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Showing papers in "Biological Trace Element Research in 1995"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The protective role ofitamin E and GSH with respect to boar semen against fatty acid peroxidation and a positive influence of vitamin E supplementation on semen quality have been evidenced.
Abstract: The protective effect of vitamin E and reduced glutathione (GSH) against lipid peroxidation in boar semen plasma was studied. The lipid peroxidation, measured by the test for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), doubled in the presence of the lipid peroxidation Fe(2+)-sodium ascorbate-inducing system. The ascorbate-induced TBARS were inhibited by about 62% through the water-soluble vitamin E analog (TROLOX) and about 57% by GSH. In the in vivo experiments, 7 wk of oral DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate (1000 IU/d/animal) administration caused a significant fall in the level of the semen plasma TBARS, from 2.2 +/- 0.09 to 1.2 +/- 0.13 nmol MDA/mL. The semen plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSSG tended to increase with the time of vitamin E administration, but the increment did not reach a significant level by the seventh week. The vitamin E supplementation significantly increased the number of spermatozoa per 1 cm3 of ejaculate. The protective role of vitamin E and GSH with respect to boar semen against fatty acid peroxidation and a positive influence of vitamin E supplementation on semen quality have been evidenced.

175 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that lead exerts its toxic effects by enhancing peroxidative damage to the membranes, thus compromising cellular functions.
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to understand the biochemical mechanisms of lead toxicity in liver. We observed a significant accumulation of lead in liver following lead treatment, resulting in accentuation of lipid peroxidation. Concomitant to the increase in lipid peroxidation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were significantly inhibited. A decrease in reduced glutathione with a simultaneous increase in oxidized glutathione was observed following lead exposure, resulting in a reduced GSH/GSSG ratio. These results indicate that lead exerts its toxic effects by enhancing peroxidative damage to the membranes, thus compromising cellular functions.

159 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results showed that the scavenging ability enhanced with an increasing number of hydroxyl groups in rings B, which showed a higher activity than a unsaturated bond.
Abstract: The superoxide scavenging activities of 12 flavonoids were measured. The superoxide anions were generated by a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system and measured by the nitrite method. The results showed that the scavenging ability enhanced with an increasing number of hydroxyl groups in ring B. Substitution at C3 position with a hydroxyl group increased the activity. Compared to a methoxyl group or a glycoside in this position, a free hydroxyl group showed the highest activity. A saturated C2-C3 bond showed a higher activity than a unsaturated bond. The absence of a carbonyl group at C4 position increased the activity.

148 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In vitro studies support prior in vivo reports that the important mechanism of the acute toxic effects of the lead compounds is owing at least in part, to metal-catalyzed peroxidation of polyun-saturated fatty acids.
Abstract: In the present study, the reaction mixtures (lead compounds with essential unsaturated fatty acids) were preincubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h prior to the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC. The metal-catalyzed reactions were also compared in the presence of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a free radical scavenger. Our results showed that according to the difference in the number of double bonds of essential unsaturated fatty acids, the kinds of lead compounds, and the concentrations of lead compounds, the extent of lipid peroxidation was different. The addition of BHT to the reaction mixtures significantly reduced the production of MDA (P < 0.01). These in vitro studies support prior in vivo reports that the important mechanism of the acute toxic effects of the lead compounds is owing at least in part, to metal-catalyzed peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

96 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of Adriamycin-induced lipid peroxidation by the measurement of plasma thiobarbituric acid reactant materials and antioxidant systems in patients with cancer before and after chemotherapy, including AdRIamycin finds no change in vitamin and trace element status.
Abstract: Adriamycin is a potent chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of human neoplastic diseases. A major side effect limiting the use of this drug is its toxic effect on the heart. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cardiotoxicity of Adriamycin. However, the most plausible hypothesis seems to be the reduction of Adriamycin and free radical production, which induces lipid peroxidation and oxidative damages in the heart.

88 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental results indicate that the concentrations of Fe, P, Na, and Ba in well water in the Blackfoot disease endemic area are found to be significantly higher than those of the controls, but they are still below the drinking water standard.
Abstract: Blackfoot disease is a peripheral vascular disease resulting in gangrene of the lower extremities. Although extensive epidemiological study has implicated high arsenic content in artesian well water in the endemic area, there is more to learn about the etiology of the disease. In this study, effort is paid on multielement determination and arsenic speciation in order to find out whether the trace element concentration pattern in well water in the Blackfoot disease endemic area is different from those of two control areas. Experimental results indicate that the concentrations of Fe, P, Na, and Ba in well water in the Blackfoot disease endemic area are found to be significantly higher than those of the controls, but they are still below the drinking water standard. The total arsenic in well water in the endemic area (671±149 ppb) is much higher than that of one normal control area of Hsin-Chu (<0.7 ppb), but is a similar level as that of other control areas of I-Lan (653±71 ppb) where no Blackfoot disease has ever been found. It was also found that the insoluble arsenic in the endemic area (21.9 ppb) is much higher than that in two control areas (≤1.8 ppb), and the concentration ratio between As(III) and As(V) species in the endemic area (2.6) is much lower than that in one of the control areas, where the total arsenic is also high (14.7). The possible connection of Blackfoot disease with trace elements, arsenic species, and possibly other as yet undefined environmental factors in the artesian well water, is discussed.

87 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Oral administered I2 or I− in trace doses with similar iodine availability caused different histopathological and endocrine patterns in thyroid and mammary glands of ID rats, indicating that replacement therapy with various forms of iodine are tissue-specific.
Abstract: This research describes the effects of short-term elemental iodine (I2) and iodide (I−) replacement on thyroid glands and mammary glands of iodine-deficient (ID) Sprague-Dawley female rats Iodine deficiency causes atypical tissue and physiologic changes in both glands Tissue histopathology and the endocrine metabolic parameters, such as serum TT4, tissue and body weights, and vaginal smears, are compared A moderate reduction in thyroid size from the ID control (IDC) was noted with both I− and I2, whereas serum total thyroxine approached the normal control with both I− and I2, but was lower in IDC Thyroid gland IDC hyperplasia was reduced modestly with I2, but eliminated with I− Lobular hyperplasia of the mammary glands decreased with I2 and increased with I− when compared with the IDC; extraductal secretions remained the same as IDC with I2, but increased with I−; and periductal fibrosis was markedly reduced with I2, but remained severe with I− Thus, orally administered I2 or I− in trace doses with similar iodine availability caused different histopathological and endocrine patterns in thyroid and mammary glands of ID rats The significance of this is that replacement therapy with various forms of iodine are tissue-specific

82 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is indicated that patients with NIDDM on Taiwan also have distinct changes in their metals status, and these perturbations are associated with some diabetic complications.
Abstract: In order to investigate the relationships between metals zinc [Zn], copper [Cu], magnesium [Mg], or Calcium [Ca] and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 65 patients of newly diagnosed noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 54 nondiabetic healthy controls were studied. The concentrations of selected metals in fasting blood samples and 24-h urine collections were determined. Hyperzincuria and hypermagnesuria were detected in diabetic patients (p<0.01). The diabetics also had lower Zn and Mg, and higher Cu, and Ca levels in their plasma than those of the controls, but the statistical differences in Ca and Mg were not significant.Significantly lower Zn and higher Ca levels in erythrocytes were found in diabetic patients (p<0.01). There is evidence of a significant difference in metals status between diabetic patients with or without the specific complications. This study further indicates that patients with NIDDM on Taiwan also have distinct changes in their metals status, and these perturbations are associated with some diabetic complications.

82 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of the conventional laboratory tests to diagnose Zn deficiency (Zn levels in serum, urine, or hair) are reviewed, and the authors advocate the erythrocytic 65Zn uptake test.
Abstract: The clinical spectrum of acrodermatitis enteropathica (n = 226) is compared with symptoms reported in other Zn deficiencies: total parenteral nutrition without Zn (n = 21), protein energy malnutrition (n = 24), gastrointestinal disease (n = 79), geophagia (n = 227), and dietary low intake (n = 23). Common features of deficiency are diarrhea, recurrent infection, and growth retardation. Dermatitis is less common in other types of deficiency than in acrodermatitis enteropathica (9 vs 88% of cases). Anorexia and/or hypogeusia is reported more frequently in the other types of deficiency (30 vs 16%). The main symptoms in acrodermatitis enteropathica vary with age. These differences in the clinical picture of Zn deficiency are discussed in relation to the degree of the deficiency (acute, subacute, or chronic; severe, mild, or subclinical). The results of the conventional laboratory tests to diagnose Zn deficiency (Zn levels in serum, urine, or hair) are reviewed. In healthy Dutch infants and children, the mean values of these levels vary by a factor of 1.6-3.0. Also, the clinical interpretation of their results is prone to errors. Therefore, we advocate the erythrocytic 65Zn uptake test. Its mean varies by 1.3. However, its reference values for different age intervals need to be established. From the comparison of the results of three conventional tests of samples taken concurrently (serum, urine, and hair) in groups of Dutch children with symptoms common in Zn deficiency (diarrhea, recurrent infection, or growth retardation), it is estimated that +/- 1% of Dutch children with minor complaints suffer from either acute or subacute Zn deficiency. Other deficiencies occur occasionally. In order to detect the individual patient with deficiency, the erythrocytic 65Zn uptake test is promising and needs to be evaluated. Therefore, we review a set of reference laboratory tests with results that alter during sequential stages of overload and deficiency. Such a scheme is advocated as a guidance for future clinical research on deficiency, and solves the problem of differentiating those conditions that identify the individual patients who need treatment by supplementation.

67 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It may be significant that, over-lapping the known genes in the +1 reading frame, the mRNAs of several T-cell associated genes have open reading frames (ORFs) with as many as 10 in-frame UGA codons (CD4, p33), a clustering that is highly improbable by chance alone, and reminiscent of selenoprotein P, the predominant plasma form of Se.
Abstract: Selenium deficiency can lead to impaired immune function and reduced T-cell counts, as well as various specific disorders. Significantly, in ARC and AIDS patients, a progressive decline in plasma Se, paralleling T-cell loss, has been widely documented. Since evidence now suggests that there is an extremely high turnover of CD4+ T-cells in AIDS patients, with billions of new cells lost and replaced daily, any exceptional requirement for Se in lymphocytes could contribute to this progressive Se depletion. Thus, it may be significant that, over-lapping the known genes in the +1 reading frame, the mRNAs of several T-cell associated genes (CD4, CD8, HLA-DR p33) have open reading frames (ORFs) with as many as 10 in-frame UGA codons (CD4, p33), a clustering that is highly improbable by chance alone, and reminiscent of selenoprotein P, the predominant plasma form of Se. The presence of these ORFs, along with potential stem-loop RNA structures displaying consensus selenocysteine insertion sequences, AUG(N)mAAA(N)nUGR, suggests that these mRNAs may encode selenoproteins, in addition to the known T-cell glycoproteins. If so, the roles of Se in the immune system may be more diverse than previously suspected.

65 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The oxidant stress-inducing effects of endosulfan, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide of the cyclodiene group, have been examined following administration of single and repeated doses and the possible relationship between the neurotoxicity and its oxidant Stress-inducing effect was discussed.
Abstract: The oxidant stress-inducing effects of endosulfan, a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide of the cyclodiene group, have been examined following ig administration of single and repeated doses. A single dose of 30 mg/kg (∼30% LD50) endosulfan significantly (p<0.001) increased the TBARS and, hence, the lipid peroxidation in cerebral and hepatic tissues of rats. Administration of endosulfan with doses of 10 or 15 mg/kg/d for 5 d has also induced lipid peroxidation significantly (p<0.05). The same doses caused a significant alteration in glutathione redox status of cerebral and hepatic tissues, where total glutathione and oxidized glutathione were measured by an enzymatic cycling procedure. Selenium levels were also determined and compared with controls. With repeated doses, oxidant stress was more pronounced in cerebral tissue, where endosulfan shows a GABA-antagonistic activity. The possible relationship between the neurotoxicity of endosulfan and its oxidant stress-inducing effect was discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Findings support the hypothesis that an imbalance of zinc and copper status might be involved in human hypertension.
Abstract: Imbalance of zinc and copper status has been hypothesized in human hypertension. A case-control study was carried out to elucidate the possible relationship between zinc and copper status and essential hypertension. Thirty-one subjects affected by mild stable hypertension, pharmacologically untreated, were investigated together with 31 normotensive controls individually matched for sex, age, and smoking habits. Zinc and copper in serum and urine wee measured, and serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (AP), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD), lysyl oxidase (LOX), and monoamine oxidase (MAO) were evaluated. No significant difference in serum and urine zinc and copper content as far as in serum activity of zinc (AP and LDH) or copper (Cu-Zn SOD, LOX, and MAO)-dependent enzymes was found between hypertensives and normotensives. Positive relationships were found in normotensives between serum and urine levels of zinc (r = 0.577; p = 0.001) and copper (r = 0.394; p = 0.028), and between serum copper and Cu-Zn SOD (r = 0.534; p = 0.002). In normotensives, diastolic blood pressure and serum zinc were positively related (r = 0.370; p = 0.041). In hypertensives, inverse correlations were observed between diastolic blood pressure and AP (r = -0.498; p = 0.004) and Cu-Zn SOD (r = 0.452; p = 0.011), and between systolic blood pressure and LOX (r = -0.385; p = 0.033). Diastolic blood pressure was related to LDH inversely in hypertensives (r = -0.357; p = 0.049) and positively in normotensives (r = 0.457; p = 0.010). In normotensives, diastolic blood pressure was inversely related with MAO (r = -0.360; p = 0.046). These findings support the hypothesis that an imbalance of zinc and copper status might be involved in human hypertension.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is observed that serum aluminum concentration is increased in aging people in relation to age, and it is suggested that this could be associated with an enhanced gastric permeability or by an increase in metal accumulation proportional to age.
Abstract: The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease and the part played in it by aluminum is still speculative. We have studied serum aluminum in 356 healthy people, and we have observed that serum aluminum concentration is increased in aging people in relation to age. We suggest that this could be associated with an enhanced gastric permeability or by an increase in metal accumulation proportional to age. We have measured serum aluminum levels in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, patients with other senile dementias, and age-matched group. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease have statistically significant higher serum aluminum levels than patients with other types of senile dementias (alcoholic, vascular, multi-infart) and an age-matched control group. When we compare serum aluminum of patients with senile dementias from other causes with the age-matched control group, we do not find significant differences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results confirm the prevalence of abnormalities in Se and Zn levels and their relationships with nonspecific markers of immune system activity in more advanced HIV disease and appear to reflect the disease activity/progression and subsequently the immune dysregulation.
Abstract: Trace elements (selenium, zinc, copper) \gb2 microglobulin levels, CD4, and CD8 cell counts have been determined in 80 HIV1 seropositive patients The study group consisted of 19 females and 61 males with age mean of 35±10 yr, at stage IV of infection (CDC—Atlanta classification) and treated by AZT No severe renal or liver diseases or hypoalbuminemia were observed in this group

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that the ChL technique proved to be useful in combination with other techniques currently used for evaluating radiation oxidative injury.
Abstract: The effectiveness of chemiluminescence (ChL) in vitro to measure free radicals generated as a result of metabolic disorganization caused by radiation sickness is evaluated. The results are correlated with those obtained by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and lipid peroxide as levels of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). To this aim, livers from irradiated Wistar rats were removed immediately (day 0) after irradiation and also 7 and 14 d later. ChL results, expressed in arbitrary units (AU)/min/mg protein, were analyzed for irradiated samples and controls, for different doses at different times. Increased levels of ChL emission were observed not only on day 0, but also on days 7 and 14. On the other hand, SOD activity showed a decrease on the 7th d, and significantly higher lipid peroxide levels were observed in the assays performed on the 14th d, at all exposure doses. The correlation between temporal changes in the SOD activity, ChL emission, and higher TBARS levels a week later were evident from the data. These results indicate that the ChL technique proved to be useful in combination with other techniques currently used for evaluating radiation oxidative injury.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The properties of PTX as a hydroxyl radical scavenger are supported and some authors verified that PTX decreases the release of superoxide anion from activated neutrophils.
Abstract: Pentoxifylline (PTX), a tri-substituted purine and xanthine derivative, has been used for several years to improve microcirculation because of its hemorheological properties. PTX has also antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. We studied the reaction of PTX with the hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion. Hydroxyl radical was generated by a mixture of ascorbic acid, H2O2 and Fe(III)-EDTA. We evaluated the iron-dependent degradation of deoxyribose, mediated by hydroxyl radical, in the presence of different concentrations of PTX (from 0.05 to 3 mM), measuring the degradation products of deoxyribose that react with 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA). The reaction of PTX with hydroxyl radical occurred with a rate constant of (1.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(10) M-1/s. These results support the properties of PTX as a hydroxyl radical scavenger. Some authors verified that PTX decreases the release of superoxide anion from activated neutrophils. We studied the effect of PTX as a scavenger of superoxide generated in vitro by a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system. PTX was not a superoxide anion scavenger in this system.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol constitute two lines of defense in protecting cells against injury owing to oxidation of LDL by inhibiting the LDL oxidation and the subsequent cytotoxicity, and at the cellular level, by protecting the cells directly.
Abstract: Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) mildly oxidized by copper ions or UV radiations exhibit a cytotoxic effect to cultured endothelial cells. Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol were able to inhibit the peroxidation of LDL and their subsequent cytotoxicity. The mixture of the three compounds (rutin/ascorbic acid/α-tocopherol, 4/4/1) exhibited a supra-additive antioxidant effect. The inhibition of the cytotoxic effect was well correlated with that of TBARS formation. Another important conclusion is that these antioxidants were able to prevent directly at the cellular level the cytotoxic effect of oxidized LDL, since cells preincubated with them were protected against the cytotoxic effect of previously oxidized LDL. The protective effect of antioxidants was limited because of their own toxicity. The antioxidant mixture permitted a maximal cytoprotective effect with relatively lower concentrations to be obtained and the cytotoxicity of high concentrations to be avoided. In conclusion, rutin, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol constitute two lines of defense in protecting cells against injury owing to oxidation of LDL (1) at the LDL level, by inhibiting the LDL oxidation and the subsequent cytotoxicity, and (2) at the cellular level, by protecting the cells directly, i.e., by increasing their resistance against the cytotoxic effect of oxidized LDL.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although the patient numbers are small, there is some evidence to suggest that MDA may act as a prognostic marker, and the change in TBARS concentration occurred faster than changes in other indices, suggesting that TBARS might be a better index of overall free radical activity.
Abstract: It has been previously demonstrated that the conditioning therapy given to bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients creates a high oxidant stress, resulting in a measured reduction in antioxidants, such as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), vitamin E, and cell peroxide fragilities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study shows that species of the lactic acid bacteria are able to concentrate selenium intracellular as seleno-cysteine, which could be applied in supplementation studies.
Abstract: Lactic acid bacteria are nonpathogenic bacteria commonly used in food processing. An evaluation was made of the capacity to concentrate selenium in species of Lactobacillus. A selenium concentration of 1 microgram/mL in the culture medium yielded in a bacterial content of 400 micrograms/g dry biomass. Dialysis and TCA precipitation experiments of a native intracellular extract proved that at least 80% of the total selenium is associated with organic molecules. Seleno-cysteine was identified as the only seleno-amino acid present in the intracellular selenoproteins. This study shows that species of the lactic acid bacteria are able to concentrate selenium intracellular as seleno-cysteine, which could be applied in supplementation studies.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Zinc availability of milk showed the highest value for human milk and the lowest for sheep milk, in both whole and skim milk, while calcium availability did not differ significantly and ranged between 18 and 23%.
Abstract: The availability of zinc and calcium from human, cow's, goat, and sheep milk is evaluated by an in vitro method that involves a simulated human gastrointestinal digestion followed by measurement of dialyzability of zinc and calcium. Zinc availability of milk showed the highest value for human milk (15.0%) and the lowest for sheep milk (1.0%), in both whole and skim milk. Calcium availability of the different types of milk did not differ significantly and ranged between 18 and 23%. No significant differences in availability between whole and skim milk were found for both elements, except for zinc in cow's milk.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of the levels of DNA-Protein crosslinks in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 33 individuals determined to be at risk for chromium exposure by virtue of their residence in Hudson County and their urinary Cr levels found no association between these levels and exposure to chromium.
Abstract: It has been known for a number of years that chromium-containing mine slags were used as landfill in residential areas of Hudson County, New Jersey. Since one of the major lesions induced in intact cells by chromate is the DNA-Protein crosslink, we have used this lesion as a biomarker of biological effect of chromium (Cr) exposure. We have previously developed a sensitive and easy-to-perform assay to detect DNA-Protein crosslinks, based on the selective K SDS precipitation of DNA associated with protein. We examined the levels of DNA-Protein crosslinks in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 33 individuals determined to be at risk for chromium exposure by virtue of their residence in Hudson County and their urinary Cr levels. These data were compared to the levels of DNA-Protein crosslinks among 49 controls who resided in noncontaminated areas. A complete clinical examination and urine analysis did not show any Cr-related abnormalities among the exposed population. The mean DNA-Protein crosslink level in the lymphocytes of the exposed group was 1.3±0.5% (SD), whereas the unexposed group had 0.8±0.4% (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, gender, race, smoking, and weight. Further studies in this population are needed to confirm the possible association between the high levels of DNA-Protein crosslink and Cr exposure.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results clearly indicate that vanadium under the doses employed in this study has a significant inducing role on GSH content with a concurrent elevation in GST activity in the liver and specific extrahepatic tissues without any apparent sign of cytotoxicity.
Abstract: The influence of vanadium, an important dietary micronutrient, was evaluated on the cytosolic reduced glutathione (GSH) content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in several rat target tissues. Supplementation of drinking water with vanadium at the level of 0.2 or 0.5 ppm for 4, 8, or 12 wk was found to increase the GSH level with a concomitant elevation in GST activity in the liver followed by small intestine mucosa, large intestine mucosa, and kidney. The results were almost dose-dependent and mostly pronounced with 0.5 ppm vanadium after 12 wk of its continuous supplementation. Neither the GSH level nor GST activity was significantly altered in forestomach and lung following vanadium supplementation throughout the study. The levels of vanadium that were found to increase the content of GSH and activity of GST in the liver, intestine, and kidney did not exert any toxic manifestation as evidenced from water and food consumption as well as the growth responses of the experimental animals. Moreover, these doses of vanadium did not impair either hepatic or renal functions as they did not alter the serum activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), as well as serum urea and creatinine level. All these results clearly indicate that vanadium under the doses employed in our study has a significant inducing role on GSH content with a concurrent elevation in GST activity in the liver and specific extrahepatic tissues without any apparent sign of cytotoxicity. This attribute of vanadium may have a greater importance in terms of biotransformation and detoxification of xenobiotics, including carcinogens. In addition, since the ability to afford an increment in the endogenous GSH-GST pool by anticarcinogenic natural substances has been found to correlate with their activity to inhibit neoplastic transformation, the trace element vanadium may be considered as a novel anticancer agent.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A vegetarian diet does not provide a sufficient supply of essential antioxidant trace elements, like Zn, Cu, and especially Se, so Se supplementation should be recommended to this risk group of the population.
Abstract: Plasma zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg) concentrations, copper/zinc ratio, and selenium (Se) status were studied in 44 vegetarians (22 males and 22 females) and their age- and sex-matched nonvegetarians in the Bratislava region (Slovakia). Vegetarians had statistically significant lower levels of plasma Zn and Cu than nonvegetarians, which may be the result of lower bioavailability of Zn and Cu from this type of diet. No differences in plasma Mg levels were found between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Se status, as expressed by plasma and erythrocyte concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities (GPx), was significantly lower in vegetarians when compared to nonvegetarians. In the series as a whole, there were significantly higher correlations between plasma and erythrocyte Se concentrations and between plasma and erythrocyte GPx activities. Significant positive correlations were also found between plasma Se concentrations and erythrocyte GPx activities, and between erythrocyte Se concentrations and erythrocyte GPx activities. A vegetarian diet does not provide a sufficient supply of essential antioxidant trace elements, like Zn, Cu, and especially Se. Se supplementation should be recommended to this risk group of the population.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Thyroid tissue concentrations of As and Se were determined in female rats by neutron activation analysis, and tissue specimens were examined histopathologically, and the results were discussed in relation to the cancer preventive effect of Se.
Abstract: Seventy-eight Wistar weanling rats were pretreated with arsenate (100 mg/L As), selenite (1 mg/L Se), and arsenate (100 mg/L As) plus selenite (1 mg/L Se) added to the drinking water. After 4 w, all the animals were sacrificed and serum T3 and T4 were determined by double-antibody radioimmunoassay. Thyroid tissue concentrations of As and Se were determined in female rats by neutron activation analysis, and tissue specimens were examined histopathologically. For both sexes, the measurements indicated that T4/T3 was lowest in the Se group, intermediate in the As group, and highest in the controls. Corrected for the mean value of the controls, mean As concentration of thyroid tissue was of the same magnitude in the group pretreated with As + Se as the sum of the mean As concentration in the groups pretreated with As or Se alone. The outcome was symmetric with regard to the Se concentration: In the As + Se pretreated group, the mean Se concentration was of the same magnitude as the sum of the mean Se concentration in the groups pretreated with As or Se alone. Thus, As and Se tended to accumulate in the thyroid tissue. Postmortem examination showed that the thyroid tissue of rats pretreated with As alone exhibited obvious, toxic changes, whereas only minor or no changes were found in the tissues of the groups pretreated with Se or As + Se, and in the tissues of the controls. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that s-T4 and s-T3 were significantly correlated with sex, that s-T3 was positively correlated (p < or = 0.001) with Se pretreatment, and that the T4/T3 ratio was negatively correlated with both As (p < or = 0.012) and Se pretreatment (p < or = 0.001). The results were discussed in relation to the cancer preventive effect of Se.

Journal ArticleDOI
Subramanian Ks1
TL;DR: In this paper, the need for preservation and storage of biological fluids collected for trace element determination is emphasized, and major factors such as container material, container pretreatment, storage time, storage temperature, and contamination of the laboratory environment affecting preservation are discussed.
Abstract: In any well-defined study, a sample preservation and storage scheme compatible with the information or analyte sought should be incorporated. This article emphasizes the need for preservation and storage of biological fluids collected for trace element determination; cites the major factors, such as container material, container pretreatment, storage time, storage temperature, and contamination of the laboratory environment affecting preservation; presents a historical account of the available literature studies on the preservation and storage of trace metals in whole blood, plasma, serum, and urine; and makes recommendations on the most effective storage and preservation methods.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that the kinetic behavior of Ni compounds administered orally is closely related with the solubility of Ni Compounds, and that thesolubility is one of the important factors for determining the health effect ofNi compounds.
Abstract: In this study, eight kinds of nickel (Ni) compounds were orally administered to Wistar male rats and the distribution of each compound was investigated 24 h after the administration. The Ni compounds used in this experiment were nickel metal [Ni−M], nickel oxide (green) [NiO(G)], nickel oxide (black) [NiO(B)], nickel subsulfide [Ni3S2], nickel sulfide [NiS], nickel sulfate [NiSO4], nickel chloride [NiCl2], and nickel nitrate [Ni(NO3)2]. The solubilities of the nickel compounds in saline solution were in the following order; [Ni(NO3)2>NiCl2>NiSO4]≫[NiS>Ni3S2]>[NiO(B)>Ni−M>NiO(G)]. The Ni level in the visceral organs was higher in the rats given soluble Ni compounds; Ni(NO3)2, NiCl2, NiSO4, than that in the rats receiving other compounds. In the rats to which soluble Ni compounds were administered, 80–90% of the recovered Ni amounts in the examined organs was detected in the kidneys. On the other hand, the Ni concentration in organs administered scarcely soluble Ni compounds; NiO(B), NiO(G), and Ni−M were very low. The estimated absorbed fraction of each Ni compounds was increased with the increase of the solubility. These results suggest that the kinetic behavior of Ni compounds administered orally is closely related with the solubility of Ni compounds, and that the solubility of Ni compounds is one of the important factors for determining the health effect of Ni compounds.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ethyl linoleate peroxidation was promoted by high concentrations of the same compounds, probably by recycling of chelated inactive Fe3+ to the active Fe2+ state, and hydroxylating activity was greatly enhanced by Mn2+ and Cu2+, but not by Zn2+ or Co2+.
Abstract: The anti- and pro-oxidative effects of phenolic compounds and antioxidants were studied in two different in vitro model systems utilizing ethyl linoleate and 2′-deoxyguanosine (2′-dG) as oxidative substrates, and a Fenton reaction (H2O2, Fe2+) to initiate oxidation. Oxidation of the biomolecules in both model systems exhibited dose dependency. In the 2′-dG assay, oxidation was closely related to H2O2 generation, which occurred during autoxidation of the phenolics. Hydroxylating activity was greatly enhanced by Mn2+ and Cu2+, but not by Zn2+ or Co2+. Ethyl linoleate peroxidation was inhibited by low concentrations of catechol, quercitin, and instant coffee. However, peroxidation was promoted by high concentrations of the same compounds, probably by recycling of chelated inactive Fe3+ to the active Fe2+ state.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results suggest that MDA is a valid biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation of postischemic tissues, which however needs a reliable analytical technique for its determination.
Abstract: By using a recently developed ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the direct determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) and several other acid-soluble low-mol-wt compounds (ascorbate, oxypurines, nucleosides, nicotinic coenzymes, high-energy phosphates), the variations of tissue and plasma MDA as a function of ischemia and reperfusion were determined in the rat (isolated Langendorff-perfused hearts and short-term incomplete cerebral ischemia) and in human beings (patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction subjected to fibrinolysis) In the rat, the data obtained indicate that, contrary to what had been previously reported in literature, MDA is not present either in control heart or in control brain Oxygen deprivation induces the production of a low, but detectable amount of MDA in both heart and brain, whereas reperfusion causes a marked increase of MDA in both tissues In human beings, plasma MDA was deeply affected only in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction with successful thrombolysis, thus indicating the occurrence of oxygen radical-mediated tissue injury also in humans On the whole, these results suggest that MDA is a valid biochemical marker of lipid peroxidation of postischemic tissues, which however needs a reliable analytical technique for its determination

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TL;DR: It is suggested that zinc improves glucose assimilation, as evidenced by the increase in Kg, and that this improvement results mainly from an increase in glucose effectiveness (insulin-like effect), rather than an action on insulin response or insulin sensitivity.
Abstract: Zinc improves both insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, and exerts insulin-like effects. We investigated its acute effects on the parameters of glucose assimilation determined with the minimal model technique from frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIVGTT) in seven healthy volunteers. FSIVGTTs (0.5 g/kg of glucose, followed by 2 U insulin i.v. injection at 19 min) were performed after the subjects had taken 20 mg zinc gluconate twice (the evening before and 30 min before the beginning of the test) or placebo pills (simple blind randomized protocol). Glucose assimilation was analyzed by calculating Kg (slope of the exponential decrease in glycemia), glucose effectiveness Sg (i.e., ability of glucose itself to increase its own disposal independent of insulin response), and SI (insulin sensitivity, i.e. the effect of increases in insulinemia on glucose disposal). The two latter parameters were calculated by fitting the experimental data with the two equations of Bergman's "minimal model." Zinc increased Kg (p < 0.05) and Sg (p < 0.05), whereas SI and insulin first-phase secretion did not significantly increase. This study suggests that zinc improves glucose assimilation, as evidenced by the increase in Kg, and that this improvement results mainly from an increase in glucose effectiveness (insulin-like effect), rather than an action on insulin response or insulin sensitivity.

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TL;DR: Zinc is lowered in trained adolescent gymnasts and even lower in females, which could play some role in abnormalities of puberty, growth, or muscular performance.
Abstract: Serum zinc was measured in 20 adolescent gymnasts (9 boys, 11 girls, age 12–15 yr) explored for detecting possible adverse effects of intense training on pubertal maturation and growth. They had low serum zinc (0.599±0.026 mg/L) when compared to matched control sedentary children (n=118 mean 0.81±0.014p<0.001). Girls had lower zinc than boys (0.557±0.023 vs 0.651±0.044p<0.001). Zinc was correlated to isometric adductor strength (r=0.468p<0.05). Children with serum zinc <0.6 mg/L had lower insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 than others (2.326±0.264 vs 2.699±0.12p<0.01). Thus, zinc is lowered in trained adolescent gymnasts and even lower in females. This reduction could play some role in abnormalities of puberty, growth, or muscular performance.