 6 min . The mechanical properties were characterized to study the graded and non-graded nanocomposites and the pure epoxy material. The mechanical tests showed that graded and non-graded added alumina (Al2O3) nanoparticles enhanced the effect more than pure epoxy. The maximum difference in impact strength occurred at (FGM), which was loaded from the rich side of the nano-alumina where the maximum value wasat 1% Vf by 133.33% of the sample epoxy side. The flexural strength and Young modulus of the functionally graded samples were enhanced by 43.69% and 52.74%, respectively, if loaded from the alumina-rich side. On the other hand, when loading (FGM) from the epoxy side, the amount of decrease in bending resistance was 122.4% while the improvement in bending modulus was 81.11% compared to pure epoxy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the fracture surface of the impact samples and the gradient scattering of nanoparticles in the epoxy matrix. Numerous applications can be used to manufacture the functionally graded material by centrifugal casting method, including for the manufacture of gears and all bending applications such as leaf springs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , an oscillation of a second-order delay differential equation with adequate provisions was studied, where the applicability and the firmness of the acquired provisions were evaluated. But the authors focused on the second order delay differential equations.
Abstract: This study focuses on studying an oscillation of a second-order delay differential equation. Start work, the equation is introduced here with adequate provisions. All the previous is braced by theorems and examplesthat interpret the applicability and the firmness of the acquired provisions

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Agaricus bellaniae has been identified in the wild in the Arab homeland of Iraq as mentioned in this paper , which is the second country in the world in which the mushroom is grown following the United States of America.
Abstract: This study, which is considered the first of its kind in the world and the Arab homeland, was carried out in the laboratory of mushroom production belonging to the Medicinal Plant Unit/ College Of Agricultural Engineering Sciences/ University of Baghdad during the period from July 21, 2016, to December 30, 2018, aiming to isolate and purify the mycelium of the wild isolation in addition to the genetic and morphological identification of the mushroom Agaricus bellaniae. The obtained pure isolation was tagged in the American National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) with symbol MF987843.1, thus Iraq would be the second country in the world in which the mushroom is grown following the United States of America. The optimum temperature for the mycelium growth rate was also determined in the laboratory, as they ranged between 50 -60 ◦C. Furthermore, the dried fruit bodies were recognized qualitatively and quantitatively to identify their content of medicinally active compounds. Theyhave shown a high percentage of Linoleic acid (47.77%), total anti-oxidants, and total phenols in addition to the high content of essential chemicals including high protein percentage (44%), mineral elements- selenium in particular (0.369 ppm), and amino acid where glutamic and aspartic acids recorded the highest percentage, reached 4.02% and 2.226% respectively.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the abundance and composition of zooplanktons in the Indus River Estuary was conducted to examine habitat characteristics and its impact on tiny organisms, and 30,656 individuals were identified and segregated into seven major groups including Copepods, Cnidarians, Decapods, Mollusk, Pisces, Amphipods and Chaetognaths.
Abstract: In this study abundance and composition of zooplanktons in the Indus River Estuary was conducted to examine habitat characteristics and its impact on tiny organisms. Overall 30,656 individuals were identified and segregated into seven major groups including Copepods, Cnidarians, Decapods, Mollusk, Pisces, Amphipods and Chaetognaths. For better understanding they were further divided into eighteen planktonic categories. Among them Lucifer spp. comprises of 52.21% was the most abundant group with a peak appeared in March whereas Chaetognaths were rarely observed in the entire study period. Species diversity exhibited a mixed trend with the highest values (0.776) of dominance observed in spring (March). The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicate (60.2% and 39.79%) variability among first II axis. On this basis of the result it is obvious that water turbidity is trigger of the abundance and distribution whereas total dissolved solids (TDS) showed minimal influence deduced from CCA analysis.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the chitosan Schiff base was synthesized from onion peels as a reducing agent, and the polymer blends of the Schiff base/PVP has been prepared through using the approach of solution casting.
Abstract: In the present paper, chitosan Schiff base has been synthesized from chitosan’s reaction with the salicyldehyde. The AuNPs was manufacture by extract of onion peels as a reducing agent. The Au NPs that have been prepared were characterized through the UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD analyses and SEM microscopy. The polymer blends of the chitosan Schiff base / PVP has been prepared through using the approach of solution casting. Chitosan Schiff base / PVP Au nano-composites was prepared. Nano composites and polymer blends have been characterized by FTIR which confirm the formation of Schiff base by revealing a new band of absorption at 1651cm-1 as a result of the (C=N) imine group. SEM, DSC and TGA confirms the thermal stability of the prepared polymer blends and nanocomposites, nano composites have shown good results in inhibiting esophageal cancer cell lines, IC50 of nanocomposite = 21.56 µg / mL.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the starch stabilizing and reducing agent was used in the production of CdS nanoparticles with less environmental risk, easy scaling, stability, economical feasibility, and suitability for large-scale production.
Abstract: The aim of this research is to employ starch as a stabilizing and reducing agent in the production of CdS nanoparticles with less environmental risk, easy scaling, stability, economical feasibility, and suitability for large-scale production. Nanoparticles of CdS have been successfully produced by employing starch as a reducing agent in a simple green synthesis technique and then doped with Sn in certain proportions (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%).According to the XRD data, the samples were crystallized in a hexagonal pattern, because the average crystal size of pure CdS is 5.6nm and fluctuates in response to the changes in doping concentration 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 %wt Sn, to become 4.8, 3.9, 11.5, 13.1, 9.3 nm respectively. An increase in crystalline size has been noticed in the doped CdS than in the pure CdS. The particle size is within the range of 24-103 nm, according to SEM data from pure CdS and of the doped with Sn particles. The band gap's energy values, according to UV-Vis reflection spectroscopy were 3.06,2.61 ,2.63, 2.63, 2.66,2.69 eV for pure and doped with Sn 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% respectively. The grain size and roughness rate of pure CdS materials and doped with Sn are shown in AFM results 2.16,2.39,10.07,11.33, 12.47,18.56 nm and average diameter is 30.15, 11.71, 66.06, 48.27,82.011, 80.35 nm for pure and doped with tin 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% respectively.

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TL;DR: In this paper , a new class of Schiff-base ligand with a tetrazole moiety was synthesized by a multi-step by treating 5-amino-2-chlorobenzonitrile and cyclohexane -1,3-dione.
Abstract: Synthesis of a new class of Schiff-base ligand with a tetrazole moiety to form polymeric metal complexes with CoII, NiII, ZnII, and CdII ions has been demonstrated. The ligand was synthesised by a multi-steps by treating 5-amino-2-chlorobenzonitrile and cyclohexane -1,3-dione, the 5,5'-(((1E,3E)-cyclohexane-1,3-diylidene)bis(azanylylidene))bis(2-chlorobenzonitrile) was obtained. The precursor (M) was prepared from the reaction 5,5'-(((1E,3E)-cyclohexane-1,3-diylidene)bis(azanylylidene))bis(2-chlorobenzonitrile) with NaN3 to obtained (1E,3E)-N1,N3-bis(4-chloro-3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)cyclohexane-1,3-diimine (N). By reacting the precursor (M) with CS2/KOH, the required ligand was synthesised. Co (II), Ni (II), Zn (II), Cd (II) ions produce polymeric metal complexes with the formula [M(L)]n when they react with the ligand (L). These complexes were synthesised using the same methods. The geometrical structure of ligand and their polymeric complexes were determined using FTIR, 1H, 13C-NMR, electronic spectroscopy, ESMS, magnetic susceptibility, metal and chloride contents, micro elemental analysis and conductance. From the results ,we conclude that the L-complexes demonstrate the production of four-coordinate complexes with tetrahedral geometry for Co(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II), and square planer geometry for Ni (II). We examined the antibacterial activity of both ligand and complexes with two types of bacteria positive (Bacillus stubtili and Staphylococcus aureus ) and negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) with concentration 10-2.

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TL;DR: In this paper , quantum computing is used to develop a future-proof, robust, lightweight and resource-conscious approach to sensor networks, which results in the reduction of the overall amount of energy, and the time required for performing the key exchange in the encryption and decryption processes.
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are promoting the spread of the Internet for devices in all areas of life, which makes it is a promising technology in the future. In the coming days, as attack technologies become more improved, security will have an important role in WSN. Currently, quantum computers pose a significant risk to current encryption technologies that work in tandem with intrusion detection systems because it is difficult to implement quantum properties on sensors due to the resource limitations. In this paper, quantum computing is used to develop a future-proof, robust, lightweight and resource-conscious approach to sensor networks. Great emphasis is placed on the concepts of using the BB84 protocol with the AES algorithm in WSN security. The results of analysis indicated a high level of security between the data by depending on the generation of secure keys, and reached an accuracy rate of about (80-95) % based on using NIST statistical. The efficiency of the work increased to 0.704 after using the Quantum Bit Error Rate equation, eventually increasing the network performance. This results in the reduction of the overall amount of energy, and the time required for performing the key exchange in the encryption and decryption processes decreased.

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TL;DR: In this paper , an attempt to hide sensitive secret image inside the moving objects in a video based on separating the object from the background of the frame, selecting and arranging them according to object's size for embedding secret image.
Abstract: Video steganography has become a popular option for protecting secret data from hacking attempts and common attacks on the internet. However, when the whole video frame(s) are used to embed secret data, this may lead to visual distortion. This work is an attempt to hide sensitive secret image inside the moving objects in a video based on separating the object from the background of the frame, selecting and arranging them according to object's size for embedding secret image. The XOR technique is used with reverse bits between the secret image bits and the detected moving object bits for embedding. The proposed method provides more security and imperceptibility as the moving objects are used for embedding, so it is difficult to notice the changes in the moving objects instead of using background area for embedding in the video. The experimental results showed the better visual quality of the stego video with PSNR values exceeding 58 dB, this indicates that the proposed method works without causing much distortion in the original video and transmitted secret message.

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TL;DR: In this article , a study was conducted in Segara Anakan Lagoon (SAL) and Cilacap Coast (CC) using the environmental properties and climate change data.
Abstract: Mangrove landscaping in the Segara Anakan Lagoon (SAL) is an adaptation pattern of mangrove ecosystems to live and grow in unstable areas. This research aimed to develop a mangrove landscape to mitigate the impacts of ocean waves, currents, and inundation due to climate change. The study was conducted in SAL and Cilacap Coast (CC) using the environmental properties and climate change data. The data obtained were analyzed using mapping and trendline analyses. The results showed that mangrove landscaping in Segara Anakan had four zones with Nypa frutican, Rhizophora styllosa, Aegiceras corniculatum, Rhizophora apiculata, Avicennia marina, Sonneratia alba identified as the best adaptation of mangrove species. Climate change give a high impact on mangrove degradation (degradation 142.1 ha/year), the instability of rainfall intensity with average intensity 3552 mm/year, irregular wind direction with a speed average of 7 knots, and increasing of sea wave and sea level rise (range from 2.7 m to 3.4 m) The results conclude that the mangrove species have ability to live and grow, because the climate change does not affect mangrove growth (the correlation with rainfall intensity = -0,35, with wind speed = 0,18 and sea wave = - 0,34).