About: Behaviour is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Courtship. It has an ISSN identifier of 0005-7959. Over the lifetime, 3989 publication(s) have been published receiving 187729 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Seven major types of sampling for observational studies of social behavior have been found in the literature and the major strengths and weaknesses of each method are pointed out.
Abstract: Seven major types of sampling for observational studies of social behavior have been found in the literature. These methods differ considerably in their suitability for providing unbiased data of various kinds. Below is a summary of the major recommended uses of each technique: In this paper, I have tried to point out the major strengths and weaknesses of each sampling method. Some methods are intrinsically biased with respect to many variables, others to fewer. In choosing a sampling method the main question is whether the procedure results in a biased sample of the variables under study. A method can produce a biased sample directly, as a result of intrinsic bias with respect to a study variable, or secondarily due to some degree of dependence (correlation) between the study variable and a directly-biased variable. In order to choose a sampling technique, the observer needs to consider carefully the characteristics of behavior and social interactions that are relevant to the study population and the research questions at hand. In most studies one will not have adequate empirical knowledge of the dependencies between relevant variables. Under the circumstances, the observer should avoid intrinsic biases to whatever extent possible, in particular those that direcly affect the variables under study. Finally, it will often be possible to use more than one sampling method in a study. Such samples can be taken successively or, under favorable conditions, even concurrently. For example, we have found it possible to take Instantaneous Samples of the identities and distances of nearest neighbors of a focal individual at five or ten minute intervals during Focal-Animal (behavior) Samples on that individual. Often during Focal-Animal Sampling one can also record All Occurrences of Some Behaviors, for the whole social group, for categories of conspicuous behavior, such as predation, intergroup contact, drinking, and so on. The extent to which concurrent multiple sampling is feasible will depend very much on the behavior categories and rate of occurrence, the observational conditions, etc. Where feasible, such multiple sampling can greatly aid in the efficient use of research time.
TL;DR: The paper describes different feeding styles among antelope, in terms of selection of food items and coverage of home ranges, and argues that these feeding styles bear a relationship to maximum group size of feeding animals through the influence of dispersion ofFood items upon group cohesion.
Abstract: The types of social organisation displayed by the African antelope species have been assigned in this paper to five classes, distinguished largely by the strategies used by the reproductively active males in securing mating rights, and the effects of those strategies on other social castes. The paper attempts to show that these strategies are appropriate to each class because of the effects of other, ecological, aspects of their ways of life. The paper describes different feeding styles among antelope, in terms of selection of food items and coverage of home ranges. It argues that these feeding styles bear a relationship to maximum group size of feeding animals through the influence of dispersion of food items upon group cohesion. The feeding styles also bear a relationship to body size and to habitat choice, both of which influence the antelope species' antipredator behaviour. Thus feeding style is related to anti-predator behaviour which, in many species, influences minimum group size. Group size and the pattern of movement over the annual home range affect the likelihood of females being found in a given place at a given time, and it is this likelihood which, to a large extent, determines the kind of strategy a male must employ to achieve mating rights. The effects of the different strategies employed by males can be seen in such aspects of each species' biology as sexual dimorphism, adult sex ratio, and differential distribution of the sexes.
TL;DR: A model is presented to account for the evolution of FB groups in terms of ecological pressures on female relationships and suggests that relationships in most FB groups are ultimately related to feeding competition.
Abstract: 1. Multi-female groups of primates fall into two main classes, (a) female-bonded (FB) and (b) non-female-bonded (non-FB). A model is presented to account for the evolution of FB groups in terms of ecological pressures on female relationships. 2. The model suggests that FB groups have evolved as a result of competition for high-quality food patches containing a limited number of feeding sites. Groups are viewed as being based on cooperative relationships among females. These relationships are beneficial because cooperators act together to supplant others from preferred food patches. 3. Ecological data support the model for most FB species, but not for Theropithecus gelada or Colobus guereza, whose foods are not found in high-quality patches with limited feeding sites. Non-FB species conform to expectation, either because they do not use high-quality patches, or because feeding competition has disruptive effects during periods of food scarcity. 4. The behaviour of females differs as expected between FB and non-FB species in group movements and in inter-group interactions; in both contexts females are more involved in FB species. 5. Multi-male groups tend to be found in non-territorial FB species. The presence of several males per group is suggested to benefit females by raising the competitive ability of the group in inter-group interactions. 6. Competitive relationships among females are more strongly marked in FB groups than in non-FB groups. The model suggests that relationships in most FB groups are ultimately related to feeding competition.
TL;DR: A number of general concepts are discussed, for example the relation of convulsions to flight behaviour, the reduction of incoming aggressive stimuli in submissive postures, "Cut-Off", and the inhibition of biting in the more social species.
Abstract: This paper describes elements in the social behaviour of the laboratory rat, mouse, hamster and Guinea-pig. These elements are divided into postures, which are static, and acts, which involve movement. A total of 45 of these elements are mentioned, most of which are common, with only slight modification, to all four species. Apart from these the guinea pig differs in not having a true Upright Posture and also in showing a male sexul display "Rumba". The postures are classified under broad motivational headings. A number of general concepts are discussed, for example the relation of convulsions to flight behaviour, the reduction of incoming aggressive stimuli in submissive postures, "Cut-Off", and the inhibition of biting in the more social species.
TL;DR: A critical test is proposed of the hypothesis that increasing group size should lead to reduced predation risk by comparing demographic patterns between areas where predators are still present and where they have disappeared and the results provide strong support for the predation-feeding competition theory.
Abstract: There are two main competing theories on the evolution of group living in diurnal nonhuman primates. The first theory claims that predation avoidance favours group living, whereas there are only disadvantages to feeding in a group and feeding competition increases with group size. The second theory claims that there is a feeding advantage to group living deriving from communal defence of high-quality food patches and that predation is not important. These theories have not yet been rigorously tested. In this paper a critical test is proposed: the theories differ in the predicted relationship between a female's birth rate and the size of the group in which she lives (Fig. 1). An additional test is concerned with the predicted relationship between population density relative to food availability and average group size. Finally, a critical test is proposed of the hypothesis that increasing group size should lead to reduced predation risk by comparing demographic patterns between areas where predators are still present and where they have disappeared. A total of 23 data sets on 13 species were extracted from the literature and supplemented with four unpublished data sets. In all three tests the results provide strong support for the predation-feeding competition theory and are clearly unfavourable for the theory postulating feeding advantages to group living. Such feeding advantages may, however, gain prominence under some conditions.
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